Skip to main content

Full text of "A history of St. Joseph County, Indiana"

See other formats


3 3433 08181999 1 






, Asior, -■,,- ,;,„t,,, ,1 

N^, t-uiirJ5tion», 









' > " ' a ■> X ' 


3 » O 3 , 



|tH^^ new YORK 


4554 71 


1909 '-I 


It is now more than three-quarters of a century since the organization and first settle- 
ment of St. Jaseph county. Of those who were present at the beginning there is no 
one left to tell the story. Three generations have since been born to the rich inheritance 
of those first toilers. Of these, the oldest yet liviog have, perhaps, heard the pioneer 
history from the lips of the pioneers themselves.' As to the rest, if they know the story 
at all, they have learned it from tradition, from musty records, from letters, papers and 
documents of other days, and, it may be also, from such incidental references as are to be 
found in scattered pamphlets, books and other publications. For anything more definite 
concerning our early history we have been accustomed to look to the historical atlas of 
the county, published, in 1875, by Higgins, Belden & Company, of Chicago, and to cer- 
tain historical and biographical works, particularly that published in the same city, in 
1880, by Chapman & Company. The maps in the atlas referred to were excellent for 
their time, but have long been out of date. The footnotes in this atlas contain much valu- 
able information that might otherwise have been lost. The Chapman work consisted of 
a brief history of Indiana, followed by detached sketches of the history of St. Joseph 
county and biographies of prominent citizens. These local sketches, like the notes in the 
Atlas, are of inestimable value, as preserving a variety of historical data furnished by 
men then still living, much of which also, if not thus preserved, might have been wholly 
forgotten. Since the publication of those works nearly a third of a century has passed, 
during which time many zealous students of our early history have gathered up the old 
traditions, searched the public records, turned over old newspaper files, and in a multi- 
tude of ways rescued from loss historical facts that were constantly slipping into oblivion. 
Chief among those students of antique historical lore have been David R. Leeper, Richard 
H. Lyon, George A. Baker and Charles H. Bartlett. Most of this good work has been 
done for or through the Northern Indiana Historical Society. To the labors of these 
painstaking searchers have been added numerous reminiscent writings prepared by older 
citizens, many of whom are now departed from us. It seemed high time to put into 
permanent form this wealth of material, new and old, to pick up these scattered threads 
of our splendid history and weave them into a continuous narrative, before they should 
again be scattered and perhaps lost forever. 

For over a year the writer has devoted all the time which he could spare to this work, 
which to him has been a labor of love. He has, so far as he knows, overlooked no source 
of information which seemed open to him, and has sought to verify facts, names, dates 
and events, and to arrange the whole into a connected and readable history of St. Joseph 
county. How far these efforts have been successful must be left to the judgment of 
his readers. He has received aid from many sources, and has endeavored to give due credit 
for such help in the text, in the footnotes, and in the Bibliography printed on the follow- 


ing pages. This bibliography includes not only the books and other printed publica- 
tions, but also all other authorities chiefly relied on in the writing of this history. 

Acknowledgments are also due to many friends who have given valued information 
and furnished facts and reminiscences clearing up doubtful phases of our history. Among 
these generous helpers he would make particular mention of GTeorge A. Baker, secretary, 
and several other members, of the Northern Indiana Historical Society; H. S. K. Bar- 
tholomew, president of the Elkhart Historical Society ; Samuel J. Nicoles, of Walkerton ; 
and Albert H. Compton, of New Carlisle. Others who have suggested lines of research, 
answered requests, or who themselves have thrown light on the obscure past, are so 
numerous that even a list of their names could not be given. They will kindly ac- 
cept this general acknowledgment of their invaluable services in helping, so far as could 
be done at this time and Avith the material now available, to make this a complete and 
satisfactory history of the county. 

The publishers have been generous on their part. In paper, printing, binding and 
illustration, all pains have been taken that could have been given to a work that was 
to be sold throughout the country, whereas the patrons of this history must be found only 
within the limits of St. Joseph county. For their considerate kindness, which has done 
so much to make the labors of the writer a pleasant task, his acknowledgments are due 
and gladly tendered. 

South Bend, Indiana, January 1, 1908. TIMOTHY E. HOWARD. 





I. Location and General Features 1 

II. Relation of the St. Joseph to the Kan- 

kakee 1 

III. The Glacial Drift 1 

IV. Glacial Action Over Northern Indi- 
ana 2 

V. Lakes and Subterraneous Waters 6 

VI. ]\Ioraines and Waterways 9 

VII. The Great Kankakee. "! 10 

Sec. 1. Three Great Ice Lobes. 

Sec. 2. The Ancient Waterways. 

Sec. 3. Origin of the St. Joseph Eiver. 

VIII. Elevations, Strata and Soils 17 

IX. Lakes of St. Joseph County 18 


I. Marquette 

Sec. 1. 
Sec. 2. 
Sec. 3. 

II. La Salle . 

Sec. 1. 
Sec. 2. 
Sec. 3. 
• Sec. 4. 
Sec. 5. 
Sec. 6. 

First Footprints. 
Eoutes of Travel. 
Historical Data. 




On the Great Lakes. 

The Portage of the St. Joseph. 

At the Village of the Miamis. 

Down the Mississippi. 

The Passing of the Portage. 

III. Primitive Inhabitants 34 

Sec. 1. The Mound Builders. 

Sec. 2. Our Miamis and Pottawatomies. 

IV. Fort St. Joseph's 39 

Sec. 1. The French Power. 

Sec. 2. British Supremacy. 

Sec. 3. Pontiac's War. 

Sec. 4. George Eogers Clark and Fort St. 

Joseph 's. 
Sec. 5. Taken by the Spaniards. 

V. The Parkovash, Indian Camps and 
Trails 43 

Sec. 1. Camps and Fishing Eesorts. 
Sec. 2. Trails and Traces. 
Sec. 3. Charlevoix on Portage Prairie. 
Sec. 4. Other Trails. 

VI. The Removal of the Pottawatomies . . 48 




I. The French Era 57 

See. 1. Nature of the French Occupancy. 
Sec. 2. Canada and Louisiana. 

II. The British and Spanish Era 58 

III. George Rogers Clark 59 

Sec. 1. Clark in Kentucky. 

Sec. 2. His Appeal to Virginia. 

Sec. 3. Secret Preparations. 

Sec. 4. Capture of Kaskaskia. 

Sec. 5. Father Gibault and Vincennes. 

Sec. 6. Clark 's Winter Campaign. 

IV. The County of Illinois 70 

Sec. 1. First Measures Taken by Virginia. 
Sec. 2. Nature of the County Government. 
Sec. 3. Claims Made by Other States. 
Sec. 4. Cession by Virginia. 

V. The Ordinance of 1787 75 

Seel. First Congressional Plan: Seven- 
teen States. 

Sec. 2. Jefferson's Plan: Ten otates. 

Sec. 3. Emigration to the West. 

Sec. 4. Development of the Ordinance. 

Sec. 5. The Six Articles of the Ordinance. 

Sec. 6. The Constitution of the United 

Sec. 7. Eatification of the Constitution. 

Sec. 8. Government Under the Ordinance. 

Sec. 9. Governor St. Clair. 

Sec. 10. General Anthony Wayne. 

Sec. 11. The Treaty of Greenville. 

Sec. 12. Indian Land Titles. 

Sec. 13. Lewis Cass and the Indian Treat- 

Sec. 14. Indian Titles to St. Joseph Coun- 
ty Lands. 

Sec. 15. The First Legislature of the 
Northwest Territory. 

VI. Indiana Territory 93 

Sec. 1. Extent of the Territory. 

Sec. 2. Organization of the Territorial 

Sec. 3. The First Indiana Courts. 

Sec. 4. Lotteries and Slavery in Indiana. 

Sec. 5. The First Indiana Legislature; 
tne Territory of Michigan 

Sec. 6. Tecumseh and the Battle of Tip- 

See. 7. Aaron Burr. 

Sec. 8. Formation of Illinois Ten-itorv. 




VII. Organization cti' thi' State 

Sec. 1. Periods of Growth. 

Sec. 2. Admission into the Union. 

Sec. 3. Population and Eevenues. 

Sec. 4. Boundaries. 

See. .5. The Name of the State. 

Sec. 6. The Title of Hoosier. 


T. The Fnr Trade 125 

Sec. 1. Sources of Our Civilization. 

Sec. 2. The French Traders. 

Sec. 3. The British Policy iu Eelation to 

the Fur Trafle. 
Sec. 4. The Great Fur Companies. 

II. Three Merchants of the Wilderness. . .128 

Sec. 1. Leclare. 
See. 2. Burnett. 
Sec. 3. Bertrand. 

III. Pierre Navarre 130 

IV. The First Settlers 131 

Sec. 1. Alexis Coquillard. 

Sec. 2. Lathrop M. Taylor. 

Sec. 3. First Name of the New Settle- 

Sec. 4. Early Days on the Kankakee. 

Sec. 5. Other Early Settlers of the 

V. The Log House 139 

VI. Reminiscences 140 

Sec. 1. By Daniel Greene. 
Sec. 2. By John Stull. 
Sec. 3. Paper by William D. Bulla. 
Sec. 4. Kecollections of Hugh V. Comp- 

VII. Old Settlers' Reunions 150 



I. Land Titles and Public Surveys 155 

Sec. 1. Indian . Titles. 

Sec. 2. First Congressional and Legisla- 
tive Acts. 
Sec. 3. First Surveys. 
See. 4. First Land Sales. 

II. Organization of the County 157 

Sec. 1. Attached Territory. 

III. Oiii- Foi-ni of County Coverinnent. . .160 

Sec. 1. The Virginia System. 

Sec. 2. The New England System. 

IV. The Board of Justices ' 161 

Sec. L Organization of CixiJ Govern- 
Sec. 2. The First Townshii)s. 

V. The Board of Commissioners 164 

Sec. 1. Act of Organization. 
Sec. 2. Our First Commissioners. 

VI. Early County Records 170 

Sec. L Organization of the Board. 

Sec. 2. Adoption of a County Seal. 
Sec. 3. Other Orders. 
Sec. 4. Exemptions from Taxation. 
Sec. 5. The First Ferry and Steamboat 

Sec. 6. Licenses to Do Business. 

VII. Location of County Seat 173 

Sec. L St. Joseph, the First County Seat. 
Sec. 2. Act to Ee-locate the County Seat. 
Sec. 3. Relocation. 

Sec. 4. South Bend, tlie Permanent Coun- 
ty Seat. 

VIII. The Townships Re-organized 176 

IX. The County Boundaries 177 


I. Administrative Officers and Boards. . . .181 

Sec. 1. The Clerk. 

Sec. 2. The Recorder. 

Sec. 3. The Auditor. 

Sec. 4. The County Agent. 

Sec. .5. The Sheri£f. 

Sec. 6. The Coroner. 

Sec. 7. The Treasurer. 

Sec. 8. The Surveyor. 

Sec. 9. The County Board. 

II. The Circuit Court 187 

Sec. 1. The President and Associate 

Sec. 2. The Circuits under the Constitu- 
tion of 1816. 

Sec. 3. The Circuits Under the Constitu- 
tion of 18.51. 

Sec. 4. The First Session of the Court. 

Sec. .5. The Second Session of the Court. 

Sec. 6. Other Sessions of the Court, Un- 
der the Old Constitution. 

Sec. 7. Sessions of the Court Under the 
New Constitution. 

III. The Probate Court 198 

Sec. 1. The First Session. 

Sec. 2. Further Sessions of the Court. 

IV. The Court of Common Pleas 201 

Sec. 1. Organization. 

See. 2. The Court in St. Joseph County. 

V. A Celebrated Case , 202 

toec. 1. Slavery, as Known in Indiana. 
Sec. 2. Our Slave Case. 

VI. The County Buildings 206 

Seel. The First County Jail. 

Sec. 2. The First (;ourt" House. 

Sec. 3. The Second County Jail. 

Sec. 4. The Second Court House. 

Sec. 5. The Third County Jail. 

Sec. 6. Re-arrangement of the Court 

Sec. 7. A Historic Building. 
Sec. 8. The Fourth Countv Jail. 
Sec. 9. The Third Court "House. 
Sec. 10. The County Asylums. 
Sec. 11. The Old County Seminary. 
Sec. 12. The Orphans' Home. 






I. Our Rivers 223 

Sec. 1. Improvements on the Kankakee. 
Sec. 2. Navigation of the St. Joseph. 
Sec. 3. Water Power of the St. Joseph. 
Sec. 4. Generation of Electi:ic Power. 
Sec. 5. Accidents on the Ei^-er. 

II. Ferries, Roads and Bridges 231 

Sec. 1. Ferries Over the St. Joseph. 
Sec. 2. Bridges Over the St. Joseph. 
Sec. 3. Eoads. 

III. Railroads 236 

Sec. 1. The Lake Shore. 

The Michigan ('entral. 

The Grand Trunk. 

The Division Street Incident. 

Other Eailroads. 

Eailroad Accidents. 

Sec. 2. 
Sec. 3. 
Sec. 4. 
Sec. 5. 
Sec. 6. 

IV. Street Railways and Interurbans .... 240 
Sec. 1. The "^ South Bend City Eailway. 
Sec. 2. The South Bend & Mishawaka 

Sec. 3. The Indiana Eailway. 
Sec. 4. The Chicago, South Bend & 
Northern Indiana Eailway. 
The Southern Michigan Eailway. 

Sec. 5. 
Sec. 6. 

The Chicago, Lake Shore «fe South 

Bend Line. 

V. Telegraphs and Telephones.. 
Sec. 1. The Western Union. 
The Postal. 
The Central Union. 



Sec. 2. 
Sec. 3. 
Sec. 4. 
Sec. 5. 

Sec. 1. 
Sec. 2. 
Sec. 3. 
Sec. 4. 

The Old and the New. 


The Swamp Land Act. 
Professor Campbell's Survey. 
Eemoval of the Momence Eock. 
General Drainage. 

Farmers' Societies and Fairs 267 

Sec. 1. Agricultural Societies. 
Sec. 2. Hailstorm, Flood and Tornado. 
Sec. 3. Horticultural Society. 
Sec. 4. Farmers ' Fire Insurance Company. 
See. 5. The Grange, Farmers' Institutes, 


I. The First Division of the County Into 

Townships \ 272 

Sec. 1. Michigan Township. 
Sec. 2. Deschemin Township. 
Sec. 3. German Township. 
Sec. 4. Portage Township. 

II. Second Division Into Townships. ■. . . .273 

Sec. 1. Portage Townshijj. 

Sec. 2. Center Township. 

Sec. 3. Highland Township. 

Sec. 4. Commissioners' Districts. 




Third Division Into Townships. . 
Sec. 1. Penn Township. 
Sec. 2. Portage Township. 
Sec. 3. Olive Township. 
See. 4. Commissioners' Districts. 

Two Lost Townships 

Sec. !.■ Plymouth. 
Sec. 2. Washington. 

The Present Townships . 

Sec. 1. German. 
Sec. 2. Greene. 
Sec. 3. Harris. 
Sec. 4. Union. 
Sec. 5. Liberty. 
See. 6. Warren. 
Sec. 7. Clay. 
Sec. 8. Center. 
Sec. 9. Madison. 
Sec. 10. Lincoln. 
Sec. 11. Penn. 
Sec. 12. Portage. 
Sec. 13. Olive. 





I. Towns That Were 

Sec. 1. St. Joseph. 

Sec. 2. Portage. 

Sec. 3. Plainfield. 

Sec. 4. Palestine. 

Sec. 5. Williamsport. 

Sec. 6. Greensburg. 

Sec. 7. Canton. 

Sec. 8. Mount Pleasant. 

Sec. 9. Terre Coupee. 

Sec. 10. Denniston. 


.244 II. Unincorporated Towns 


Sec. 1. Osceola. 

Sec. 2. Crum 's Point. 

Sec. 3. Granger. 

Sec. 4. Wyatt. 

Sec. .5. Lindley. 

Sec. 6. Woodland. 

Sec. 7. Warwick. 

Sec. 8. Nutwood. 

III. Incorporated Towns 312 

Sec. 1. New Carlisle. 
Sec. 2. North Liberty. 
Sec. 3. Lakeville. 
Sec. 4. Eiver Park. 
Sec. 5. Walkerton. 


I. Formation and Incorporation 319 

Sec. 1. The St. Joseph Iron Works. 

Sec. 2. Barbee 's Plat. 

Sec. 3. Fowler's Addition. 

Sec. 4. Indiana City. 

Sec. 5. Other Additions. 

Sec. 6. Union of the Towns. 

See. 7. Incorporation. 

II. Business Enterprises 323 




III. Religious, Educational and Social. . . 333 

Sec. 1. The Episcopal Church. 

Sec. 2. The Baptist Church. 

Sec. 3. The Christian Church. 

Sec. 4. The Catholic Church. 

Sec. 5. The Evangelical Association. 

Sec. 6. The Methodist Church. 

Sec. 7. The Lutheran Church. 

Sec. 8. The Presbyterian Church. 

Sec. 9. Schools. 

Sec. 10. Eeminiscences. 

Sec. 11. Societies and Clubs. 

Sec. 12. Soldiers ' Monument Association. 

Sec. 13. The Press. 

Sec. 14. Mishawaka Summary. 

IV. Town and City Government .' 348 


I. Beginning's of the Town 351 

Sec. 1. The Michigan Eoad. 

Sec. 2. Names given to the Town. 

See. 3. The Original Plat of South Bend. 

See. 4. South Bend the Countv Seat. 

II. The Town Government 

Sec. 1. The First Incorporation. 
Sec. 2. The Second Incorporation. 
Sec. 3. The Officials of the Town. 



III. The City Government 

Sec. 1. Officers. 

Sec. 2. Growth — Wards — Population. 

Sec. 3. The Special Charter. 

Sec. 4. The Municipal Code. 

IV. City Improvements 369 

Sec. 1. Streets and Sidewalks. 

Sec. 2. Sewers. 

Sec. 3. Water Works. 

Sec. 4. Fire Department. 

Sec. 5. The City Hall. 

See. 6. Parks. 

V. Business Enterprises 394 

Seel. The Studebaker Brothers' Manu- 
facturing Company. 

Sec. 2. The Oliver Plow Works. 

Sec. 3. The Birdsell Manufacturing Com- 

Sec. 4. The Singer Sewing Machine Com- 

Sec. 5. The O'Brien Varnish Works. 

Sec. 6. The Staley Manufacturing Com- 

Sec. 7. The South Bend Toy Manufac- 
turing Company. 

See. 8. The Knoblock-Heidman Company. 

Sec. 9. The South Bend Chilled Plow 

See. 10. The Folding Paper Box Company. 

Sec. 11. The South Bend Woolen Company. 

Sec. 12. The Indiana Foundry Company. 

Sec. 13. The La Salle Paper Company. 

Sec. 14. The Winkler Brothers Manufactur- 
ing Company. 

Sec. 1.5. Other Manufacturing Companies. 

Sec. 16. Banks. 

VI. Religious. 
See. 1. ' 
Sec. 2. 
Sec. 3. 
Sec. 4. 
Sec. 5. 
Sec. 6. 
Sec. 7. 
Sec. 8. 
Sec. 9. 
Sec. 10. 
Sec. 11. 

Sec. 12. 

See. 13. 
Sec. 14. 
See. 15. 
Sec. 16. 

Educational and Social . . . 412 

The Methodist Church. 

The Presbyterian Church. 

The Reformed Church. 

The Catholic Church. 

The Baptist Church. 

The Episcopal Church. 

The Lutheran Church. 

The Evangelical Church. 

The Christian Church. 

Other Churches. 

The Young Men's Christian As- 

The Young Women 's Christian 




Societies and Clubs. 

VII. The Press. 


Sec. 1. The Pioneer. 

Sec. 2. The Register. 

Sec. 3. The Tribune. 

Sec. 4. The Times. 

Sec. 5. The Sunday News. 

Sec. 6. Other Newspapers. 

Sec. 7. South Bend Summary. 

NOTRE DA:\IE and ST. :\L\RY'S. 

Father Sorin 's Predecessors 

Sec. 1. Pokagon. 

Sec. 2. Stephen Theodore Badin. 

Sec. 3. The Removal of the Indians. 


II. The University of Notre Dame 612 

Sec. 1. Tne Congregation of the Holy 

Sec. 2. At Notre Dame. 

Sec. 3. A Hard Winter. 

Sec. 4. The First Buildings. 

Sec. 5. Early College Years. 

Sec. 6. The War Period. 

Sec. 7. A Retrospect. 

Sec. 8. The Development of the Univer- 

Sec. 9. The Fire. 

Sec. 10. The Presidency of the Rev. 
Thomas E. Walsh. 

See. 11. Jubilees. 

III. St. Mary's Academy 698 

Sec. 1. Three Religious Societies. 
Sec. 2. The Sisters at Notre Dame, Mish- 
awaka, Bertrand. 
bee. 3. The Story of Bertrand. 
Sec. 4. At the New St. Mary's. 
Sec. 5. In the War for the Union. 
Sec. 6. Days of Peace and Growth. 








I. Black Hawk : 711 

Sec. 1. St. Joseph County Troops and 

Sec. 2. 

Thomas S. 

Stanfield 's Eeminis- 

II. Other Early Wars 715 

III. The War for the Union 716 

Sec. 1. Enlistments. 

Sec. 2. The Roll of Honor. 

Sec. 3. liie Grand Army of the Eepublic. 

Sec. 4. The Soldiers' Monument. 


Abbott, Everett L., 376. 

Abenakis, 28. 

Adams, John, 81. 

Adelphia, 77. 

Adle, Henry A., 967. 

Admission of Indiana to Union, 103. 

Agricultural Societies, 267. 

Albert, Charles, 797. 

Aldrich, William H., 1037. 

Algonquin Indians, 37, 48. 

Allen County, 160. 

Allouez, Father Claude, 20, 21, 22, 39, 41, 43, 57, 603, 

Altfield, Max E., 425. 
Alward, George H., 182, 359. 
Alward, George H., Jr., 888. 
Ambrose, Sister, 422. 

American Fur Company, 127, 132, 162, 172, 351. 
American Hotel, 435. 

American Telegraph and Telephone Co., 243. 
American Trust Co., 412. 
Amm, Leonard, 1026. 
Ancient Order of Hibernians, 462. 
Anderson, Andrew, 456, 520. 
Anderson, Andrew, Jr., 202. 
Anderson, William S., 832. 
Andre, Joseph, 358. 
Andrew, William, 202. 
Andrews, James M., 851. 
Angela, Mother, 344, 634, 701. 
Anti-Saloon League, 710. 
Antrim, Daniel, 313. 
Antrim, James P., 200. 
Appleby, Madison H., 412. 
Armstrong, James, 297. 
Arnold, Joseph B., 525. 
Arnold, Joseph D., 202. 
Arnold, Levi F., 161. 
Arson, 97. 

Articles of Capitulation (1760), 58. 
Articles of Confederation, 79, 80. 
Askin, 129. 

Asphalt Pavement, 370. 
Assenisipia, 75. 
Associate Judges, 187. 
Associated Charities, 459. 
Assumption School, 419, 422. 
Astor, .John Jacob, 127. 
Asylums, County, 216. 
Athletics, at Notre Dame, 698. 
Attorneys, 93. 

Attorneys-at-Law, in Indiana Territorv, 96. 
Atwood, Amos T., 949. 
Auditor, County, 181. 

Auditorium, The, 459. 
Auglaize itiver, 87. 
Augustine Lake, 283. 
Aukerman, Lewis S., 1006. 
Au Sable, Jean Baptiste Point, 129. 
Auten, John, 717. 

Auten Post, G. A. R., 389, 718, 736; Fortieth Anni- 
versary, 736; 741; Appeal of, 745; 754. 
Auten Relief Corps, 389, 744. 
Ave Maria, The, 639. 
Avenue Hotel, 440. 

Babaugo Creek, 310. 

Bachtel, David, 1068. 

Bacon, Julia M., 416. 

Badin, Father, 604, 629. 

Badin, Stephen T., 51, 418. 

Baer, Alpheus F., 811. 

Baer, John H/^ 451. 

Bailey, Charles E., 1114. 

Baird", Thomas D., 409, 456. 

Baker, A. D., 558. 

Baker, Adam S., 407. 

Baker, Bessie A., 453. 

Baker, Darwin H., 411. 

Baker, George A., 128, 426, 453. 

Baker, L. F., 361, 378. 

Baker, Wm., 380. 

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 239. 

Banfil, Francis M., 424. 

Banker, John, 191, 195, 199. 

Banks of South Bend — State Bank, 409; Bank of 
State of Indiana, 410; First National, 410; 
South Bend National, 411; St. Joseph County 
Savings, 411; St. Joseph Loan and Trust Co., 
412; People's Savings, 412; Citizens'- National, 
412; Merchants' National, 412; American Trust, 
412; Citizens' Loan, Trust and Savings, 412. 

Banner, The Ligonier, 469. 

Baptist Church, Mishawaka, 334. 

Baptist Church, South Bend, 422, 423. 

Barbee's Plat, Mishawaka, 321. 

Barber, A. E., 534. 

Barker, .John G., 365, 388, 857. 

Bar Association, 456. 

Bartlett, Charles H., 449, 453. 

Bartlett, John G.. 565. 

Bartlett, David, 144. 

Bartlett, .Joseph G., 565. 

Barrett Law, 370. 

Basil, Brother, 626, 671. 

Bass Lake, 18, 283. 

Bassett, Allen, 184. 

Bates, Benjamin A., 844. 


Bates, Demas D., 515. 

Battel!, Joseph, 321. 

Battell Park, 321, 346. 

Baugo Creek, 291. 

Baumberger, Fred, 1146. 

Beach, William H., 372. 

Beacon, The St. Joseph, 191. 

Beal, Archibald, 347, 467. 

Beall, Brenton H., 965. 

Beall, Daniel W., 972. 

Beall, Eayon, 969. 

Becher, Jacob, 1141. 

Beck, Samuel, 573. 

Bedrock,, Arched, 12. 

Beehler, Adam, 1132. 

Beehler, Jacob, 1125. 

Beehler, Joseph, 1069. 

Beehler, Peter, 1120. 

Beemer, Harrison G., 182. 

Beiger, Martin V., 790. 

Beitner, George B., 453. 

Belledin, John, 1072. 

Bellinger, William M., 978. 

Bells at Notre Dame, 634. 

Bennett, Philo, 196. 

Bettcher, George A., 988. 

Bergan, Joseph, 408. 

Bergan, William N., 408, 1147. 

Berner's Grove, 315. 

Bernhard, Albert, 852. 

Berrien County, Michigan, 161. 

Bertrand, 45, 47, 130, 151, 699; Story of, 701. 

Bertrand, Joseph, 129. 

Beulah Chapel, 425. 

Beyer, August P., 766. 

Beyer, Herman H., 856. 

Beyrer, John, 781. 

Bicknell, Ernest P., 136. 

Biddle, Horace P., 198. 

Biddle, William B., 197. 

Bierbauer, Ambrosia, 882. 

Big St. Joseph Station, 351. 

Bigelow, Francis, 642. 

Bingham. E. Volney, 524, 722. 

Bingham, Newton, 723. 

Bird, Andrew, 145. 

Bird, John, 144. 

Birdsell Clover Huller, Invention of, 401. 

Birdsell, Joseph B., 401, 491. 

Birdsell, John C, 362, 376, 401, 490, 709. 

Birdsell Manufacturing Co., 401, 405, 408. 

Birk, George A., 1120. 

Birk. George J., 1119. 

Birkinbine, John, 373. 

Biro, Michael J., 422. 

Bissell, Thelus M., 400. 

Blackford, Isaac, 104. 

Black Hawk, 146, 300. 

Black Hawk War. 144, 373, 711. 

"Black Robes," Nevin's, 604. 

Block House on Portage Prairie, 713. 

Blownev, Henry J., 716, 809. 

"Blutf,"" The, 14. 

Board of Commissioners, 160, 164, 190. 

Board of Health, South Bend, 358. 

Boards of Justices, lo8, 160, 161, 169, 186, 190. 

Boles, James, 792. 

Bolin Lake, 277. 

Bonaparte, Napoleon, 32. 

Bond, Shadrach, 92. 

Boner, James, 929. 

Boot Jack Cemetery, 734. 

Borisowicg, N. G., 545. 

Borg, John F., 424, 839. 

Bostwick, James G., 549. 

Boundaries of County, 177. 

Boundary Line, Michigan or Indiana, 107, 620. 

Bourget, J., 419. 

Bowman Cemetery, 732. 

Bowman, David, 874. 

Bowman, John L., 855. 

Bowman, Joseph, 62. 

Bowman, Samuel, 187, 215. 

Bowsher, Delevan D., 583. 

Bowsher, Jay C, 583. 

Bowsher, N. P., 582. 

Bowsher, The N. P. Companv, 582. 

Bowsher, N. P., Feed Mill Mfg. Co., 409. 

Bradley, John H., 196. 

Bray, TjTa W., 181, 186, 281, 305, 308, 312, 314, 

321, 410. 
Brechenser, Charles, 864. 
Bredemus, Kate, 425. 
Breen, William P., 651. 
■Brennaman, Andrew J., 1078. 
Brethren Church, 425. 
Briber, 97. 

Brick, Abraham L., 198, 389, 392, 506, 651. 
Bridges Over St. Joseph, 232; Iron, 233. 
Brick Pavement, 370. 
Brink, James H., 765. 
British Occupancy, 59. 
Brookfield, William, 157, 162, 173, 175, 183, 185, 

276, 303, 355. 
Brower, Norman Y., 347. 
Brown, Chapel W., 191, 195, 199. 
Brown, George A., 1064. 
Brown, John M., 183. 
Brown, William A., 358. 
Brown, Eezean, 842. 

Brownfield, John, 357, 358, 378, 400, 410, 411, 453 
Brownson, Orestes A., 680. 
Brummitt, Mark L., 909. 
Brusie, Orville H., 378. 
Brute, Bishop, 22, 52, 126, 610, 612. 
Brvant, Alfred, 414, 434, 435. 
Bryan, F. A., 568. 
Bryce, William K., 422. 
Buchheit, Jacob, 804. 
Buckley, J. M., 677. 
Buechler, Alexander A., 900. 
Bugbee, Almond, 384, 393, 554, 709. 
Bugbee, Willis A., 426, 453, 585. 
Building and Loan Associations, South Bend, 463. 
Bulla, Milton V., 186. 
Bulla, ihomas P., 146, 186. 
Bulla, Vincent S., 1004. 
Bulla, William F., 187. 
Burial, First, 145. 
Burner, Edgar E., 876. 
Burnet, Jacob, 91. 
Burnett, James, 129. 
Burnett, William, 128. 
Burns, Albert M., 854. 
Burr, Aaron, 102. 

Burroughs, Ricketson, 357, 358, 361, 410, 453. 
Business College, South Bend, 452. 
Business Enterprises of South Bend, 394. 
Business Enterprises of Mishawaka, 323. 
Butler, John P., 831. 



Butterworth, William E., 542. 
Buttorworth, William W., 541. 
Butzbach, George, 762. 
Byerley, Samuel, 623. 
Byers, Andrew, 1155. 
Byers, Andrew, Sr., 1155. 
Byers, John, 813. 
Byers, John A., 861. 
Byrkit, Edmund B., 596. 

Cady, W. E., 823. 

Cahokia, 22, 42, 62, 63. 

Cahokias, 37. 

Caldwell, Francis M., 588. 

Caldwell, John, 377. 

Calkins, William H., 197, 456. 

Calvert, W. B., 501. 

Campbell, Marvin, 407, 411, 556. 

Campbell, Myron, 407, 499. 

Campbell, Prof. John L., 245. 

Campbell 's Survey, 245. 

Camper, James W., 876. 

Camper Tent and Awning Works, 409. 

Canada, 58. 

Canton, 308. • 

Carey Mission, 296, 301. 

Carlisle, Charles A., 394, 425, 432, 566. 

Carlisle, Kichard R., 312. 

Carpenter, Guy C, 917. 

Carrier. .losejjh C, 635, 647. 

Carrington, Edward, 78. 

Carroll, Thomas, 419, 420. 

Carv, Abner, 91. 

Case, Carl D., 422, 423. 

Case, Gaylord H., 513. 

Casey, Patrick H., 1140. 

Cass, Albert, 187. 

Cass, Lewis, 88, 226, 301. 

Cassaday, W. L., 407. 

( assidy, John, 545, 639. 

Catholic Church, Mishawaka, 335. 

Catholic Church, South Bend, 417. 

Catholic Knights of America, 462. 

Catholic Order of Foresters, 462. 

Cauffman, Jacob E., 1061. 

Cauthorn, Henry S., 22. 

Cayugas, 37. 

Cedar Block Pavement, 369. 

Cedar Grove Cemetery, 732. ' 

Cement Sidewalks, 370. 

Center Township, 176, 177, 273, 288. 

Central Union Telegraph Co., 243. 

Cession bv Virginia, 73; by Other States, 74. 

Chaffee, Walter D., .537. 

Chain Bridges, 233. 

Chain Lakes, 18, 36, 145, 283. 

Chamberlain, Charles, 1056. 

Chamberlain, Daniel, 1073. 

Chamberlain, Ebenezer, 196. 

Chamberlain Lake, 283. 

Champlain Epoch, 10. 

Chandonai, Charles, 129. 

Chandonai, John B., 607, 716. 

Chaonanous, 28. 

Chapin, Horatio, 172, 194, .356, 410, 414, 453. 

Chapin, Marshall P., 410. 

Chapman, John B., 194, 195. 

Chapman, John P., 918. 

Chardon, Father, 605. 

Charlevoix, 266. 

Charlevoix, on Portage Prairie, 46. 

Chase, ira J., 297, 335. 

Cheobot, Frank W., 1144. 

Chersonesus, 75. 

Chestnutwood, Reece J., 182. 

Chicago Fire, 372. 

Chicago, Fort, 58. 

Chicago Historical Society, 63. 

Chicago and Lake Huron Railroad, 238. 

Chicago, Lake, Shore and South Bend Railway, 243, 

Chicago River, 21, 24, 32, 46. 

Chicago Road, 163, 309. 

('hicago. South Bend and Northern Indiana Rail- 
way, 242, 283. 

Chief Logan, 95. 

Children's Aid Society, 220. 

Children's Orphans' Home. 710. 

Chippewas, 37, 90. 

Chirhart, Ed S., 1155. 

Choral Club, 463. 

Chord, Samuel M., 181, 186, 202. 

Christ-Church, Mennonite, 425. 

Christian, Asa D., 1091. 

Christian Church, Mishawaka, 335. 

Christian Church, South Bend, 424. 

Christman, H. G., 829. 

Christoph, Frank P., 182, 817. 
.Churches in Greene Township, 278. 

Churches in South Bend, 412-425. 

Cimmerman, F. M., 786. 

Cincinnati, 83. 

Circuit Court, 187; First Session, 190; Second Term. 
193; Special Term, 196. 

Cissne, Robert, 145. 

Cisterns, Covered, 377. 

Citizens' Loan, Trust and Savings Co., 412. 

Citizens' National Bank, 412. 

City Building, Old, 213. 

City Charter of 1901, 367, 375. 

City Government, Modern, 367. 

City Hall, South Bend, 381, 382. 

City Improvements, in South Bend, 369. 

Civil War, 731. 

Civil War Period at Notre Dame, 635. 

Clark County, 100, 104. 

Clark, Elias V., 181. 

Clark, Father, 421. 

(Hark, George C, 884. 

Clark, George Rogers, 22, 42, 58, 59, 70, 84, 86, 
95, 160. 

Clark's "Memoir," 60, 62. 

Clark, Stanley A., 529. 

Clark, William, 95, 185, 349. 

Clark's Winter Campaign, 65. 

Clarke, George E., 198, 389, 516. 

Clay, Henry, 605. 

Clay Township, 283. 

Clear Lake, 19, 150, 283. 

Clenny, William, 845. 

Cleosophic Literary Society, 449. 

Clerk, of Circuit Court, 181. 

Cline, John. 1133. 

Clubs, South Bend, 452. 

Codd, Robert, 859. 

Code of 1807, 101. 

Cointet, Francis, 604. 

Colbert. 23. 

Cole, Charles W., 1154. 

Colerick, D. H.. 194. 



Coles, Theodore S., 196. 

Colfax Manufacturing Co., 408. 

Colfax, Schuyler, 182, 218, 268, 358, 375, 411, 426, 
453, 461, 466, 475, 630. 

Colfax, Sch., Jr., 364, 389. 

College Buildings, First at Notre Dame, 621. 

Collegiate Hall, St. Mary's, 703. 

Collins, Charles M., 794. 

Colmer Bros., Manufacturers, 409. 

Columbian Anniversary, St. Joseph's Church, 421. 

Colovin, Patrick J., 653. 

Commencement Exercises, Notre Dame, 626. 

Commercial-Athletic Club, 458. 

Commissioners, First, 169. 

Commissioner's Districts, 166, 169, 176, 273. 

Common Law, 93. 

Common Pleas, Court, 201; First Session, 201. 

Community Cemetery at Notre Dame, 733. 

Community of Association, 306. 

Community Ownership, 101. 

Company B, 15th Inf., 719. 

Company I, 9th Eeg., 718. 

Comparet, Francis, 132. 351. 

Compton, Hugh Y., 147, 912. 

Concrete Arch System in Bridges, 233. 

Confederacy, Indian, 31. 

Conflagration, A Fearful, 325. 

Conflagration in 1872, 337, 347. 

Connecticut, Claims, 73, 81. 

Conner, William H., 996. 

Connolly, Peter D., 198. 

Conrad, August, 843. 

Continental Cadets, 637, 716. 

Continental Congress, 80. 

Constitution of United States, 80; Ratification 
of, 81. 

Cook, Frederick J., 794. 

Cooney, Peter P., 419. 421, 635. 

Coquillard, Alexis, .5.5, 131, 133, 147, 157, 161, 170, 
173, 175, 181, 199, 295, 304, 351, 410, 418. 716. 

Coquillard, Alexis, Jr., 383, 387, 476, 622. 

Coquillard, Alexis Theo., 314. 

Coquillard, Benjamin, 432. 

Coquillard Park. 383. 

Corbin, Horace,' 202. 

Corby, Wm., 420, 635, 641, 692. 

Corn Island, 61. 

Coroner, The, 184. 

Corporations, 78. 

Corydon, 96, 103, 104. 

Cottrell, Samuel L., 184, 190, 193, 195. 

Councilmen at large. 367. 

Country Club, St. Joseph Vallev, 463. 

County Agent, 162, 174, 183, 206. 

County Asylums, 216. 

County Board, 186. 

County Buildings, 206. 

County, First Division into Townships, 272. 

County Government, 160, 161. 

County of Illinois, 70, 71, 72, 160. 

County of Knox. 84, 100. 

County Lieutenant, 72. 

County Seat, 355. 

County Roads. 235. 

County Seat, 157; First, 173; Re-location. 174, 175, 
304, 355. 

Coureur des Bois, 125. 

Court, Circuit, 187. 

Court House, First, 208; Second, 212; Rearrange- 
ment of, 214; Third, 21.5. 

Court, Probate, 198. 

Court Room, Order for Improvement, 197. 

Cover, John A., 839. 

Crabill, C. N., 1141. 

Crabill, Will G., 519. 

Crakes, Lawrence W., 805. 

Crawley, James A., 197. 

Creed, A. McMullen, 523. 

Creed, Jonathan P., 386, 51S. 

Creosote Blocks, 370. 

Creviston, David B., 185. 

Crocker, Charles. 342. 

Crocker, Edwin B., 203, 456. 

Crockett, Charles E., 509. 

Crockett, Elmer, 215, 503. 

Crofoot, Henry, 932. 

Crogan, George, 132. 

Cronbach, Abraham, 425. 

Crum, Charles F., 1055. 

Crum, Nathaniel H., 1050. 

Crum's Point, 13, 45, 46, 47, 283, 310. 

Crumstown Cemetery, Soldiers in, 735. 

Crusade Movement, 709. 

Csepke, Stephen, 424. 

Cullar, William O., 1025. 

Culver, John M., 449. 

Culver, A. B., 378. 

Cunningham, Oliver M., 198. 

Gushing, Albert H., 774. 

Custard, Daniel D., 184. 

Cutler, Manasseh, 77. 

Cutter, George, 560. 

Czyzewski, Valentine, 421. 

Dablon, Father Claude, 20, 29, 57. 604. 

Dane, Nathan, 77, 78. 

Darling, Eratus S., 982. 

Daughertv, James, 581. 

Davies Shirt Co., 409. 

Davies. William ' O., 818. 

Davis, 'C. O., 449. 

Davis, James, 197, 202, 467. 

Davis, Josephus, 920. 

Davis, Terry, 97. 

Day, Lot, Jr., 184, 186, 211, 377. 441. 

Day, Lot, Sr., 184. 441. 

Dayton, Daniel. 184, 305, 307, 358, 361, 4.53. , 

Dayton, Hiram, 713. 

Deacon Post, G. A. R., 744. 

Dean, Edwin R., 494. 

Dearborn County, 100, 104. 

Deavitt, Albert G., 197, 198. 

Debates, Public at Notre Dame, 698. 

DeCamp, Henry, 323. 

DeCamp, Israel. 184. 

Declaration of Independence, 80. 

Deed of Cession by Virginia, 71, 75, 105. 

Deer Lake, 283. 

Defrees. Anthony, 183, 410, 715. 

Defrees, Calvert' H., 385, 391, 393, 409, 580. 

Defrees, .John, 715. 

Defrees, John D., 195, 216. 226, 4.56. 464, 624. 

Defrees, Joseph H., 464. 

DeGroote, August H., 790. 

De Groote, John F., 421. 577. 

Delano. Alonzo, 186. 

Delaware, 81. 

Delawares, 37. 

DeLorenzi, Joseph H., 883. 

Delta Hose Co., No. 1. 378. 



Deming, Dwightj 187. 

Deming; John J., 201, 229, 320, 323. 

DeMotte, Mark L., 197. 

Deuaut, Matthew S., 960. 

Denniston, 309. 

Denniston, Garrett V., 229. 

Deppen, Harrison, 1084. 

DeRhodes, James M., 496. 

Deschemin Township, 163, 172, 272. 

De Seille, Father, 418, 604. 

DeSoto, Hernando, 32, 57. 

Desplaines Eiver, 10, 32. 

Detroit, 38, 42, 47, 58, 59, 83, 86, 125, 127, 132. 

De Vaea, Cabeza, 32. 

Dibble. Edward F., 201, 202. 

Dice, Isaiah L., 876. 

"Dictionary of Americanisms," 109. 

Dietrich, William B., 842. 

Dillon, Historian, 38. 

Dillon, Patrick, 638. 

Dinnen, John R., 638. 

Directory, of South Bend, 470. 

District of Louisiana, 94. 

Division Street Incident, 238. 

Dixon, John, 597. 

Dodd, Union, 840. 

Dodge Electric Light and Power Co., 331. 

Dodge Manufacturing Co., 326. 

Dodge, Wallace H., 326, 484. 

Dodge, William W., 326, 483. 

Dolph, C. A., 781. 

Donahue, John, 1086. 

Doolittle, Charles W., 877. 

"Double Hammer," 624. 

Dougherty, James, 184, 187. 

Dougherty, Thomas H., 964. 

Doughty," George W. E., 906. 

Douglas Debating Club, 461. 

Dragoon Trace, 47, 132. 

Drainage, General in St. Joseph County, 266. 

Drapier, Ariel E., 468, 716. 

Drapier, Charles E., 349. 

Drapier, William H., 468. 

Dresch, Chris A., 550. 

Drollinger, Erastus M., 184, 545. 

Drulinger, .John, 186. 

DuBail, Edward F., 772. 

DuBois, Bishop, 614. 

Duck Lake. 19, 277. 

DuComb, Courtland P., 512. 

DuComb, Philip P., 1113. 

Duelling, 97. 

Duey, Renatus H., 868. 

Dugdale, Richard B.. 184, 537. 

Dujarie, James F., 612, 698. 

Duncker, Henry, 872. 

Dunkard Cemetery, 733. 

Dunbar, Alvin S., 197, 451, 456. 

Dunn, B. F., 497. 

Dunn, Jacob P., 111. 

Dunn, Reynolds, 186, 196. 

Dutinahoo, Frank H., 514. 

Dunnahoo, Mrs. F. H., 459. 

Dunnahoo, Griffin S., 1066. 

DuQuesne, Fort, 58. 

DuShane, James, 449, 453. 

Eagle Hose Company No. 2. 378. 
Eagle Hotel, 436, 441. 
Eagles, Order of, 461. 

Early, Charles E., 985. 

Early, Isaac, 187, 983. 

Eastburn, John, 1109. 

Eastern State, The, 79. 

Eaton, Edwin D., 1070. 

Eaton, Jacob, 187. 

Eberhart, Fred G., 937. 

Eberhart, George F., 801. 

Eberhart', James C, 184, 938. 

Eckler Manufacturing Company, 1156. 

Eckler, Henry C, 1156. 

Eckman, Joseph, 824. 

Eckstein, Jacob, 791. 

Eddy, Norman, 378, 456, 722. 

Education, 78. 

Edwards, James F., 418, 644, 681. 

Edwardsburg, 47, 280. 

Eel Riyer, 126. 

Egan, Francis, 484. 

Egbert, Andrew J., 198. 

Egbert, Elisha, 201, 305, 453, 456. 

Egbert, .Tohn, 183. 

Egbert, Layman C, 896. 

Eighty-seventh Inf., 726. 

Eikenberry, David, 425. 

Elbel, Henry F., 562. 

Elder, Thomas, 933. 

Eldredge, H. W., 874. 

Election. First County, 161. 

Electoral College, 80. 

Electric Light Plant, South Bend, 401. 

Electric Power, Development of, 230. 

Elevations, 17. 

Elkhart County, 159. 

Elkhart River, 12. 

Elks Club, 461. 

Elks, Order of, 461. 

Elliott, George L., 845. 

Elliott, Gilbert A., 515. 

Elliott, L. A., 347. 

Elliot, William G., 461. 

Ellis, E. W. H.. 324, 347, 471. 

Ellsworth, Aaron B., 182. 

Ellsworth, John C, 886. 

Enabling Act, Indiana, 104, 105. 

Endley, J. F., 317. 

Endley, William A., 317, 980. 

Endlich, Charles, 489. 

English Literature at Notre Dame, 683. 

English. W. H., 22, 43, 60, 70. 

English, William H., 810. 

Entail, 78. 

Episcopal Church, Mishawaka, 333. 

Episcopal Church, South Bend, 423. 

Epworth Hospital, 393, 431. 

Erb. August, 884. 

Ernsperger, John, 187. 

Essiek, Michael L., 197. 

Eucharistic Congress, 696. 

Euglossian Literary Society, 449. 

European Hotel, 439. 

Eutzler. George, 934. 

Evangelical Association, 336. 

Evangelical Association, First Church, 424. 

Evangelical Church, South Bend, 424. 

Evans, Charles A., 451. 

Everts, Gustavus A., 193, 195, 196. 

Ewing, David A., 451. 

Ewing, Sydenham C, 943. 



Exchange Hotel, 410, 440. 
Eyer, Daniel, 446. 

Fair Cemetery, Soldiers in, 735. 

Fair, Jolin B., 1034. 

Fair, Leander, 1036. 

FalUze, Michael Ph., 421, 431, 462. 

Farmers' Fire Insurance Co., 271. 

Farmers' Institute, 271. 

Farneman, Lucy, 1086. 

Farnsworth, Keuben L., 196, 197, 202, 456. 

Fassett, Ann T., 453. 

Fassett, Chauncey N., 408, 453, 470, 502. 

Fassnacht, Christopher, 408. 

Feaser, George W'., 751. 

" Federalist, The," 82. 

Feiten, Eugene A., 891. 

Feiten, John, 891. 

Feldman, George G., 365, 523. 

Fellows, Joseph, 229. 

Ferris, Alfred, 933. 

Ferris, Nelson. 184. 

Ferries, Over St. Joseph Eiver, 231. 

Ferries, Eegulation of, 92. 

Ferrisville Cemetery, Soldiers in, 734. 

Ferrv, First at South Bend, 171, 440; First Ov<;r 

St. Joseph Eiver, 132. 
Ferry, Public, at Portage, 305. 
Fickentscher, Gustav, 470. 
Fields, Priscilla C. 1069. 
Fields, Stephen, 1069. 
Fifth Ward, South Bend, 366. 
Finch, Frank J., 805. 

Finch, John, 184. i 

Findlay, James, 91. 
Fink, H. A., 532. 
Fink, Eeuben, 812. 

Fire Department of South Bend, 371, 377. 
Fire, Great, in Mishawaka, 345. 
Fire at Notre Dame. 656. 
Fire of 1865, 442. 

Fire Station, Central, South Bend, 380. 
Fire Tournament, 378. 
First Footprints, 20. 

First National Bank, South Bend, 410. 
First Through Train, 237. 
Fish, Frederick S., 459. 
Fish Lake, 19, 283. 

Fisher, Joel, 1054. * 

Fisher, Manuel M., 349. 
Fishing Yillae-e, of Miamis, 39. 
Fites, John W., 834. 
Fitzgerald, Thomas J., 951. 
Floods, 270. 

Flouring Mill, First, 295. 
Foe, Frank H., 987. 
Fogarty, Edward J., 365, 751. 
Fogle, 'Christian E., 1111. 
Fogle, Fannie, 1111. 
Folding Paper Box Co., 407. 
Folk, George N., 1049. 
Folsom, C. G.. Stove Co.. 409. 
Folsom, Charles G., 567. ' 
Foote, Larmon, 1013. 

Ford, George. 197, 198, 202, 401, 453, 508. 
Ford, Josephine Oliver, 401. 
Fordham, 315. 
Forster, Henry, 762. 
Forsyth. Eobert, 128. 
Fort, Building of a, 714. 

Fort Chartres, 58. 

Fort Crevecoeur, 27. 

Fort Dearborn, 129. 

Fort Defiance, 87. 

Fort Frontenac, 32, 57. 

Fort Greenville, 87. 

Fort Harmar, 77. 

Fort Massac, 62. 

Fort Miamis, 24, 28, 32, 40, 58. 

Fort Pitt, 59. 

Fort Eecovery, 87. 93, 106. 

Fort Sackville, 69.' 

Fort Stephenson, 132. 

Fort St. Joseph's, 39, 44, 47, 58, 59, 95, 128, 130, 

151, 603, 605. 
Fort Washington, 83. 
Fort Wayne, 38, 58, 125, 127, 132. 
Fort William, 127. 
Forty-eighth Inf., 724. 
Foster, Andrew J., 451. 
Foster, Edson, 820. 
Foster, James L., 202. 
Foster. Eobert S., 736. 
Fountain, George M., 313, 182, 492. 
Fourth Ward, South Bend, 366. 
Fowler's Addition, to Mishawaka, 321; H. H. 

Fowler's, 322. 
Fox Eiver, 21. 
Fox, Truman, 184. 
Frame, James I., 840. 
Frame, Nathaniel, 187. 
Francais, Gilbert, 695. 
Frank, Charles, 350, 498. 
Frankenberry, Thomas K., 1042. 
Franklin, Benjamin, 81. 
Franklin County, 104. 
Franklin House, 438. 

Fraternal Oi-ganizations of South Bend, 461. 
Fraternities of Mishawaka, 344. 
Frazer, James S., 196, 198, 266. 
Fredericks, John, 1127. 
Fredericks, Joseph A., 1128. 
Free Democrat, 347. 

Free Methodist Church, Mishawaka, 337. 
Free Methodist Church, South Bend, 413. 
Free Press, The, 466. 
Free Soil Movement, 471. 
French Era, 57. 
French Eevolution, 86. 
Freyermuth, George W., 751, 1146. 
Frick, Alfred B., 1085. 
Frontenac, 23. 
Frontenac, Fort, 57. 
Fuchs, Christopher, 1105. 
Fullerton, Daniel A., 162. 191. 
Fuller, Frank L., 1047. 
Fulmer, Jacob, 930. 
Fulmer, John D., 187, 215. 
Fulmer, John H., 929. 
Funk, Walter A., 198, 507. 
Fur Companies, Great, 127. 

Fur Trade, 125; British Policy Eelative to, 126. 
Futter, Fred P., 879. 
Putter, Jacoo, 1134. 

Gallagher, John, 779. 
Garoutte, Augustus B., 924. 
Garrison. James M., 539. 
Garwood, Stacy, 144. 
Gazette, New Carlisle, 313. 



Gazetteer of the St. Joseph Vallev, The, 470. 
Gearhart, Heury B., 994. 
Geltz, William, 847. 
Geological Catastrophe, 352. 
Geological Map, St. Joseph County, 16. 
Geological Report, State. 1886, 2. 
George, William G., 197,' 359, 456. 
George III., 126. 
Georgia, 81. 
General Court, 95. 
Genet, Mr., 86. 

German Baptist Brethren, 425. 
German Township, 163, 272, 275. 
Geyer, Charles F.. 1131. 
Geyer, Edmund G., 1009. 
Geyer, Robert E., 1003. 
Gibault, Father, 22, 42, 63, 66, 84. 
Gibson County, 104. 
Gibson, John, 95, 103. 
Giddings, Mary E.. 820. 
Giddiugs, William W., 820. 
Girac, Professor, 626, 671. 
Glacial Action, 2. 
Glacial Drift, 1. 
Gladstone, w . E., 80. 
Gladwin, Major, 42. 
Glover, George V., 184, 821. 
Goetz, Charles L., 389, 409, 768. 
Goetz, George, 778. 
Goffeney, Martin, 424, 579. 
Golden Jubilee at Notre Dame, 697. 
Goniec Polski, 470. 
^ Good, John, 1124. 
Good's Opera House, 442. 
Goodwin. T. A., 110. 
Goose Lake. 19, 277. 
Goppert, Herman F., 975. 
Gorbv, S. S., 2. 
Gordon, Martin E.. 1129. 
Gordon, Moses, 1077. 
Gorski, Marion S., 867. 
Gorsuch, Issac, 889. 
Grace Church. South Bend, 413. 
Graham, Archibald, llou. 
Graham, Henry J., 552. 
Graham. John A., 800. 
Grammar School. South Bend, 450. 
Grand Army of the Republic, 215, 463. 707, 735. 
Grand Central Hotel, 439. 
Grand Jurors (1832), 191. 193. 
Grand Trunk Railroad, 237, 283. 
Grand View Hotel. 439. 
Grange, Felix. 837. 
Grange, The, 271, 311. 
Granger, 280, 310. 
Granger, Alexis. 419, 691. 
Grant County. 160. 
Grant, Wilfird, 380. 
Grapevine Creek, l'3, 282. 
Gravel Roads, 235. 
Graves. William E.. 186. 
Graveyard, Set Aside in 1831. 174, 175. 
Gray Mill. Passing of Old, 285. 
Great Miami jiiver, 94. 
Great Sauk Trail, 46, 129, 151, 163, 223, 234, 272 

301. 309. 
Green Bay, 21. 
Green Bay Route, 24. 
Green, Powers, 196, 411, 423. 
Greene, C. B., 827. 

Greene, Daniel, 140, 453, 559. 
Greene, Ezekiel, 185. 
Greene, James B., 548. 
Greene, Mary L., 145. 
Greene, Nathan, 144. 
Greene Township, 276. 
Greensburg, 308. 
Greenville, 155; Treaty of, 87. 
Gregori, Luigi, 665. 
Grider, Edward, 944. 
Grifiin, John, 95. 
"Griffin," The, 23, 24, 27. 
Griffith, John W., 1097. 
Griffith, N. B., 412. 
Grimes, James F., 551. 
Grise, George H., 1129. 
Grob. Paul, 1126. 
Groff', John, 182. 
Grose, Abraham L., 1127. 
Grose, Alexander, 1137. 
Grotto, The, 675. 
Grzesk, Wladyslaw A., 522. 
Gurney, Aaron, 197. 
Gushwa, William E., 1011. 
Guy, Miller, 425, 522. 

Habeas Corpus, 78. 

Haberle, John B., 869. 

Hager. Frank D., 547. 

Hager, George L., 827. 

Hager, W. A., 532. 

Hagerty, Dennis J., 421. 

Hagerty, John, 359, 360, 456. 

Hailandiere, Bishop. 612. 

Hailstorm of 1886, 270, 421. 

Hain, Henry E., 867. 

Haines, Jesse, 296. 

Ham, Levi J., 361. 

Hamilton, Alex., 81. 

Hamilton Cemetery, 733. 

Hamilton, Henry, 65, 69. 

Hamilton (see Terre Coupee). 

Hammond, Alonzo J., 823. 

Hammond, Hilton, 783. 

Hammond, Matthew B., 186. 

Hammond, Seth, 1041. 

Hanbert, Peter_. 892. 

Hancock, John, 81. 

Hanford, W. H., 543. 

Hanna, William C, 196. 

Hanna. Samuel, 132. 

Hanna (Samuel) & Co., 162, 351. 

Hannah. William C, 316. 

Hans, Otto S., 831. 

Harbou, John W., 183, 598. 

Hardman, Benjamin, 186. 

Hardman, Jacob, 184. 

Hardy, Robert, 184. 

Harper, Abram R., 232. 

Harmar, (ren., 84. 

Harris, Albert M., 589. 

Harris. .Jonas, 286. 

Harris Line. 107. 

Harris Prairie, 279. 

Harris Prairie Cemetery, 733. 

Harris Township, 279. 

Harrison, Christopher, 104. 

Harrison County, 104. 

Harrison Mansion, 94. 

Harrison, William H., 92, 95. 



Harrod, William, 62. 

Hartman, Jonathan, 1083. 

Hartman, John G., 1147. 

Hartzell, Prank P., 1153. 

Hascall, Milo B., 469. 

Hay, John, 185. 

Healy, Eobert W., 638. - 

Heaton, Charles M., 358. 

Hebrew Cemetery, Soldiers in, 732. 

Heid, Paul, 424. 

Heimberg, Herman P., 839. 

Heiner, L. E.. 806. 

Heinzman, Andrew, 1040. 

Helm, Leonard, 62, 64. 

Henderson. Joseph, 202. 

Hendricks, I'homas A., 197. 

Hendricks, William, 104. 

Hen Island, 230. 

Hennepin, Louis, 22, 23, 24, 27, 33. 

Henricks, John A., 378, 409, 446, 453, 716. 

Henry, G. W., 424. 

Henry (of Maryland), 77. 

Henrv, Patrick.' 42, 60, 72, 81. 

Herald. The, 469. 

Hering, Frank E., 527. 

Herzog, August, 759. 

Herzog, John A.. 760. 

Hess, A. S., 808. 

Hess, William B., 202. 

Heston, Mahlon. 1100. 

Hibberd, John A., 526. 

Hickey, Louis A., 888. 

Highland Township, 176, 177, 273. 

High School, South Bend. 445, 446, 448. 

Hildebrand, Jeremiah, 182. 

Hill, Jacob W., 538. 

Hiliier, Samuel A., 570. 

Hine, Henry B., 864. 

Hiner, L. E., 806. 

Hinsdale. Mary L,., 449. 

Historic Building, A, 215. 

Historical Data, 22. 

Historical Lisplay, 453. 

Historical Quarters, 455. 

Hoban. Martin, 370, 420. 

Hoban. Thomas M., 511. 

Hodson, Charles L., 1142. 

Hoffman, George J., 890. 

Holland, William H.. 761. 

Holler, Charles E., 709. 

Holloway, George. 144, 186. 

Holloway. John H., 851. 

Hollowav, Woolman J., 182. 

HoUoweil, Kalph S., 1139. 

Holly Water Works, 371. 

Holman. William S., 469. 

Holtzendorff, Henry C, 184. 

Holv Trmitv Eng. Lutheran Church, 424. 

Home, H. N. S.. 833. 

Home Telephone Co., 244, 565. 

Honored Soldier Dead, 740. 

Hooper. John. 358. 

"Hoosier's Nest," 112. 

Hoosier, Title of, 109. 

Hooton, Emily J., 913. 

Hooton, Francis M., 915. 

Hooton, Jacob, 914. 

Horino, Phillip G., 1138. 

Horticultural Society, 271. 

Horse-stealing, 97. 

Hose Company No. 3, 378. 

Hosford. W. B., 489. 

Hosinski, Frank S., 880. 

Hospitals, of Sisters of Holy Cross, 708. 

Hospitals, South Bend, 431. 

Hotel, Calvin Lilly's, 190. 

Hotels, in South Bend, 432. 

Houghton Post, G. A. E., Eoll of Honor, 734, 744. 

Houser, Moses G., 1018. 

Hovis, W. F., 459. 
•«• Howard, George, 91. 

Howard Park, 383, 387, 388, 393. 
» Howard, Timothy E., 182, 389, 474. 
- Howard, Thomas' M., 182. 

Howe, William P., 356. 

Hovnes, William, 649, 751. 

Hubbard, Arthur L.. 389. 

Hubbard, Lucius, 13"5, 198, 299, 309, 360, 411, 453, 
456, 520, 651. 

Hubbard, Martha O., 453. 

Hubbard, Sanson, 186, 410. 

Huber, Andrew, 869. 

Hudson, Albert, 493. . 

Hudson Bay Company, 127, 130. 

Hudson Cemetery, 734. 

Hudson, Daniel *E., 640. 

Hudson, Father, 684. 

Hughes, John, 744, 754. 

Hughes, Marshall, 598. 

Humane Societv. 393, 458. 

Humphrej-s, Louis, 358, 360, 378, 412, 416, 453. 

Hunsberger, Adam, 185, 1151. 

Hunt Bros. Wagon and Carriage Works, 409. 

Hunt, George S.. 5.59. 

Hunt, Franklin W., 305. 

Hunt, Herbert, 471. 

Hunt, William L, o88. 

Huntsinger, Abraham, 709. 

Hutchins, Isaac, 378, 380. 

Hurd, Alanson M., 229. 319, 320. 

Hurd, Orlando, 186, 323, 324. 

Hurlbut, Harrris E., 217. 

Huron Basin, Saginaw Bay, 10. 

Hurst, Henry, 96. 

lachholtz, John, 1000. 

Ice Lobes, Three Great, 10; Maumee or Erie, IC; 

Saginaw, 10. 
Illinoia, 75. 

Illinois, Indians. 28, 37. 
Illinois Territory, Formation of, 103. 
Immanuel Baptist Church, 423. 
Imprisonment, First in State 's Prison, from St. 

Joseph County, 196. 
Imprisonment for Debt, 98. 
Impromptu Club, 460. 
Indian Camps. 43. 

Independent Order of Foresters, 462. 
Indiana Avenue Christian Church, 424. 
Indiana Boundary Line, 94. 
Indiana City, 321. 
Indiana Club, 463. 
Indiana Courier, The, 470. 
Indiana Foundry Co., 408. 
Indiana Historical Society, 111. 
Indiana Lumber and Manufacturing Co., 408. 
Indiana, Name of, 108. 
Indiana Eailway, 241. 
Indiana, Southern Boundary of, 105. 
Indiana Territory, 93. 


XVI 1 

tnaiaiia Tocsin, 347. 

ludian Land Titles, 88; to St. Joseph County 

Lands, 90. 
Indian Titles, 155. 
Indians, Christian, 604. 
Indians, Eemoval of, 607. 
Industrial Era, The, 470. 
Ingersoll, Philo F., 835. 
Ingleright, Andrew J., 985. 
Ingram, Andrew, 191. 

Interurban Eailways (see Street Eailways;. 
Ipes. Peter W., 349. 
Ireland, David A., 389. 
Ireland, D. C, 347. 
Ireland, John, 186, 196. 
Ireland. Samuel J. H., 323. 
Iron Bridges, 233. 
Iroquois Confederacy, 42, 109. 
Iroquois Indians, 2i, 27, 29, 37, 47. 
Irvin, Israel, 1028. 
Irving, Washington, 126. 
Ivey, Homer P., 981. 
Ivins, Charles, 901. 

Jackson, Charles H., 887. 

Jackson, Charles S., 1081. 

Jackson County. 104. 

Jackson, Francis M., 198. 

Jackson, Newton, 187. 

Jacobs, Charles P., 202. 

Jahnke. August E., 880. 

Jail, 195; First County, 206; Second, 211; Third, 

213; Fourth, 215. 
Jakways, William, 914. 
Jasouske, .Joseph, 1142. 
Jay, John, 82. 
Jefferson County. 104. 
Jefferson, Thomas, 32, 59, 61, 75, 76. 
Jennings, James E., 937. 
Jennings, Jesse W., 1085. 
Jennings, Jonathan, 104. 
Jennings, Samuel E., 1071. 
Jernegan, Edward A., 505. 
Jernegan, Jonathan L., 410. 
Jernegan, Joseph L., 194, 196, 198, 416, 456. 
Jernegan, Ealph H., 525. 
Jesse Coppock Post, G. A. E., 744. 
Johannes, Peter, 422. 
Johnson, Amasa, 202. 
Johnson, Evan C, 184, 358. 
Johnson, Henry W., 414. 
Johnson Hotel, 440. 
Johnson, James M., 422. 
Johnson. Lea P., 147. 

Johnson', Peter, 135, 172, 196, 211, 356, 432, 434. 
Johnson, William S., 77. 
Johnson, Zachariah M., 184. 
Johnston, Washington, 97. 
Joliet, Louis, 21, 23. 
Jones, Aaron, 183, 857. 
Jones, Elias D., 316. 
Jones, Gardner, 626, 679, 684. 
Jones, John E., 96. 
Jones, Vitus G., 514. 
Jordan, David, 1076. 
Joseph Bowen Post, G. A. E., 744. 
Jubilees at Notre Dame, 685. 
Judges, 92; of Circuit Court, 187. 
Julian, George W., 284. 
Jungkuntz, Carl, 875. 

Juries, of First Circuit Court, 190. 

Jurors, 172. 

Jury, Territorial, 96. 

Just, A. M., 573. 

Justices of the Peace, 93. 

Kalczynski, George W. J., 470, 505. 

Kaley, Joseph, 393. 

Kaley Park, 384. 

Kamm, Adolph, 594. 

Kamm, Schellinger Co., 594. 

Kane, Elmer, 1021. 

Kankakee Pond, 305. 

Kankakee Eiver, 1, 10_, 25, 32, 41. 

Kankakee, Early Days on, 136. 

Kaskaskia, 22, 42, 58, 59, 62, 83, 95; Capture of, 62. 

Kaskaskias, 37. 

Kauffman, Horace M., 772. 

Kean, Jotin, 78. 

Keedy, John H., 359. 

Keller. Frederick W., 186. 

Kelley, Peter, Sr., 1134. 

Kellev, W. P., 775. 

Kemble, Fred T., 784. 

Kerr, Miller F., 850. 

Kerr, William F., 804. 

Keltner, Josiah G., 846. 

Kerner, Jacob F., 380. 

Kickapoo, Indians, 21. 

Kiefer, Charles E., 1074. 

Kimball, Caleb, 375. 

Kimball, Caleb A., 411, 500. 

Kime, George, 1030. 

King, Ben, 287. 

King, S. E., 373. 

Kingston, 23. 

Kinzie, John, 128. 

Kinzie, Titus E., 186. 

Kirsch, Jacob P. T., 783. 

Kish, Joseph, 863. 

Kitch, John W., 521. 

Kizer, W. L., 758. 

Klein, Peter, 422. 

Klingel, John, 446. 

Knights of Columbus, 462. 

Knights of Pythias, South Bend, 461. 

Knights of the Maccabees, 462. 

Knoblock, John C, 187. 375, 407, 408. 

Knoblock, Otto M., 316, 407, 453, 459, 583. 

Knox County, 91; 104, 160. 

Kochanowski, Paul, 848. 

Koener, Andrew, 816. 

Koerth, Adolph, 861. 

Koenig, Cnarles, 424. 

Kollar, Josiah G., 1078. 

Koontz, Samuel, Sr., 954. 

Kowalski, F. H., 866. 

Kownover, William C, 1089. 

Korpal, Charles V., 808. 

Krause, Charles, 856. 

Krieghbaum, Charles M., 509. 

Kreighbaum. Hiram W., 425. 

Kunstman, Andrew, 555. 

Kuss, Fred W., 807. 

Kurtz, George A., 198. 

Kyser, Nelson IL, 365, 835. 

La Coss, Cnarles, 386. 

Laetare Medal, Notre Dame, 680. 

La Feber, Walter F., 947. 



Lafayette Hotel, 439, 440. 

Lafayette Street Sewer, 371. 

Lafortune, Antoine, 129. 

LaGrange County, 160. 

Laidlaw, Edwin C., 927. 

Laing, Samuel, 935. 

Lake County, 160. 

Lake Erie and Western Eailroad, 239. 

Lake, James, 869. 

Lake Maxinkuckee, 8, 45, 47. 

Lake Michigan, Southern Bend of, 100. » 

Lakes, 6; of St. Joseph County, 18. 

Lake Shore Eailroad, 236, 283, 632. 

Lakeville, 19, 280, 314. 

Lakeville Cemetery, Soldiers in, 735. 

Laline, Jean, 129. 

La Mai, 129. 

Lambert. Francis E., 518. 

Lammedee, Frederick AV., 1020. 

Lamport, AVilliam K., 468. 

Lancaster, S. C, 925. 

Land Patents, 157. 

Land Sales, First, 157. 

Lang, Anna, 1149. 

Lang, Frederick, 185. 

Lang, Herman F., 860. 

Lang, Mathias, 1149. 

Lang, Otto E., 595. 

LaPierre, A. M., 358. 

LaPierre, Louis S., 536. 

LaPorte County, 160. 

LaSalle, 18, 21, 23, 29, 57, 58, 95, 217, 291, 603. 

LaSalle Avenue, 132. 

LaSalle Paper Co., 408. 

LaSalle Park, 384, 388, 389. 

Lasly, John D., 162, 184. 

Lauth, Peter, 578. 

Law School, Xotre Dame, 648. 

Lawton, Henry W., 389." 

Leclaire, Antoine, 128. 

Lehman, Noah, 182. 

Lederer, .John X., 187, 215, .584. 

Lee, Eichard H., 78, 81. 

Leeper, David E., 363, 432. 

Leeper Island, 130. 

Leeper Park, 131, 384, 389. 

Leeper, Samuel, 389. 

Leer, Delmar C, 591. 

Leer, Henry, 764. 

Leggett, Joseph, 1008. 

Legislature, First of Indiana, 100. 

Legras, Col. J. M. P., 72. 

Lemennier, Augustine, 652. 

Leonard, John W., 931. 

Lerner, John, 3 091. 

L'Etourneau. Louis J.. 420. 

Leroy, Myron D., 942. 

Leslie, George H., 186. 

Leveque, E., 419. 

Lewinski. Konstantine, 885. 

Lewis, Henry G. W., 408. 

Liberty Township, 281. 

Library, County, 158. 

Library, Public, South Bend. 450, 4.55. 

Licenses, Earlv Business, 172. 

Light Guards.' South Bend, 751. 

Lilly, Calvin, 172; His Hotel, 190; 199, 208, 226, 432. 

Lilly, Father, 671. 

Lilly's Tavern (see Calvin Lilly), 433. 

Lincoln Township, 290. 

Linden Avenue Christian Church, 425. 

Lindley, 283, 311. 

Lindsay, John F., 181. 

Lindsey, John T.,' 410. 

Lindt, Harriet L., 552. 

Lineback, Jonathan, 1114. 

Lister, Sorden. 286, 361. 

Liston, J. A., 191, 194, 456. 

Little Lake, 19. 

Little Turtle, 38, 102, 155. 

Lockwood, Francis W., 530. 

Log House, The, 139; First Hewed, 146. 

Lohr, Eugene F., 449. 

Long, Andrew H., 184. 

Long, Enos E., 526. 

Longenecker, Zachary T., 1124. 

Longley, William H', 362, 407. 

Lontz, Samuel C, 587. 

Lonzo, Joseph C, 871. 

Loreto. Church of Our Lady of, 703. 

Losantiville, 83. 

Lotteries, 98. 

Lotz, Dumont, 449. 

Loughman, George W., 183, 362. 

Louis XIV., 23. 

Louisiana, 32, 55. 

Lowell, 366. 

Lowell Heights, 12, 14. 

Lowell Heights M. E. Church, 413. 

Lowry, Franklin E., 1093. 

Lowrv, Eobert, 196. 

Lucas, Eobert F., 1152. 

Luers, John Henrv, 635. 

Lundy, Harry A., 1152. 

Lutheran Cemetery, Soldiers in, 735. 

Lutheran Church, South Bend, 424. 

Lydick, H. Wilson, 1065. 

Lynch, William F., 637, 716. 

Lyon, Eichard H., 285, 306, 315, 453, 468, 498. 

Lyons, Joseph A., 640, 643. 

MacDonald, Frank E., 592. 

Mack, William, 411, 814. 

Mackibbin, Stuart, 389, 449, 453, 1152. 

Mackinac. 57. 

Mackinac Island, 21. 

Mackinaw, 125. 

Mackinaw Company, 127. 

"Madison's Debates," 82. 

Madison, James, 81, 82. 

Madison Township, 289; Eural High School, 290. 

Mahingans, 46. 

Main, John, 812. 

Malloy, Edward, 469. 

Mangiis, Dayton D., 1094. 

Mangus, Levi, 1013. 

Mann, James A., 356. 

Manning, Ulysses G., 461, 852. 

Manual Labor School, 630. 

Maple Grove Cemetery, Soldiers in, 733. 

Maple Grove Church, 278. 

Maps, Ancient, 38. 

Marble, Orson, 1060. 

Marciniak, E. A., 422. 

Marciniak, Eoman, 577. 

Marker, Jacob, 1117. 

Marquette, .James, 20, 23, 24, 57, 217, 603. 

Marriage, First, in Greene Township, 145. 

Marsh, Daniel S., 467. 



"Marshall Day," 457. 

Marshal, of South Bend, 358. 

Maryland, 81. 

Martin. Fred W., 365, 832. 

Martindale, John, 186. 

Mascouten, Indians, 21; Village of, 27. 

Mason, George, 61. 

Masonic Lodges, South Bend, 461. 

Massachusetts, Claims, 73, 81. 

Massey, John, 356. 

Mather, Joseph H., 196. 

Matthews, Claude, 124, 198. 

Matthews, George W., 181, 182, 216, 217, 412. 

Matthews, Jonathan, 408. 

Matthews Steam Boiler Works, 408. 

Maudlin, Edward L., 899. 

Mauniee, Kapids of, 86. 

Maumee River, 21, 40, 42, 58, 87. 

Maumee Towns, 87. 

Maurer, G. Albert, 790. 

Mayr, Frank, 387. 

Mazeppa Hose Co. No. 5, 378. 

McAllister, Elbert W., 538. 

McCartney's Creek, 1. 

McCartney. William, 191, 195, 295, 305, 306. 

McCarty, 'Charles E., 184, 955. 

McCarty, Charles E., 184. 

McCarty, Benjamin, 184. 

McClellan, H., 833. 

McCombs, Lambert, 161, 830. 

McCoy, Isaac, 301. 

McDonald, Charles A.^ 453. 469, 504. 

McDonald, Daniel, 48. 

McDonald, S. M., 548. 

McDonald, William, 1062. 

McEnderfer, Allen, 1016. 

McEndarfer, B. F., 995. 

McErlain & Elbe! Cigar Box Manufacturers, 409. 

McHenry, Arthur C, 425. 

McHenry, W. K., 591. 

Mcllvaine, W., 424. 

Melnerv. William A., 365, 510. 

MeLelland, John T., 185. 

McMiehael, John A., 796. 

McMichael, William C, 182. 

McWeeny, James, 365, 828. 

Medical Society of Northern Indiana, 455. 

Meighan, John' F., 198, 364. 

Membre, Zenobe, 25, 28. 

Memorial Day, 745. 

Memorial Hall, Bishops', 681. 

Menominee Village, 48, 51, 55. 

Merchants National Bank, 412. 

Merrifield, George, 347. 

Merrifield, Jacob. 451. 

Merritt, A. B., 358. 

Mesnard. Father, 20. 

Methodist Episcopal Church, at South Bend. 213, 

• 297; at Mishawaka. 336. 

Methodist Church. South Bend, 412. 

Metropotamia, 75. 

Mexican War, 716, 731. 

Miami. Indiana, 21, 47. 48, 84, 88; Village of, 18, 

27; 28, 37, 44, 309; Treaty with, 29; 38, 39. 
Miamis. Eiver of, 20, 21, 24,^25. 
Michael. Walter, 799. 
Michigan Air Line Railroad, 237. 
Michigan Boundary Line, 90. 
Michigan, Southern Boundary of, 100. 

Michigan Central Railroad, 237. 

Michigan Hotel, 434, 435. 

Michigan Road, 156, 235. 351. 

Michigan Street M. E. Church, 413. 

Michigan Territory Formed, 100. 

Michigan Township, 163, 172, IVV, 272. 

Michigania, 75. 

Michilimackmac, 21, 23, 24, 42, 43, 57, 59. 

Middle State, The, 79. 

Mikesell, Charles W., 1059. 

Milburn Chapel, 413. 

Milburn, (jeorge, .343, 400, 717. 

Milburn Wagon Company, 325. 

Military Company, First in Civil War, 717. 

Military History, 711. 

Military Organizations, South Bend, 463. 

Military Posts, French, 57. 

Militia, 93. 

Miller, Aaron, 184. 

Miller, Alfred B., 219, 467. 

Miller, Allen G., 540. 

Miller, Benjamin F., 184, 202, 358. 

Miller, David B., 169, 819. 

Miller, Frederick A., 468, 510. 

Miller, Hiram, 185. 

Miller, Isaac N., 187. 215, 751, 893. 

Miller, Loren C, 1065. 

Miller, John C, 184. 

Miller, John F., 215, 720. 

Miller. Joseph, 761. 

Miller, Solomon, 185. 

Miller, William, 215, 372, 374, 411. 

Miller, William C, 1080. 

Mills, W. F., 530. 

Minims, The, at Notre Dame, 672. 

Mintle, Henry S., 317. 

Miranda, Wil'liam F., 976. 

Mishawaka. City of, 319; Plat of Town, 321; First 

Town Incorporation, 323; Business Enterprises, 

Mishawaka Democrat. 347. 
Mishawaka Enterprise. 347. 
Mishawaka Public Utility Company, 331. 
Mishawaka Rapids, 229. 320. 

Mishawaka, Seal of, 349; Officials, 349; Census, 350. 
Mishawaka Tocsin, 346. 
Mishawaka Water Works Company, 331. 
Mishawaka Woolen Manufacturing Company, 325. 
Missionaries, Early, 126; First, of Methodist 

Church, 297. 
Mississippi River. 10, 21. 
Mitchell. H. F., 534. 
Mitchell, Joseph A. S., 150, 198. 
Mitchigamias, 37. 
Mix. Melville W., 331. 349, 487. 
Mizpah Church, 424. 
Mochel, Martin J., 1130. 
Modern Woodmen, 463. 
Moench, Louis A., 5/9. 
Mohawks, 37. 
Mohegans. 28, 37. 
Molloy, Emma F., 709. 
Momence, 12. 

Momence Rock, Removal of, 258. 
Montbrun, Timothy de, 73. 
Monroe, James. 81. 
Monson, Albert, 185. 358. 
Montgomery. Hugh T., 1, 9, 184, 364. 
Montgomery. John, 62. 



Montreal, 41, 57, 58. 

Moon, Calvin, '451, 557. 

Moon, George E., 934. 

Moon, Solomon, 930. 

Moore, David, 807. 

Moore, jerry 'F., 871. 

Moore, John, 1100. 

Moore, Maria, 1104. 

Moore, Robert, 1103. 

Moore, W. S., 795. 

Moraines, 9. 

Moreau, Basil A., 612, 705. 

Morgan, Henry C, 763. 

Morrison Hotel, 439. 

Morrissey, Andrew, 694. 

Morse, Abner, 305, 307. 

Morse, E. A., 558." 

Morss, Meltire M., 1068. 

Morss, William A., 1062. 

Morton, Oliver P., 716. 

Mossey, Joseph E., 865. 

Mound Builder, 22, 34, 44, 45, 283. 

Mt. Olive A. M. E., 413. 

Mount Pleasant, 18, 29, 45, 308. 

Mt. Pleasant Cemetery, Soldiers in, 733. 

Mount Zion Baptist Church, 423. 

Moyer, Theodore P., 552. 

Mucha, L. M., 1150. 

Mud Lake, 19, 283. 

Mueller, Frederick W., 590. 

Muessel, Adolph J., 563. 

Muessel, Edward, 562. 

Muessel, George C, 1157. 

Muessel, Walter G., 563. 

Muessel, William, 563. 

Munhall, L. W., 425. 

Municipal Code, 367, 375. ' 

Municipal Ownership, 372, 377. 

Murphy, Frank J.. 827. 

Murray, Charles L., 469, 709. 

Murray, Charles T., 469. 

Muskingum, 77. 

Musquito Glen, 233. 

Muster Roll, Original, of Co. I, Ninth Regiment, 

Myers. Cornelius H., 184, 536. 
Myers', John H., 758. 
Myler, Martha E., 834. 
Myler, Robert, 183. 
Myler, Town, 366. 

Napoleon, 59. 

Narragansetts, 37. 

Natchez, 58. 

National Hotel, 439, 441. 

National Union, 469. 

Navarre, Pierre, 130, 295. 

Nave, Pliny, 883. 

Navigation of St. Joseph River, 224. 

Neff. Isaac E., 449. 

Neff, Joseph E., 764. 

Neitzel, Barnhart H., 828. 

Nelson, James, 821. 

New Carlisle, 301, 312. 

New Carlisle Collegiate Institute, 313. 

New Carlisle Cemetery, 733. 

Newcomer, William, 1017. 

Newcomer, W. F., 1018. 

New England System of County Government, 160. 

New France, 58. 

New Hampshire, 82. 

New Jersey, 81. 

New Jersey, Indiana and Illinois Railroad, 240. 

New Orleans, 58. 

New York, Claims, 73, 81, 82. 

News, The Sunday, 470. 

Newspapers, of South Bend, 463. 

Neyron, Louis, 418, 604. 639, 

Niblack, Arthur C, 849. 

Nicar, Edwin, 182, 365, 375, 378, 389, 569, 743, 751, 

Nicar, Robert B., 185. 

Nicar, Virginius, 779. 

Nicholson, Meredith, 109. 

Nicoles, Samuel J., 317, 957. 

Niedbalski, Vincent, 881. 

Niezgodzki. John T., 848. 

Niles, Henry G., 408, 594. 

Niles, John B., 196, 197. 

Ninth Regiment, 717. 

Nixon, James', 162. 

Noble, Noah, 193, 195, 200. 

Norman Eaay Post, G. A. R., 745. 

North Carolina, Claims, 73, 81, 82, 

North Liberty, 19, 281, 313. 

North Liberty Cemetery, Soldiers in, 735. 

North Liberty Herald, 314. 

North Liberty News, 314. 

Northern Indiana Agricultural Society, 269. 

Northern Indiana Historical Society, 1, 36, 128, 131, 
146, 212, 215, 338, 341, 351, 386, 452, 453. 

Northwest Company, 127. 

Northwest Indianian, 314. 

"Northwestern Pioneer and St. Joseph's Intelli- 
gencer," 110, 211, 227. 

Norton, Frank A., 451. 

Notre Dame Lakes, 14, 18, 40, 284, 603, 605. 

Notre Dame University, 20, 603, 612; First Build- 
ings, 621; 671. 

Notre Dame University, Early Years, 625; in the 
War, 635. 

Notre Dame Post, G. A. R., 745. 

Noyes, Daniel, 198, 202. 

Nutwood, 216, 289, 312. 

O'Brien. Patrick, 215, 362, 376, 402, 554. 

O'Brien' Varnish Works, 402, 554. 

O'Connell, Father, 684. 

Odd Fellows, South Bend, 461. 

Oechtering, Auguste B., 335. 

Ohio Company, 77. 

Ohio Line, 107. 

Ohio, River, 10, 57. 

Old Dominion. 70, 73. 

Old Settlers, 19. 

Old Settlers, Reunions, 150. 

dinger, John, 187. 

Olive Chapel Cemetery, Soldiers in, 733. 

Olive Township, 273, 295; Only Fort In, 300. 

Oliver Chilled Plow Company, 230. 

Oliver Chilled Plow Works. 371. 

Oliver Hotel, 369; First, 442; New, 442, 443. 

Oliver, James, 342. 343, 382, 393, 400, 481. 

Oliver, Joseph D., 215, 401. 

Oliver Opera House, 459. 

Oliver Plow Works, 400. 

Oliver. Robert, 91. 

One Hundred and Fiftv-ninth Inf., 728. 



One Hundred and Fifty-seventh Inf., 751. 

One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Inf., 726, 

One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Inf., 728. 

Oneidas, 37. 

O'Neill, William P., 347, 1154. 

Onondagas, 37. 

Orange County, 104. 

Order of Patricians, 463. 

Ordinance Boundary Line, 107. 

Ordinance of 1787, 75, 78, 80, 93; Six Articles of, 

Oren. William H., 185. 
Orphans' Home, 220. 
Orr, John H., 229, 320. 
Orr, Joseph G., 363. 
Osborn, Andrew L., 197. 
Osborn, George A., 543. 
Ort, Henry, 788. 
Osceola, 294. 309, 310. 
Ostrom, C. A., 801. 
Ottawas, 37, 90. 
Ouiatanon, Indians, 65. 
Ouiatanon, Fort, 58. 
Ouiaton, Village of, 27 . 
Outagamies, 28, 46. 
Our Lady of Peace, 707. 
Owen, W. L., 536. 
Owls, Order of, 463. 

Packard, Jasper, 727. 

Palestine. 3uO, 308. 

Palmer Prairie Cemetery, Soldiers in, 733. 

Palmer, Emberson, 1088. 

Palmer, Orlando H., 426. 

Palmer Prairie, 288. 

Palmer, Solomon W., 184. 

Papczynski, John W., 365, 872. 

Paper, First Made in South Bend, 408. 

Parett, John H., 936. 

Parke, 'Benjamin, 96, 97, 101. 

Park Commissioners, 387. 

Park, First in South Bend, 386; Story of a, 386. 

Parkman. Francis, 22. 

Parkovash, The, 43, 45, 47, 128, 129, 383. 

Parks, Isaac K., 885. 

Parks of South Bend, 383. 

Parks, Norman E., 596. 

Parochial School, Lutheran, 424. 

Parrett, E. J., 425. 

Parsons, Samuel H., 77, 83. 

Partridge, Joel M., 528, 744. 

Pattee, Cvrus E., 522. 

Patteson,"^ William H., 182, 186, 357, 358. 

Paul, John, 104. 

Paul, Lewis, 952. 

Paul, Professor, 671. 

Paxson. Edward E., 547. 

Pearse, Leonard S., 999. 

Pearse, Wakefield K, 1001. 

Peffley, Ephraim H., 1039. 

Pelisipi, 75. 

Peninsular Eanroad, 238. 

Pennsylvania, 81. 

Penn Township Cemeteries, Soldiers in, 734. 

Penn Township, 273, 291. 

People's Savings Bank, 412. 

Peorias, 37. 

Peppermint Industry, 291. 

Pequods, 37. 

Perkins, Frank G., 492. 

Perkins Wind Mill Company, 326, 492. 

Perley, Samuel S., 387, 393, 561. 

Perrin, Earl E., 780. 

Perrot, Nicholas, 20, 29, 57. 

Perry County, 104. 

Petit, Benjamin Marie, 52. 

Petit, Father, 603. 

Pfeiffer, Edward, 870. 

Philadelphia Industrial Association, 306. 

Phillips, D. G., 197. 

Phillips, Wihiam H., 938. 

Phillips, W. E., 782. 

Philon. Albert J., 793. 

Piano, First Brought into County, 342. 

Pickett, Edwin, 186. 

Pidge, Mrs. E. J., 297, 

Pierson, George, 196. 

Pigeon Boost, 54. 

Pillory, 92, 98. 

"Pilot" Steamboat, 232. 

Pinckney, Charles, 77. 

Pineda, Alonzo de, 32, 

Pine, Leighton, 372. 375, 402, 564, 751. 

Pine, Milton B., 776. 

Pinhook, 307. 

Pioneer, The, etc., 464. 

Place, Dixon W., 187, 316. 

Place, Ira F., 941. 

Plainfield, 300, 301, 308. 

Plank Eoads, 235. 

Plat of Mishawaka, 321. 

Plat, Original, of South Bend, 352. 

Platz, John, 837. 

Platz, Noah F., 425. 

Pleasant Lake, 19, 280. 

Plymouth, 164. 

Plymouth Township, 274. 

Poehlman, Godfrey L., 584. 

Pokagon, Chief, 130. 

Pokagon, Simon, 605. 

Pokagon 's Village, 45, 47, 151, 605. 

Poike, William, 236. 

Pol\-potamia, 75. 

Pomeroy, Grove, 144. 

Pontiac, 64, 102. 

Pontiac's War, 42. 

Poor, Joshua, 977. 

Portage, The, 20, 21, 45, 173, 175. 

Portage of the Kankakee, 43. 

Portage of the St. Joseph, 24, 25, 26. 

Portage Prairie, 18, 45, 383, 603] 

Portage Township, 163, 176, 272, 273, 295. 

Portage Village, 231,- 304. 

Porter Cemetery, Soldiers in, 735. 

Porter County, 160. 

Porter, .John E., 190, 191. 

Port Huron & Lake Michigan E. E., 238. 

Posey County, 104. 

Posey, Thomas, 103. 

Postal Telegraph Co., 243. 

Postoffice, at Mishawaka, 321. 

Post Printing Co., 471. 

Post, The South Bend, 471. 

Pottawatomie Park, 270, 315, 384. 

Pottawatomies, 28, 37, 38, .39, 45, 55, 88, 90, ]3i 

155, 135; Eemoval of, 48; Village of, 44. 
Pottawatomie Trail, 47. 
Potter, Jerome, 825. 



Pound, 169. 

Pourre, Don Eugenio, 43. 

Powhatans, 37. 

Presbyterian Church, Mishawaka, 337. 

Presbyterian Cnurch, South Bend, 414. 

President Judge, 187. 

Presidents of Notre Dame, 695. 

Press, of South Bend, 463. 

Price, Benjamin F., 357, 358, 411. 

Price, William H., 1056. 

Price's Theatre, 213, 382. 

Primogeniture, 78. 

Probate Court, 198; First Term, 199; Seal, 200, 202; 

Second Term, 200. 
Progress Club, 460. 
Progress, The, 645. ' 

Prohibition Alliance, 710. 
Prohibition Party, 709. 
Prophet, The, 102. 
Prophet's' Town, 102. 
Protsman, John C, 349. 
Proud, James, 921. 
Proud, Hurtain, 903. 
Proudfit, Louis, 928. 
Provoncille, Alexis, 196. 
Public Cisterns, South Bend, 371. 
Putnam, Eufus, 77. 
Purucker, A. J., 859. 
Pyle, Daniel, 461. 

Quebec, 41, 57. 

Queen City of St. Joseph Valley, 351. 

Quincy Street Baptist Church, 423. 

Quindre, Deneau, 129. 

Quirk, Frank J., 959. 

Raccoon Village, 45. 

Rafe, F. C, 882. 

Railroads 236; Lake Shore, 236; Grand Trunk, 
237; Michigan Air Line, 237; Michigan Cen- 
tral, 237; Port Huron & Lake Michigan, 238; 
Peninsular, 238; Chicago & Lake Huron, 238; 
, Lake Erie & Western, 239; Baltimore & Ohio, 
239; Vandalia, 239; Three I, 239; Wabash, 
239; N. J._. L & L, 240. 

Railroad Accidents, 240. 

Randolph County, 71, 100. 

Randolph, John, 100. 

Randolph, Thomas, 97. 

Ranstead, Henry B., 911. 

Rape, 97. 

Rausch, Fred, 424. 

Ray, James B., 161, 193, 200. 

Ray, Martin M., 194. 

Reading Room and Library Association, South Bend, 

Ream, Charles, 815. 

Reaves, John M., 1053. 

Reaves, Peter H., 187, 215, 1044. 

Recorder, County, 181, 182. 

Red Men, Order of, 463. 

Reed, Josiah P., 182. 

Reeves, Charles H., 456. 

Reformed Church, South Bend, 417. 

Register. St. Joseph Valley, 197, 213, 218, 466. 

Reilly, John, 92. 

Reiniiardt, Benjamin F., 939. 

Relief Hook and Ladder Co.. 378. 

Re-location of County Seat, 173. 

Reminiscences, 140. 
Rennoe, A., 184, 535. 

Reservations, Indian, 88. 

Revolutionary War, 731. 

Revolutionary War, Two Soldiers of, 715. 
Reynolds, Ed B., 509. " 

Reynolds, James, 904. 

Reynolds, Mrs. Jennette^ 393. 
Rhode Island, 81, 82. 

Ribourde, Father Gabriel de la, 25. 

Rice, P. J., 425. 

Richard, Gabriel, 605. 

Richter, John C, 198. 

Riddle, Alexander, 1057. 

Riddle's Lake, 19, 280, 314. 

Riddle, W. Harrison, 1051. 

Riley, James W., 124, 716. 

Rilling, James H., 424. 

Ritter, Frank, 1136. 

River Park M. E. Church, 413. 

River Park, 315. 

Riverview Cemetery, Soldiers in, 732. 

Rivers, of St. Joseph County, Improvement of, 
223; Navigation of, 224; Electric Power Devel- 
opment, 230. 

Rixa, Alexander, 184. 

Roach, Martin J., 766. 

Road District, 161. 

Roads, 234; Vistula, 234. 

Roberts, Hanford, 811. 

Roberts, James H., 1140. 

Robertson, John D., 196. 

Robinson, Samuel M., 773. 

Robinson, Schuyler C, 184. 

Rocheblave, Mr., 62, 70. 

Rockhill, William D., 187. 

Rockstroh, George, 184. 

Roher, Joseph, 169. 

Rogers, Frank,' 854. 

Rogers, Oliver P., 928. 

Roland, Joshua, 92. 

Rollins, Thomas H., 872. 

Romig, Iden S., 461. 

Roosevelt, Theodore, 70. 

Roper Furniture and Carpet Company, 332. 

Roper, James A., 495. 

Rose, David, 1063. 

Rose, Rufus, 360. 

"Rose Grade," 369. 

Ross, George P., 945. 

Ross, Silas A., 1051. 

Ross, William O., 194. 

Roster of Auten Post, 736. 

Rostiser, Louis A., 846. 

Roth, John, 770. 

Round Table Club, 460. 

Routes of Travel, 20. 

Row, Albert O., 802. 

Row, A.ilham C, 858. 

Royal Arcanum, 463. 

Rudduck, Isaac. 145. 

Rudduck, James H., 1043. 

Rudduck, John, 144. 

Rum Village, 11, 34. 

Rupel, Jacob, 144. 

Rupel, Bazel, 841. 

Rupel, Charles O., 1033. 

Rupel, Chord S., 1043. 

Rupel, David E., 968. 



Eupel, Dennis W., 973. 

Eupel, E. B., 873. 

Eupel, Elias, 600. 

Eupel, Elisha H., 1086. 

Eupel, Jacob, 316. 

Eupel, John, 144. 

Eupel, John N., 990. 

Eupel, Osborn, 848. 

Eupel's Lake, 19, 288. 

Eural High School, 290. 

Eush, Leonard B., 184. 

Euss, Charles, 870. 

Euss, Marion B., 187, 215, 788. 

Eyder. James W., 1053. 

St. Bavo's Church, Mishawaka, 336, 575. 

St. Casiniir's Church, 420, 421. 

St. Clair, Arthur, 82, 83. 

St. Clair County, 100. 

St. Edward's Day, 643. 

St. Hedwige's, Mother Church of, 420, 421. 

St. Ignace, Point, 21, 57. 

St. James Episcopal Church, 423. 

St. Joseph and Southern Eailroad, 239, 283. 

St. Joseph's Academy, 422. 

St. Joseph Beacon and Indiana and Michigan In- 
telligencer, 244, 465. 

St. Joseph's Catholic Church, 417. 

St. Joseph County Agricultural Society, 269. 

St. Joseph County Bar Association, 456. 

St. Joseph County Farmers Fire Insurance Co., 324. 

St. Joseph County Federation, Catholic Societies, 

St. Joseph ( ounty Medical Society, 456. 

St. Joseph County Mutual Fire Insurance Co., 323. 

St. Joseph County, Organization of, 157; attached 
territory, 158, 159; Boundaries of, 177. 

St. Joseph County Eepublican, 317. 

St. Joseph County Savings Bank, 411. 

St. Joseph Fire Company, 377. 

St. Joseph's Hospital New, 431. 

St. Joseph Hotel, 438; Second, 440; The Old, 441, 

St. .Joseph Iron Works, 229, 319, 320, 323, 620. 

St. Joseph Loan and Trust Co., 412. 

St. Joseph Manual Labor Collegiate Institute, 305. 

St. Joseph Manufacturing Co., 320. 

St. Joseph Eiver, Navigation of, 224; Water Power 
of, 229; Electric Power from, 230; First Bridge 
Across, 320; First Dam Across, 320, 357; Origin 
of, 13; 24, 41, 58, 65. 

St. Joseph's, Settlement, 135. 

St. Joseph's, Station, Big, 132; Little, 132. 

St. Joseph Street, 433. 

St. Joseph, Town, 303. 

St. Joseph Valley Medical Society, 456. 

St. Joseph Valley Eegister, 197, 213, 218. 

St. Joseph's, Village, 352.' 

St. Louis, 58. 

St. Mary's Academy. 20, 431, 603, 633, 698; The 
i^ew, 705; in the Civil War, 707. 

St. Mary's Church, 420, 421. 

St. Marv's of the Lakes, 603. 

St. Patrick's Church, 420, 421. 

St. Paul's Church, 393. 

St. Paul's Memorial Church, 414. 

St. Stanislaus' Church, 420, 421. 

St. Stephen's Church, 420, 421. 

"St. Vincennes," 94, 95. 

Sacred Heart Church, 420, 421, 696. 

Sacs and Foxes, 37^ 46. 

Sample Street Bridge, 233. 

Sample, Samuel C, 194, 195, 196, 198, 410. 

Sandilands, Alexander, 323. 

Sanger, S. F., 425. 

Saratoga, 75. 

Sargent, Winthrop, 82, 84. 

Sarle, Cora D., 809. 

Sault de St. Marie, 20, 57. 

Schaefer, W. B., 776. 

Schafer, Charles L., 1099. 

Schafer, David B. J., 363, 599. 

Schafer, David J., 184. 

Schafer, Fred K,, 836. 

Schellinger, Nicholas, 595. 

Schenk, William C, 91. 

Scherer, Joseph, 421, 573. 

Schiffer, E. A., 781.' 

Schiffer, Herman, 803. 

Schindler, John J., 349, 497. 

Schmidt, Joseph,- 786. 

Schock, Harry G-., 511. 

Scholastic, The Notre Dame, 645, 646. 

School District, 161. 

School Examiner, 451. 

School, First Catholic for Larger Boys, 420. 

Schools, in South Bend, 445. 

Schools of Mishawaka, 337. 

Schrader, Charles C, 992. 

Schutt, Eoss K., 787. 

Scientist, First Church of Christ, 425. 

Scott, James, 97. 

Seal of County, 170, 182. 

Seal of City of Mishawaka, 349. 

Seal, of Probate Court, 200. 

Seal, Circuit Court, 194. 

Seaman, J. B., 928. 

Seixas, Theodore J., 411, 412. 

Seminary, County, 168, 217, 424, 445, 446. 

Senecas, 37, 42. 

Service, 92. 

Seventeen States, From Northwest Territory, 75. 

Seventy-third Inf., 724. 

Seven Years War, 41. 

Sewers, South Bend, 370; First in South Bend, 370. 

Shafer, Lemen, 1107. 

Shanklin, Eobert, 539. 

Shaw, David A., 797. 

Shawe, Father St. Michael, 626, 683. 

Shawnees, 37. 

Shea, John G., 22, 680. 

Shea, Michael C, 793. 

Shearer, Frederick, 1143. 

Shearer, William H., 1135. 

Sheerer, C. Henry, 185. 

Sheffield, E. S., 358. 

Sheffield Creek, 285. 

Sheffield Mill, 285. 

Shenefield, Berton C, 1135. 

Sheneman, Henry, 1024. 

Sheneman, John A., 1010. 

Sheneman, Washington A., 1015. 

Sheneman, Zachariah, 1023. 

Sheridan Hotel. 440. 

Sheriff, The, 183. 

Sherland, Matilda, 145, 146. 

Shetterlv, Isaac, 1102. 

Shidler,'Adam W., 1097. 

Shimp, .Tacob, 1089. 

Shimp', .John M., 1092. 



Shimp, William D., 182. 

Shively, Benjamin F., 135, 365, 471, 512, 751. 

Shortis, Father, 626. 

Sibley, A. P., 553. 

Sibley, Irving A., 388, 873. 

Sibrel, Irving, 380. 

Sidewalks, South Bend^ 369. 

Siders, John, 287. 

Siders' Mill, 285. 

Siefer, John, 1108. 

Siek, Henry, 424. 

Singer Sewing Maeine Co., 402. 

Singler, Frank J., 824. 

Singler, John M., 822. 

Slaughterbeek, Charley L., 1090. 

Slave Case, Our, 203. 

Slavery, 76, 77, 78, 79, 98; as Known in Indiana, 

Slick, Thomas J., 877. 
Slick, Thomas W., 198, 517. 
Slough, Peter, 1106. 
Slusser, Edward M., 1074. 
Small-pox, in South Bend, 358. 
Smith, Adam, 161. 
Smith, Alfred, 878. 
Smith, Alexander, 1082. 
Smith, Barnev C, 187, 215, 863. 
Smith, Elias,'323." 
Smith, G. Scott, 860. 
Smith, Henry M., 948. 
Smith, Jonathan J., 1079. 
Smith, Levi A., 1015. 
Smith, Wm., 380. 
Smith, "\rilliam D., 183. 
Smith, W. H., 88. 
Smith and Jackson Lumber and Manufacturing 

Co., 409. 
Snavley, William, 358. 
Snethen, Isaac T., 946. 
Snyder, Amos, 1123. 
Snyder. Jacob C, 798. 
Societies, Agricultural, 267. 
Societies and Clubs. Mishawaka, 344. 
Societies and Clubs, South Bend, 452. 
Soils, 17. 

Sokel Polski, 463. 

Soldier Dead from Olive Township, 733. 
Soldiers in Southern Graves, 733. 
Soldiers Monument, 390, 751, 756. 
Soldiers' Monument Association, 346, 751. 
Soldiers' Eoll of Honor, 731. 
Sons of Herman, 463. 
Sons of Israel, 425. 
Sons of Temperance, 709. 
Sorin, Edward. 419, 603, 652. 
South Bend and Mishawaka Eailwav, 241. 
South Bend Chilled Plow Co., 407. 
South Bend, City of, 351; Names Given to Town, 

351; County Seat, 355; First Incorporation, 356; 

Second Incorporation, 357; Incorporation As 

City, 359; Officers of, 359. 
South Bend, Division Into Wards, 366; Population, 

South Bend Families Engaged in Manufacturing, 

South Bend Citv Eailway. 240. 
South Bend Era\ The, 470. 
South Bend Evang. Hung. Prot. Church, 424. 
South Bend Hydraulic Company, 229. 

South Bend Inn, 433. 

South Bend Iron Bed Co., 409. 

South Bend Iron Works, 371. 

South Bend Manufacturing Company, 229, 357, 401. 

South Bend National Bank, 411. 

South Bend of the St. Joseph, 156, 352, 357. 

South Bend Toy Works, 407. 

South Bend Tribune, 751. 

South Bena Water Works, 371. 

South Bend Watch Co., 409. 

South Bend Watch Factory, 315. 

South B?nd Woolen Co., 407. 

South Carolina, Claims, 73, 81, 82. 

Soutiiern Hospital. The, 707. 

Southern Michigan Eailwav, 242. 

Southold, 351. 

Spain, 41, 43, 59, 86. 

Spanish-American War, 732. 

Spanish War Veterans, 463. 

Spillard, Daniel J., 421. 

Springbrook Park, 241, 385. 

Springs, 6. 

Stace, Arthur J., 186, 361. 

Stalev Manufacturing Co., 407. 

Stancliff, Samuel, 323. 

Standpipe, No. 6, 378. 

Standpipe, The Star-seeking, 374. 

Standpipe System, 372. 

Stanfield, Flora L., 45S. 

Stanfield, Howard S., 453. 

Stanfield, Thomas S., J47, 181, 197, 198, 223, 236, 

358, 410, 416, 453, 456, 712. 
Stanton, Aaron, 169. 
Staples, Alex., 373, 374, 599. 
Staples, Ealph, 184. 
Stark, Samuel W.. 592. 
Starr, Eliza A., 706. 
Starr, William B., 453. 
Starved Eock, 29, 38, 40. 41. 
State Bank of Indiana, 409. 
State Eoads, 235. 
Steele, Emeline, 993. 
Steele, John, 993. 
Steele, P. D., 1032. 
Stegman, Henry C, 855. 
Stephenson, A. H., 862. 
Stephenson, Benjamin F., 736. 
Stephenson, C. B., 556. 

Stephenson Manufacturing Company, 4CS. 
Stephenson Underwear Mills, 407. 
Steuben County, 160. 
Stocker, Peter, 809. 
Stocks, 92. 

Stoddard, Charles W.. 684. 
Stoeckinger, George F., 795. 
Stoecklev, J. A., 529. 
Stoffel, Nicholas J., 421. 
Stokes, Milton W.. 186. 

Stoll, John B., 150, 215, 392, 393, 469, 500. 
Stoltz. Charles, 533. 

"Story of Fifty Years," at St. Mary's, 698, 699. 
Storey, Wilbur F., 347. 
Storms, 270. 
Stover, Calista S., 774. 
Stover, David, 773. 
Stover. George H., 185. 
Stover. J. H.. 424. 
Stover, William B., 453. 
Stover, William C, 185. 



Strauz, L. V., 534, 
Strata,. 17. 

Street Improvemeut, Primitive, in* Soutli Bend, 369. 
Street Kailways — Soutu Bend City, 24U; South Bend 
and Misliawaka, 241; Indiana, 241; Chicago, 
South Bend &, JMorthern Indiana, 242; Southern 
Michigan, 242; Chicago, Lake Shore and South 
Bend, 243. 

Strope, Levi A., 1121. 

Stuart, William E., 197. 

Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Co., 394, 397. 

Studebaker Fountain, 385, 391, 393. 

Studebaker, Clement, 187, 215, 202, 360, 378, 393, 
400, 414, 426, 477. 

Studebaker, George M., 389, 751. 

Studebaker, Henry, 478. 

Studebaker, Jacob F., 480. 

Studebaker. John M., 361, 375, 376, 389, 391, 479. 

Studebaker* Mary E., 453. 

Studebaker Park, 384. 

Studebaker, Peter E., 481. 

Stueckle, Gustav A., 364, 564. 

Stuer, Charles L., 336, 574. 

Stull, John, 145. 

Stull, John S., 1087. 

Stull, Samuel C, 850. 

Stull, William H., 600. 

Sulgrove, Berry E., 109. 

Summary of Mishawaka Enterprises, 347. 

Summary of South Bend Interests, 471. 

Summers, Gabriel K., 778. 

Summit Lake, 1, 45. 

Sumption, Elisha, 451. 

Sumption. George, 144. 

Sumption Prairie, 47, 277. 

Sumption Prairie Cemetery, Soldiers in, 735. 

Superintendent, County School, 451. 

Superior General Sorin, 643. 

Surveyor, The, 185. 

Surveys, First in County, 156; Second, 156. 

Swanger, John Q., 1148. 

Swank, David L., 978. 

Swedish Baptist Church, 423. 

Swedish Evaug. Mission, 424. 

Sweet Cemetery, Soldiers in, 733. 

Sweet Home, 311. 

Switzerland County, 104. 

Swygart, John A., 586. 

Sylvania, 75. 

Symmes, John C, 83. 

Talbot, Joseph E., 198. 

Talon, Intendant, 20, 57. 

Tamaronas, 37. 

Tannery, First, 295. 

Tavern-keepers, 97. 

Taxation, Exemptions from, 171. 

Tax Upon Lands, 104. 

Tavlor, Edmund P., 132, 184, 377. 

Taylor, Francis P., 319. 

Taylor, Lathrop M., 129, 132, 157, 161. 175, 181, 191, 
193. 195, 295, 351, 410, 453. 

Taylor, Sarah C, 453. 

Taylor, Thaddeus S., 453. 

Taylor, Waller, 97, 104. 

Teeumseh, 102, 614. 

Telegraphs and Telephones — Western Union, 243; 
Postal, 243; Central Union, 243; American Tele- 
graph and Telephone, 243; Home, 244. 

Temperance Movement, 709. 

Temperance Society, First, 709. 

Temple Bethel, 425. 

Temple, William L., 775. 

Temporary Government for Northwest Territory, 75. 

Ten States, from Northwest Territory, 75. 

Terre Coupee, First Church, 297, 301. 

Terre Couppe Prairie, 13, 296. 

Terrill and Plainfield Cemetery, Solaiers in, 734. 

Territory, Attached to St. Joseph County, 158, 159. 

Thieme, Traugott, 424, 578. 

Thomas, Alexander N., 182, 361. 

Thomas, Samuel R., 8/8. 

Thompson. Maurice, 2, 35, 44. 

Thorpe, Kose H., 344. 

Thorward, Theodore, 565. 

Thrall, William C, 310. 

Three I Eailroad, 239, 281. 

Thursday Club, 460. 

Tiffin, Edward, 92. 

Times Printing Co., 469. 

Times, The South Bend, 468, 469. 

Tippecanoe Eiver, 12, 126. 

Tippecanoe, Battle of, 97, 101, 102. 

Tipton, General, 611. 

Tobacco's Son, 64, 68. 

Todd, Col. John, 72. 

Toepp, William, 771. 

Tohulka, Herman A., 187, 215. 

Tong. Lucius G.. 361, 386, 411, 412, 495, 638, 643, 

Tonti, Henry de, 23, 25, 27, 28, 32, 33. 
Topinabee, 130, 607. 
Total Abstinence Society, 678. 
Tornado, Only in St. Joseph County, 232. 

Town and Township, 161. 
Town, First Incorporation, 323. 

Townships, First Division of, 272; Second Division, 
273; Third Division, 273; Present Number, 275 
Townships, First of St. Joseph County, 163. 

Townships, Eeorganized, 176. 

Tovniships, Two Lost, 274. 

Towle, Charles G., 187. 

Towle, vjilman, 186, 187. 

Trail Creek, 143, 156. 

Trails. Indian, 43, 45. 

Traveler's Eest, 438. 

Treatv of Greenville, 94, 103, 125. 

Treaty of Paris, 41, 58, 103. 

Treaty of Peace, (1783), 71. 

Treasurer, The, 184. 

Tribune, The South Bend, 218, 468. 

Trinity Presbyterian Church, 417. 

Troeger, Andrew, 470. 

Truax, John M., 1130. 

Truax, William V., 1143. 

Truss Bridges, 233. 

Turner, Anthony W., 961. 

Turner, Thompson, 971. 

Turner. Timothy G., 190, 306, 456, 470. 

Turner's South Bend Directory, 371. 

Turnock, Joseph, 184, 378, 729, 769. 

Turnverein, 463. 

Tuscarssas, 37. 

Tutt Cemetery, Soldiers in, 733. 

Tutt, Charles M., 184. 

Tutt, Francis E., 187. 

Tuttle,- Eichmond, 184. 

Twin Branch, 14, 291. 



3, 377. 


Twenty-first Battery, 730. 
Twenty-ninth Infantry, 720. 
Twigh-twees, 37, 48. 
Twin Lakes, 45, 47, 49, 51, 283. 

Ulery, Samuel, 802. 

Ullery Cemetery, Soldiers in, 733 

Ullery. Ira M.,' 838. 

Ullery, John C, 1144. 

Ullery, Joseph C.^ 10^47. 

Underwood, Israef, 184. 

Union Hall, 433. 

Union Hose Company Xo 

Union Township, 280. 

United Brethren, First Church, 425. 

Utley, William, 344. 

Tail, Thomas D., 186. 

Van Bus-kirk Cemetery, Soldiers in, 733. 

Vance, David, 91. 

Vandalia Eailroad, 239, 280. 

Vanden Bosch, James Q. C, 589. 

Vanderburgh, Henrv. 91, 95. 

Van Doren, William T., 451. 

Van Pelt, Mrs. Marion B., 338. 

Van Pelt, Corwin B., 387, 408. 

Van Pelt, Ryan T.. 544. 

Van Eyper, A. N., 904. 

Van Eyper, Mary Z., 904. 

Van Valin. George W., 1033. 

Varnum, .lames M., 83. 

Varier, James A., 184. 

Vermande, John, 887. 

Vigo, Francis, 65, 84. 

Vincennes. 42. 58, 59. 63, 78, 83, 100, 160. 

Vincennes University, 98. 

Virginia, 59, 71, 81," 82, 99. 

Virginia System of County Government, 160. 

Vistula Avenue, 132. 

Vistula Eoad, 234. 

Voelkers, Jerrv. 866. 

Vogt, Ed F., ■ 1059. 

Volunteer Aid Association, 717. 

Von Barandy, Oscar. 531. 

Vosburgh, Grove, 963. 

Wabash and Erie Canal, 21. 

Wabash Eailroad, 239. 280, 281. 

Wabash Eiver, 10, 21." 41, 42, 126, 135. 

Wade. Alfred B., 724. 

Wagner, .John C, 572. 

Wair, Harry, 527. 

Waldorf, Benjamin F., 186. 

Walker. John. 317. 

Walkerton, 291, 316. 

Walkerton Cemetery, Soldiers in. 735. 

Walkerton Independent, 317. 

Walkerton Visitor, 317. 

Wall, Benjamin, 438. 

Walsh. Thomas E.. 671. 691, 710. 

Walter, John U., 1115. 

Walters, Newton W., 1052. 

Ward. Andrew J., 184. 

Ward, ^\ilbert. 363, 460, 513. 

Wards, First Three of South Bend. 366. 

War of 1812, 102, 731. 

War of 1812. Soldiers of. 715. 

Warner, William S., 798. 

Warren, David G., 907. 

Warren Township, 282. 

Warwick, 301, 311. 

Warwick County, 104. 

Washington Block, 437. 

Washington County, 104. 

Washington, George, 81, 83, 86. 

Washington Hall, 635. 

Washingtonian Movement. The, 709. 

Washington Township, 274. 

Waterfield, A. A., 865. 

Water Power, of St. Joseph Eiver, 229. 

Waterways, 9; Ancient, 11. 

Water Works Bonds, South Bend, 373. 

Water Works, Trustees, 375. 

Watkins, Adam K., 1081. 

Wayne, Anthony, 38, 75, 86, 155. 

Wa.^Tie Countv,'95, 100, 104. 

Weiaer, Peter", 373. 

Webster, Aaron A., 184. 

Wednesday Club, 460. 

Weidler, Charles, 1148. 

Weidler, Valentine, 1116. 

Weir, Morgan H., 197. 

Weiser, William A., 546. 

Weldv, Abraham, 1122. 

Weld'v, John, 1122. 

Weldy, Joseph W., 1122. 

Wells", Flowing, 6. 

Wenger's Creek, 14, 288. 

Wenger, Aaron, 910. 

WeriA-inski. Joseph A., 776. 

West, Albert W., 466. 

West, Scott, 184. 

Westlake, Samuel B., 821. 

West Troy. 316; Burk's Addition, 316. 

Westbury, David A., 785. 

Western Eeserve, 74. 

Western State, The, v9. 

Western Union Telegraph Company, 243. 

Westminster Presbvterian Church, 417. 

Wharton, David F.", 1045. 

Wharton, James G., 1046. 

Wharton Lake, 19, 277. 

Wheeler, Alfred, 182, 467. 

Whipping, 92, 97, 98. 

White Beaver, 25. 

White, Daniel A., 187, 215. 

White, James, 323. 

White Hall, 216. 

Whiteman, George N., 593. 

Whitmer, Elmer J., 1075. 

Whitmore, Charles, 881. 

Whitmore, Mary J., 881. 

Whitten, William M., 17, 186, 217, 223, 264, 266, 

360, 3 70, 387. 
Wickham, William A., 535. 
Wilcox. Benjamin. 372, 416, 449. 
Wilklow, George H., 1148. 
Willett, John T., 829. 
Williams, B. E., 1157. 
Williams, James C. 187. 
Williams, J. E., 782. 
Williams, W. Oliver. 826. 
Williamson, X. D., 417. 
Williamsport, 308. 
Williard, Amos, 800. 
Wills. Emanuel E., 185, 777. 
Wilson, Abraham, 357. 
Wilson, James, 81. 



Windsor Hotel, 439. 

Winkler, Bros. Manufacturing Co., 408. 

Winkler, F. C, 408. 571. 

Witter, Harry, 1110. 

Witter, Majtin M., 1060. 

Woltman, Casimir, 879. 

W. C. T. U., 710. 

Woman's Literary Club, 459. 

Women's Belief Corps. 463. 

Wommer, John M., 935. 

Wood, Aaron, 110. 

Wood, Edward J., 202. 

Wood. William Field, 550. 

Wood, William F.. 561. 

Woodland, 290, 311. 

Woodmen of the World, 463. 

Woodward, Del M., 1029. 

Woodward. Don J., 197. 

Woodward, Jerry E., 887. 

Woolman, Granville, 298. 9!:2. 

Woolverton, Jacob, 412, 493. 

Woolverton Lake, 283. 

Worden, James, 98. 

Worden, Joseph, 373, 408. 

Worster, Henry B., 1095. 

Worth Literary Club, 461. 

Wright, John K., 185. 

Wright, William B., 863. 
Wyandots, 42. 
Wyant, William T., 591, 
Wyatt, 290, 311. 
Wyckoff, James W., 1058. 
Wyman, George, 393, 431, 
Wythe, George, 61. 


Yates, Abraham, 78. 
Yellow Eiver, 12. 
Yenn, Simon, 185, 792. 
Yerrick, Benjamin F., 853. 
Yerrick, Harry L., 787. 
Yoder, Elmer E., 1035. 
Young Hoosier No. 4. 378. 
Y. M. C. A., 425. 
Y. W. C. A., 393, 430. 

Zahm, John A., 648. 

Zeiger, John, 1118. 

Zeitler, Edward A., 1072. 

Zeitler, John V., 1072. 

Zell, Adam, 880. 

Zeltner, John, 817. 

Zigler, John W., 185, 349. 

Zigler, Joseph G., 1112. 

Zion Evangelical Church. 424. 

Zubowicz, Anthony, 422,' 573. 


A list of the principal authorities relied 
on in the preparation of this History : 

Constitution of the United States; Acts 
of Congress; United States Supreme Court 

Constitution of Indiana, 1816 and 1851 ; 
Acts of the Legislature, Revised Statutes, 
1831, 1838, 1843, 1852 and 1881, Gavin & 
Hord's, Davis' and Burns'; Indiana Supreme 
Court Reports. 

Laws and Ordinances of Virginia and of 
the Northwest Territory. 

Indiana Geological Reports; Geological Pa- 
pers by Dr. Hugh T. Montgomery, Prof. S. 
S. Gorby, Prof. Willis S. Blatchley and Prof. 
Maurice Thompson. 

Bancroft's History of the United States; 
McMaster's History of the United States. 

Dillon's History of Indiana; Dunn's His- 
tory of Indiana; Smith's History of Indiana. 

English's Conquest of the Nortlwest; 
Cauthorn 's History of Vincennes ; Parkman 's 
Discovery of the Great West; Poole's His- 
tory of the West; Shea's Discovery and Ex- 
ploration of the Mississippi Valley. 

Hennepin 's Description de la Louisiiane ; 
Drake's American Indians; Beadle's Unde- 
veloped West. 

Dyer's Modern Europe; Winsor & Chan- 
ning's America; Landon's Constitutional 
History and Government of the United 
States; Hart's Formation of the Union. 

Chapman's History of St. Joseph County; 
Higgins Belden's Historical Atlas of St. Jo- 
seph County; Parish's Art Work of South 
Bend and Vicinity; Packard's History of 
La Porte County; Daniels' History of La 
Porte County; Cowles' History of Berrien 
County, Michigan ; Brice 's History of Fort 
Wayne; King's History of Ohio; IMontague's 
History of Randolph County, Illinois; 
Nevin's Black Robes; Irving 's Astoria; Me- 
moirs of Elkhart and St. Joseph Counties; 
Indiana Legislative and State Manual; Per- 
kins' Annals of the West; Roosevelt's Win- 
ning of the West. 

Baker's St. Joseph-Kankakee Portage; 
Bartlett's Tales of Kankakee Land: Bart- 
lett & Lyon's La Salle in the Valley of the 

St. Joseph; Charlevoix' Travels in North 
America; Thompson's Stories of Indiana; 
McDonald's Menominee; Campbell's Report 
on the Drainage of the Kankakee; Farmer's 
Map of the Territory of Michigan. 

Records of: The Board of Commissioners 
of St. Joseph County; the St. Joseph Cir- 
cuit Court; the St. Joseph Probate Court; 
the St. Joseph Court of Common Pleas; the 
County Recorder's Office; the Boards of 
Trustees and Common Councils of South 
Bend and Mishawaka, and the Annual Pub- 
lications of both cities. 

Historical Papers by David R. Deeper, 
Richard H. Lyon, George A. Baker, Charles 
Albert McDonald, Miss Ethel Montgomery, 
Mrs. Esse B. Dakin, Charles Arthur Carlisle, 
Ernest P. Bicknell, Jacob P. Dunn. Daniel 
McDonald, Miller Guy, Arthur Joseph Stace. 

Reminiscences of Daniel Greene, Hugh V. 
Compton, Mrs. Marion B. Van Pelt, Thomas 
S. Stanfield, Jasse Haines. Lucius Hubbard, 
Mrs. R. J. Pidge, Granville Woolman, Wil- 
liam D. Bulla, John Stull. 

Bartlett's Dictionary of Americanisms; 
The Century Cyclopedia of Names. 

Dunn's Father Gibault; Hodgin's Nam- 
ing of Indiana; Dunn's Hoosier; Nicholson's 
Hoosiers; Finley's Hoosier 's Nest; Philothea. 

Newspapers, periodicals and other similar 
publications: The Northwestern Pioneer: 
The St. Joseph Beacon ; The St. Joseph Val- 
ley Register; The South Bend Times; The 
South Bend Tribune; The South Bend Sun- 
day News; The New Carlisle Gazette; The 
Indianapolis Journal; The Indianapolis 
News ; The Indianapolis Sentinel ; the Indian- 
apolis Star; The New York Catholic Review; 
The Christian Advocate; The Baltimore Mir- 
ror; The Chicago Herald: The Chicago Trib- 
une ; The Cassopolis Democrat ; The Waterloo 
Press; The Indianian ; Douahue's Maga- 
zine; Turner's Gazetteer of the St. Jo.seph 
Valley; Turner's Annuals and Directories; 
South Bend City Directories; Intercollegiate 
Law Journal; The Notre Dame Scholastic; 
The Notre Dame Silver Jubilee; The Notre 
Dame Golden Jubilee; Alerding's Diocese of 
Fort Wayne ; A Stoiy of Fifty Years ; The 
Brothers of the Holy Cross. 

//■' N 

1 iiE 

' HE 



K.l ^V 

K.l E 


Jl.l w. 

K.2 E. 

i:.:J E 

U.4 E. 

R.2 E. 

11.3 E. 

11.4 E. 


® School Houses 
- Wagon Roads 
-^^^^— Hail RoacLs 
^BB>M^ Township Bovmdaries 





St. Joseph County, Indiana, is the middle 
county of the northernmost tier of counties 
of the state. To the east, in order, are the 
counties of Ellvhart, LaGrange and Steuben ; 
to the west, those of LaPorte, Porter and 
Lake. On the south are the counties of 
Marshall and Starke ; and on the north is 
Berrien county, in the state of Michigan. The 
northern part of the county is in the valley 
of the St. Joseph, and the southern part in 
the valley of the Kankakee. From a tiny 
lake on the summit between the two valleys, 
and within the corporate limits of the city of 
South Bend, by a little stream known as Mc- 
Cartney's Creek, the waters flow to the north- 
Ward and into the St. Joseph River, and so 
finally reach the Gulf of St. Lawrence. From 
a point a little to the south of the same Sum- 
mit Lake, sometimes called LaSalle Lake, and 
also Stanfield Lake, the waters flow to the 
southward and form the source of the Kanka- 
kee river, and so, by the Illinois and the 
Mississippi, reach the Gulf of Mexico. Before 
reaching South Bend, the St. Joseph also 
flows in a southwesterly direction through 
Michigan and Indiana. At South Bend the 
river turns abruptly north, and flows thence 
into Lake Michigan. 


In a learned and exceedingly interesting 
paper read before the Northern Indiana His- 
torical Society,^ Dr. Hugh T. Montgomery of 
South Bend shows very clearly, from an exam- 
ination of the geological formations extending 
from Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay, follow- 
ing the valleys of the St. Joseph and Kanka- 
kee, that those two great valleys were orig- 
inally one ; and that, at a remote period, the 
watei*s of Saginaw Bay flowed through south- 
western Michigan and northwestern Indiana, 
reaching the Mississippi by way of the Illinois 
River. The broad flood plain marked out in 
geological ages, and through which flowed the 
mighty stream, called by Dr. Montgomery the 
Great Kankakee, may still be traced over the 
whole region from Saginaw Bay to the Mis- 
sissippi, passing through the heart of St. 
Joseph county. 


With the exception of the river bottoms and 

certain high and rolling ground in, places 

along the St. Joseph and the Kankakee, the 

general surface of St. Joseph county, like that 

of the adjacent parts of Indiana and Michi- 

a. "The Glacial Phenomenon as exhibited in 
Northern Indiana and Southern Michigan." 



gan, consists of level or prairie lands ; the av- 
erage elevation in St. Joseph county being 
about 875 feet above the sea. The soil, which is 
exceedingly fertile, is composed chiefly of 
sand or gravel, clay and loam, with some 
muck in the Kankakee bottoms. The geo- 
logical formation is glacial drift, which here 
lies about two hundred feet in thickness over 
the bed rock. 

This formation, and its origin, are well 
described by Prof. S. S. Gorby, in the state 
geological report for the year 1886. The 
northern half of Indiana, he says, consists of 
a generally level plain, broken slightly by oc- 
casional long, low and broad ridges that form 
the di^ades between the various water courses. 
Almost the whole of this region is covered 
by vast accumulations of transported mate- 
rial, consisting of sand, gravel, bowlders and 
clay. The general term applied to this ac- 
cimiulated material is "drift," a term which 
well indicates its origin. Large volumes of 
flowing water, and immense masses of slowly 
moving ice, ar.e recognized as the agents that 
transported and deposited these vast accumu- 
lations of drift. The uninterimpted flow of 
great volumes of water, and the continued 
movement of immense masses of ice through 
long periods of time, resulted in the wearing 
away of large portions of the original rocks. 
In some locations the erosions have amounted 
to hundreds of feet. Whatever elevations had 
previously occurred in the northern part of 
the state were leveled by advancing glaciers 
and flowing waters, and the sites of ancient 
hills and mountains are now covered by 
accumulations of the glacial period. 


In the same volume of geological reports 
the gifted Maurice Thompson has given us a 
fascinating story of the glacial deposits of 
northern Indiana. From his account we eon- 
dense the following statement, indicating the 
forces that brought about the present condi- 
tion of the surface and soils of St. Joseph 

county, and showing the origin of our 
streams, lakes and underground waters. 

It has been clearly demonstrated, says Mr. 
Thompson, that ice in the form of a glacier, 
no matter how rigid it may appear, has a 
current similar to that of water. In other 
words, ice will form a solid stream, so to 
speak, which will slowly but steadily creep 
down an inclined plane, and if this ice-stream 
be very deep, so as to give it great weight, 
it will overthrow, grind up and bear away 
whatever obstacle opposes it. Glaciers are 
formed by the accumulation of snow, which, 
by pressure and crystalization, is turned into 
ice. Thus, wherever the snowfall in winter is 
greater than can be melted in summer, the 
snow grows deeper year by year until at 
length by its own weight, and by partial sur- 
face melting, it is compressed into a sheet of 
ice enormously thick. Now if the surface 
upon which this sheet rests is inclined, the 
ice flows and we have a glacier. In the Alps 
there are glaciers from five hundred to over 
six hundred feet in vertical depth, slowly 
flowing down the mountain sides. But it does 
not require steep mountain slopes for the 
making of glaciers; a comparatively gentle 
inclination of the surface of the ground is 
sufficient if the ice be thick enough and other 
conditions be favorable to motion. The gen- 
eral form of a glacier is that of a wedge, 
the edge resting on the lowest point of the 
surface occupied and the thick end resting 
on the highest point of the same. Of course 
the motion of a glacial stream A^nll be in some 
proportion to the slope of this surface, but 
the thickness of the great end of the wedge 
must have much to do with the force of the 

It is well to bear in mind that the ice of 
glaciers is not identical with ice frozen under 
ordinary circumstances, nor is the one equiv- 
alent to the other. Snow compressed into 
a mass of glacier ice is not perfectly crystal- 
line and solid, but peculiarly laminated and 
porous in its texture, capable of absorbing 
at times a great quantity of water through- 


out its body, thus admitting of expansion by 
the very force of congelation. ]\Ioreover, the 
smallest movement of this sort repeated, at 
comparatively long intervals, during count- 
less centuries, would thrust a body of ice, 
no matter how thick, over a long surface dis- 
tance. Long and careful study of the phe- 
nomena of existing glaciers has rasulted in 
establishing not only the flowing motion of 
ice, but many of the effects produced thereby, 
one of the most notable being the moraine 
matter brought down to the glacier's ter- 
minus, or collected along its sides. These 
masses of moraine matter consist of worn and 
striated fragments of stone, of all sizes, from 
giant bowlders down to tiny pebbles and in- 
finitesimal grains of sand, together with 
earthy matter of great variety. A body of 
this character collected at the foot of a glacier 
is called a terminal moraine ; if at the glacier 's 
side it is called a lateral moraine. 

A striking and easily recognized feature of 
moraine bowlders and pebbles, of whatever 
size, is the peculiar surface-planing caused 
by the glacier having dragged or pushed 
them over other stone surfaces, or the like. 
These ground and scratched faces, once seen 
and fixed in the memory, serve to identify 
glacier stones wherever found, whether the 
stones be bowlders, pebbles or rocks in places 
over which the glacier has passed. Indeed, 
the floor upon which an ice-river has flowed 
is always engraved with the unmistakable 
sign manual of the glacier — fine striae paral- 
lel with the direction of the current. The 
movement of a glacier may, and often does, 
load the ice-surface with stones, dust and 
other detritus, either by ploughing under the 
same, or by receiving them as they fall from 
the slopes on the side. 

At the close of what geologists call the 
Tertiary age, there came a great change in 
the earth 's atmospheric temperature, by which 
a large part of the northern hemisphere was 
subjected to a frigidity quite as great, per- 
haps, as that which now exists in the arctic 
regions. This polar condition crept on slowly 

until at length the desolation of almost un- 
broken snow and ice reigned supreme. Whax 
length of time was required to bring about 
this climatic change can only be conjectured. 
Enough evidence appears, however, to make 
it quite certain that a sub-tropical tempera- 
ture, and a faima and flora supported there- 
by, were banished from our hemisphere, while 
a boreal winter set its grip of ice upon every- 
thing. Snow accumulated year by year, and 
centuiy by century, until its own weight 
compressed the mass into glaciers of scarcely 
imaginable thickness and area, and beside 
which the ice-fields of Greenland are insig- 
nificant. As the winter grew colder and 
colder, the summer grew feebler, and there is 
plenty of evidence showing that a boreal 
fauna and flora crept far southward to usurp 
the places of those animals and plants that 
had formerly flourished in a balmy air and a 
wami, kind soil. 

Throughout the drift area the physical fea- 
tures vary but little. Above the striated floor- 
rocks, the worn and peculiarly flattened bowl- 
ders and pebbles, the heaps and ridges of sand 
and gravel, and the vast mass of bluish clay, 
or till, accompany the glacial matter and 
make almost the whole of its bulk. In Amer- 
ica the drift lies over a vast irregular area, 
as yet very indefinitely outlined in the north, 
but pretty accurately defined along the south- 
ern boundary. From the highlands of Can- 
ada an enormous glacier, or rather series of 
glaciers, descended into the region south of 
the Great Lakes, overwhelming with moraine 
matter a large part of the United States, 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific. An exam- 
ination of this drift or moraine matter shows 
it to consist, in a large degree, of silicious 
debris, brought from a region of granite, 
gneiss, greenstone, quartzite and various other 
metamorphic or igneous rocks quite foreign 
to the area covered by tlie mass. Nor is it 
difficult to see, in a general way, that mucli 
of this matter has been transported from the 
Canadian highlands, where the granitic and 
other crvstalline rocks are found in place, 



their surfaces torn, worn and shattered by 
the glacial action. 

The mass of matter, very appropriately 
named Glacial Drift, which is probably the 
most important, and certainly the least under- 
stood geological feature of Indiana, is in the 
form of an irregular wedge, its thick end 
to the north, its edge, or thin end, to the 
south. Of course this description is of the 
most general nature, but we must bear in 
mind the peculiar shape and position of the 
mass in order to have a ready understanding 
of its particular features. Taking this vast 
wedge of matter, then, and beginning our 
examination in the neighborhood of its south- 
ern limit, or edge, we find it more or less 
obscurely outlined and its constituent parts 
passing by insensible gradations into the clays 
formed of decomposed rocks. Proceeding 
northward, mere superficial observation dis- 
covers that the drift mass grows thicker and 
an occasional bowlder is seen, while here and 
there a bed of smooth gravel appears along 
with deposits of sand. Upon examination the 
bowlders prove to be rounded, scoured and 
scratched blocks of granite, gneiss, green- 
stone and other igneous or metamorphic rocks, 
and the pebbles of the gravel are simply 
minute bowlders of the same materials. The 
sand, when carefully studied, appears to be 
composed mostly of particles of quartz, feld- 
spar, mica and other silicious crystals, evi- 
dently the result of a grinding up of igneous 

Bluish or smoky gray colored clay is next 
discovered and at once becomes the chief com- 
ponent of the drift mass, growing thicker, 
step by step, as we go northward, save where 
water and other agents have thinned or re- 
moved it. Another very notable fact is the 
increase in the number of bowlders apace 
with our progress toward the northern end 
of the wedge. This gray-blue clay, or bowl- 
der till, is a mass of pulverized rock some- 
times quite appreciably calcareous, but often 
almost wholly silicious, as if it were a grist of 
granite rocks ground between some monstrous 

upper and nether millstone and poured out 
upon the surface of our state. From middle 
Indiana northward ridges and hills of gravel 
and sand, and vast accumulations of bowlders, 
appear at irregular intervals. Sand, heaped 
in hillocks and eccentric waves, covers a large 
area in the northern ciuarter of the state. 
Under all this, however, lies the bowlder till, 
or blue-gray clay, Avhich grows thicker grad- 
ually, in a general way, as we approach the 
northern limit. 

Nearly all the principal valleys of Indiana 
lie so that their water-flow is from northeast 
to southwest, and are trenches cut by some 
agency, not only through the drift mass, but 
often through parts of the underlying paleo- 
zoic rocks as well. Leading into these vallevs 
from all directions smaller streams cut the 
land surface into irregular areas, and expose 
very interesting sections of the drift mass. 
Along most of the water courses, large and 
small, the glacial materials have been assorted 
at certain points and re-arranged in terraces 
of stratified sand, gravel and water-worn frag- 
ments of stone. In the northern part of the 
state, especially between Lake Michigan and 
the southern limits of the Kankakee and Yel- 
low River valleys, the bowlder clay has a large 
number of deep basins filled with water, form- 
ing beautiful little lakes. 

Wherever streams of water have worn deep 
channels into the drift, and wherever w^ells 
have been sunk into or through the same, 
there have been disclosed marked peculiari- 
ties of deposition. In cutting through the 
bowlder clay, which is usually a most solid 
and refractory substance, strata or intercal- 
ated beds of gravel and sand are found, not 
in persistent sheets but usually lenticular, 
that is, double convex lens form, or in some 
other eccentric form of deposition, curiously 
gripped in the surrounding clay. Some of 
these sand and gravel masses would seem of 
great extent, however, serving as vast sponges 
to hold the water caught between the beds of 
imper\nous clay. All through the drift mass 
bowlders of every size, from tons in weight 


to pebbles of the size of a pea, are found, hav- 
ing worn faces whose striae are usually par- 
allel to their longer axes. In many places 
the deposits are curiously curved and other- 
wise contorted, a condition which shows very 
plainly wherever the clay, gravel and sand 
are stratified to some extent. Bowlder clay 
is quite variable in the relative proportion 
of its constituents. While many sections show 
homogeneous gray or bluish clay, with only 
here and there pebbles and bowlders, other 
sections disclose almost every degree of mix- 
ture between pure clay, obscurely stratified 
gravel beds and so-called bowlder dykes. The 
farther we go north in Indiana, speaking with 
reference to a general average, the greater 
becomes the admixture of bowlders, pebbles 
and angular fragments of rock in the clay, 
especially toward its surface, and the more 
extended become the intercalated strata of 
sand and gravel ; while, at the same time, 
the number of basins containing water in- 
creases, both at the surface and within the 
mass. The drift appears in places to be parted 
by a stratum, or strata, of ancient soil, in 
which are found vegetable remains more or 
less preserved, consisting of tree-trunks, 
branches and roots, belonging to what have 
been large forest trees. 

One striking feature of the superficial de- 
posits of the drift is the situation of the 
cleanest gravel on the north side of the hills 
and ridges. In fact, it is a rule, with com- 
paratively few exceptions, that a section 
dra^\'n north and south through a drift hill 
will disclose the coarse gravel and bowlders 
heaped in a more or less w^edge-shaped mass 
against the north or northeastern side of the 
elevation, the rest of which will be sand and 
clay. Furthermore, beginning with the north- 
most line of the section, the coarsest part of 
the gravel will come first, and its pebbles 
will grow finer as you pass southward across 
the cutting until it becomes sand, and you 
find the clay against which it lies. Of couree 
this is not always the case, and many modifi- 
cations of the rule will be discovered, owing 

to recent or comparatively recent erosions and 
other disturbances ; but every observer will 
admit the larger fact to be the rule itself. 
Even where conical hills or knobs of gravel 
are found, as is often the case, standing quite 
isolated on our level table lands, a section 
of each will a-enerallv show a gradation in 
the gravel, the pebbles diminishing in size 
along a line from north to south, or from 
northeast to southwest, the south side passing 
into sand. 

Between practically horizontal sheets of the 
bowlder clay of Indiana, basins or under- 
ground lakes of fresh water exist in many 
places, and when tapped by borings the water 
will often flow as an artesian fountain above 
the surface. This well-known feature is the 
best proof of the impermeable nature of the 
clay, and is of peculiar interest in connection 
with a study of the manner in which our 
drift has been deposited. These underground 
pockets of water are, as a i*ule, similar in 
every way to the smaU deep lakes that dot 
the surface of northern Indiana, save that 
the subterranean basins have been filled with 
sand and gravel in which the water is held, 
as in a sponge. Cross sections of the terraces 
along our rivers show a simple enough re- 
arrangement of drift materials caused by the 
action of the water, as the streams gradually 
decreased in volume, subsequent to the with- 
drawal of the glaciers, while the loess, bluff 
or lacustral deposits indicate the bottoms of 
comparatively recent fresh water lakes over 
a large area of our state. 

The cuttings of the old Louisville and New 
Albany railroad, from New Albany on the 
Ohio river to Michigan City on Lake Michi- 
gan, give a key to many of the most inter- 
esting problems connected with the drift. As 
we follow this line from the southern to the 
northern border of the state, we may note 
how, from a fringe of doubtful glacial debris, 
the mass of superimposed materials thickens 
over the rocks in place, until at length the 
excavations no longer reach deep enough to 
sever the bowlder clay. It requires no prae- 


ticed eye to recognize the flat, monotonous consistently with, and, so to speak, parallel 
billows of the glacial table-lands as soon as with the great glacial movements, 
they are reached. The whole country, from In the study of the surface and subtev- 
within thirty miles of the Ohio river to the raneous waters of the drift, the following 
valley of the Kankakee, presents the appear- facts are readily noted: 
ance of having been heaved into long low 1st. Springs of water rising vertically, or 
waves ; but erosion, in fact, and not upheaval, practically so, from drift deposits usually 
has formed this rolling surface, and each bil- come from a great depth, and are more or 
low is found to be simply a barrier of drift less impregnated with the salts of iron and 
between two drainage beds. Another feature other mineral impurities, 
of the drift is not easily observable, save by 2nd. Flowing wells whose waters come 
the use of the level or the barometer. It is from natural reservoirs in the drift clay are 
a series of waves or swells of the surface, usually strongly impregnated with iron which 
made on a grand scale, and running, in a oxidizes upon exposure to the an*, 
general way, east and west without any ap- 3rd. Wells bored or dug in the drift, and 
parent reference to the valleys of erosion, whose Avater does not rise in the bore, are, as 
These waves or swells are due to what may a rule, comparatively free from iron and other 
be called forward or backward steps of the mineral impurities, but may occasionally con- 
glacier or glaciers during the vacillations of tain impurities of a vegetable origin, 
climate between the beginning and the end In connection with these facts, it has been 
of the ice period. observed that, in certain localities, gas gen- 
erated by decomposing vegetable matter has 
V. LAKES AND SUBTERRANEOUS WATERS. ^ceu met with in the drift. This, indeed, 

As already stated, lenticular beds of sand Avould be expected where forests lie moulder- 

and gravel, strata of ancient soil and pockets ing in the grip of the clay. But the sudden 

or subterranean basins of water, are found exit of this gas when reached by a bore shows 

hermetically sealed up in the body of the how impervious, even to the subtilest element, 

blue bowlder clay of the drift. These fea- is the bowlder clay. So when water gushes 

tures have puzzled the minds of geologists not with great force out of a bore we know that 

a little, and by some they have been con- the liquid has been safely sealed in the clay 

sidered inexplicable in connection with the reservoir. 

glacial theory. At first glance it would seem The question has been asked, how can it 
quite impossible to account for a stratum of be that a glacier, or any number of successive 
soft black muck and loam found intercalated glaciers, could have formed in the body of its 
between thick beds of drift clay, especially deposits these pouches of water, these strata 
when this soil contains roots, branches and of soil and vegetable matter, and these lens- 
even trunks of trees showing little evidence of shaped intermediate pockets of sand and 
any crushing or grinding force such as we gravel? The most usual, and withal, the most 
must look for in connection with the glacial plausible answer is the general one which ac- 
action. This soil and muck, deep buried counts for these features of the drift by as- 
under a vast mass of the clay, .and resting on suming that there have been many advances 
another mass equally thick, cannot be the and retreats of the great ice-flood over the 
result of a mere accident, but must be due area of our glacial deposits, and that the sort- 
to some law. So, with regard to the beds ing action of water, the glacial movements and 
of sand and gravel and the subterranean lakes their attending accidents, have given the grand 
of the drift; they owe their origin to per- mass its peculiarity of composition. Such in- 
fectly explicable and normal forces acting tense and prolonged cold as would attend the 


formation of ice thick enough to fill the con- 
ditions of the great glacial problem, would 
freeze the crust of the earth to the solidity of 
adamant many feet deep. We are not left to 
mere reasoning or conjecture in this. In 
many northern regions the earth is now 
frozen to a great and unknown depth. It 
could not be otherwise. If thirty or forty 
days of weather with the temj)erature vary- 
ing between the freezing point and ten de- 
grees below zero will solidify the ground to 
a depth of two feet, as is often the case now 
in our state, how deep would continuous 
boreal winter for many centuries solidify it? 
When the glacial period began in Indiana, 
no tertiary deposits had been laid down upon 
our carboniferous rocks, for there is no good 
evidence of the tertiary formations here. The 
fauna of the carboniferoiLs seas consisted of 
marine forms, and in a large degree the 
genera were those having a very deep water 
habitat. As the sea became shallow, at length 
the marine life disappeared. At the begin- 
ning of the ice age, there must have existed 
in Indiana the broken remnants, so to speak, 
of the carboniferous sea— a sea at that time 
full of sandy, desolate islands, upon which, 
in places, a scant vegetation may have begun 
to appear. Far northward, the mountains of 
Canada were already covered with snow, and 
year by year a boreal temperature was creep- 
ing southward, on account of a far with- 
drawal of the deep seas and great changes 
in their climate-controlling currents. It is 
not probable that those Canadian mountains 
were very high ; indeed, they must have been 
low enough to be finally overwhelmed by the 
awful iaccumulations of snow and ice north of 
them, for it is plain that the great glacier 
flowed over them instead of simply running 
down their sides. It is impossible to deter- 
mine how often the ice has flowed over and 
retreated from the area now covered by the 
drift, but there is the best evidence that the 
alterations have been many, and between a 
great extreme of cold on the one hand and 
a sub-arctic temperature on the other. In other 

words, while the frigidity during glacial 
action was incalculably powerful, the inter- 
vals of recession were, as a rule, far from 
tropical, as we now understand the word. 

Let us try to get a view of the surface con- 
dition of our drift area after the withdrawal 
of the first great glacial agent. The high- 
lands of Canada have been largely demol- 
ished, the basins of the lakes have been 
scooped out of the paleozoic rocks and are 
filled with solid masses of ice covered over 
with glacial debris, and the surface of north- 
ern Indiana is covered with an immense drift 
deposit. We have said that the great lake 
basins were left full of solid ice, when the 
glacier had retreated far northward, and that 
the surface of this ice was covered with a coat- 
ing of drift material. The same statement is 
applicable to innumerable small basins left 
in the glacial clay, just such basins, in fact, as 
the retreat of the last glacier left filled with 
ice and covered with sand, gravel and bowl- 
ders, and which latter basins are now the beau- 
tiful little lakes of northern Indiana. But 
how, if these basins were solidly filled with 
ice, did they come to be covered with a layer 
of sand, gravel and bowlders? The question 
is easily answered. As the foot of the great 
glacier receded northward a constant flow of 
water was caused by its melting, the washing 
force of which carried forward fine sand and 
gravel, and also icebergs loaded with morainic 
matter, all of which was distributed over the 
surface upon which the water flowed. It is 
apparent, from the very nature of things, that 
a vast deep basin, in the frozen crust of the 
earth, filled with a solid lump of ice, would 
be very slow to melt, and that the glacier 
overlying it w^ould retreat on the line of the 
basin's rim and leave a great toAver of ice, in 
the form of a cone, marking the site. This 
cone would melt down to the basin's level 
and then the currents from the still retreating 
glacier would flow across it, depositing its 
sand, gravel, bowlders and rock fragments. 
Then we have the following conditions : The 
crust of the earth is frozen to a profound 


depth below the ice which fills the lake basins, 
while upon the ice is deposited a thick mass 
of drift material, transported there by water 
and icebergs. One instantly sees how great a 
time it would require to melt a vast cake of 
ice under such conditions. Indeed, before 
this melting was accomplished the glacier re- 
turned and flowed over the whole area again. 
But the very circumstances which caused a 
return of the glacier necessarily operated to 
re-congeal such parts of the drift as had been 
thawed, so that the surface over which the 
second glacier flowed was rendered as hard 
as were the paleozoic rocks upon whose sur- 
face it first cut its lasting autograph. This 
mass of sand, gravel and bowlder-clay, frozen 
to adamantine solidity, must have been a very 
refractory substance for a glacier to grind 
down. Indeed, the second glacier had a more 
stubborn material to overcome than had the 
first. So we can readily see how each retreat 
of the glacier left deep basins full of ice in 
the surface of the drift, and how each return 
of the glacier buried these basins of ice deep 
under another mass of clay. Hence, all 
through the grand body of our glacial de- 
posits, we find the hermetically sealed pockets 
of water which represent the imprisoned ice- 
cakes now melted in the buried basins. The 
lenticular beds of sand and strata of soil and 
muck are to be accounted for upon the same 
grounds. When the time between the retreat 
and the return of the glacier was long enough, 
vegetation was generated upon favored areas 
of the drift, and a soil was formed which, if 
on low places, w^as covered up when again the 
glacier appeared. 

In order to illustrate the theory above set 
forth, let us take Lake ]\Iaxinkuckee as an 
example and suppose that there should come 
a return of the great glacier from the direc- 
tion of the northeast. We nnist remember 
that before this could happen a long period 
of intense cold would have to prepare the way 
by freezing solid all the lakes and rivers and 
the earth's crust to a great depth. Maxin- 
kuckee would be congealed from surface to 

bottom, and the great glacier, creeping down 
from its source, and scraping and ploughing 
the granite-like, frozen surface of the ground, 
would bury the beautiful little lake deep 
under a mighty mass of moraine clay, sand, 
gra\'el and bowlders, where it would remain 
unmelted until the temperature of the sur- 
rounding earth rose above freezing point, 
when it would slowly turn to water and be- 
come, not an underground lake, but, by the 
processes of pressure and solution, a subter- 
raneous mass of so-called water-bearing clay 
or water sands. 

Evidently there were long spaces of time 
in the glacial age during which the ice neither 
advanced nor retreated, but was held in ar- 
rest. No doubt when an advance followed 
such a pause the glacier overrode its hard 
frozen terminal moraine, and in this way left 
large masses of trees and other matter buried 
in an uncrushed state, for at every step we 
must constantly bear in mind the arctic inten- 
sity of the cold during these periods of accu- 
mulation. The immense volume of sand 
which is thrown out of our lakes, even the 
smaller ones, is proof of the fact that, during 
the time they were frozen solid, their surface 
was covered with a coat of drift which sank 
when the ice melted. 

But the question arises : Why are the 
waters of flowing wells and deep springs, that 
have their reservoirs in the drift, nearly al- 
ways impregnated wdth salts of iron or other 
mineral impurities, while the waters of wells 
that do not flow are usually comparatively 
pure ? The answer must be that flowing wells 
and springs presuppose, in a general way, that 
their reservoirs are fed from the surface by 
filtration through permeable parts of the 
drift, and that the water takes up the iron 
and other minerals from the material through 
which it passes, w^hile the water in wells that 
are unflowing is not furnished from the sur- 
face, or any higher strata of sand and gravel, 
but really is water from imprisoned ice melted 
in the body of the drift clay. Of course not 
all flowing wells are iron water, nor impreg- 


nated to a great degree with other minerals ; 
but that is the rule. The fact suggests itself, 
in this connection, that all the porous beds of 
sand and gravel, intercalated between masses 
of the drift clay, were probably full of water, 
in a frozen state, when they were buried. It 
must not be understood, however, that this 
explanation is sufficient to compass all the 
conditions under which water is found in the 
drift, but it does seem quite applicable to 
many special problems in that connection 
which heretofore have not been solved satis- 


The foregoing account, showing the prob- 
able origin of our lakes and underground 
waters, as also of the solid ingredients of the 
drift upon which we are located, is applicable 
not only to St. Joseph county but also to the 
greater part of northern Indiana. To Dr. 
Montgomery's very able paper, already re- 
ferred to, we are indebted for the following 
review of the action of the last glacier, re- 
sulting in the existing moraines, hills, rivers 
and valleys going to make up the present sur- 
face of St. Joseph county. 

During the earlier part of the quater- 
nary geological period, as Dr. ]\Iontgom- 
ery tells us, the crust of the earth was 
subject to varied and wide-spread oscillations, 
elevations and depressions. Elevations were 
most marked in higher latitudes, and on our 
own continent through the north central part, 
comprising Labrador, the Canadas and the 
great lake region. These oscillations were 
attended w^ith great changes in climate, the 
elevated regions being subject to extreme cold. 
The territories immediately north of us were 
elevated from two to three thousand feet, and 
from continued snowfall during a long period 
of time became covered with ice to a depth of 
from tive to ten thousand feet. This frozen 
mass was known as the great Continental ice- 
sheet, and extended south near Cincinnati to a 
point a few miles below the Ohio river. From 
this point the lower border of the ice-sheet 

took a northeasterly and northwesterly course. 
The cause of the great glacial epoch is not 
fully understood. But we know that even in 
our own day, the surface of the earth, in 
places, is subject to slow but constant changes 
in elevation and depression; and it is clear 
that the elevation referred to Avas in itself 
a strong factor in the production of a severer 
climate. This climatic condition was favor- 
able to continued snows which lasted through 
long ages. The short summer suns had little 
effect in dissipating the snows, but was suf- 
ficient to reduce the vast snow-field to glacial 
ice. As the mass began to pile up to thou- 
sands of feet in thickness, the known glacial 
movements began and the great ice flow 
started southward. The ice mass being of 
great Aveight, and frozen solidly to the sur- 
face upon which it rested in its slow motion 
onward, carried or dragged everything mov- 
able with it, and scoured, grooved and polished 
every surface over which it passed, leveling 
and pushing forward all loose material found 
in its pathway. The great creases or channels 
in the surface rock produced by stream ero- 
sion were partly obliterated by glacial erosion 
and partly filled up by glacial rubbish. As 
the ice-sheet approached and passed into the 
great lakes its lower margin became lobated 
and each lobe took a course largely in the di- 
rection of the lake valleys, but as these lobes 
emerged they began to coalesce, forming 
again an almost unbroken front, pushing on- 
ward to the south loaded with bowlders, 
gravel, sand and clay. As the ice-sheet moved 
on it approached a warmer climate until the 
loss by melting at the south equalled the pro- 
duction from the north and caused the ice 
border to remain stationaiy for unknown 
years. From this line the ice yielded up its 
waters which rolled onward to the sea through 
the great central waterway, the Mississippi. 

Under the weight of the ice, thousands of 
feet in thickness and extending over a wide 
territory, or from some other cause, the crust 
of the earth began to settle, and a depression 
from twelve to fifteen hundred feet below 



our present level was reached. This is known 
as the Champlain epoch. As a consequence 
a milder climate prevailed and the ice with- 
drew to the north, leaving its load of earthy 
material strewn over the surface. The reces- 
sion was slow and interrupted, and at times 
stationary, the glacier laying down moraine 
ridges and broken ranges of hills, until 
finally the ice border lay north of the great 
lakes. The melting of this receding mountain 
of ice produced great floods and mighty 
streams. In our region the waters were car- 
ried to the south by four great channels, the 
Ohio, the Wabash, the Kankakee and the Des- 
plaines. Any of these streams was larger 
than the Mississippi of today. The flood 
plain of the Mississippi itself was then formed 
as we now find it, thirty miles in breadth. 

The time which elapsed after the surface 
was laid down by the withdrawal of the first 
ice-sheet, is measured by so long a period of 
aerial and aqueous erosion that hills and 
ridges were leveled and the lakes filled with 
sediment and vegetation. During this Cham- 
plain epoch, or period of depression, the 
surface abounded in shallow pools, swamps 
and lagoons. Drainage was slow and inter- 
rupted, with a general inclination to a level- 
ing of the surface. The great gorges and 
stream channels that had been eroded during 
the period of elevation were filled with river 
drift. Forests again covered the uplands and 
peat bogs filled the depressions, all again to 
be crushed, ground and scraped from the sur- 
face by the last ice advance. 


Sec. 1. — Three Great Ice Lobes. — We now 
come to the culmination of the phj^sical ener- 
gies which gave us the present surface con- 
tour of St. Joseph county. The conditions 
necessary to produce a humid atmosphere and 
great snowfalls were again present. Over the 
regions north of the great lakes the mass of 
snow and ice began again to accumulate until 
it reached thousands of feet in thickness, and 
from its own weight began to move as a te- 

nacious, semi-liquid mass. As it approached 
and entered the great lake basins its onward 
movement was directed largely by the trend 
or direction of their basins. The Maumee or 
Erie lobe took a west southwest course. The 
lobe passing through the Huron basin made 
its exit in part from the southwest margin 
through that part of the basin known as Sagi- 
naw Bay. The lobe that entered the Lake 
Michigan basin passed almost directly south. 
When we speak of the direction of the several 
lobes we refer to their axes, as the ice move- 
ment in those great basins was forward and 
to either side, radiating in an advance direc- 
tion from a common center. The Saginaw 
lobe was a long wedge-shaped mass, hemmed 
in on the west by the mighty Michigan lobe 
and on the east receiving the full force of 
the Mamnee or Erie mass. A part of the 
Saginaw lobe passed out at the foot of the 
basin and commingled its ice and load of 
earth and bowlders with the Erie lobe. From 
this fact we find drift material from Lake 
Superior and the northern Huron regions, 
such as drift copper and porphyry conglomer- 
ate, scattered over Indiana and Ohio. This 
may also account for the very heavy deposit 
of drift over the northeastern counties of In- 
diana, Avhere it attains a depth in places of 
from four to five hundred feet. 

These ice tongues or lobes, after emerging 
from their basins maintained their lobate 
characteristics, yet were united one with an- 
other. The most southerly line reached by 
the ice during this last movement was com- 
paratively but a few miles below the great 
lakes, where it remained for a long period. 
The ice advancing with its load of earthy 
refuse from the north melted away as rapidly 
as it advanced to this line and laid down its 
burden of accumulated material, forming 
great ranges of hills or moraines, both termi- 
nal and lateral, definitely marking the outline 
of each glacial lobe. After the summers be- 
gan again to predominate over the winters 
the ice gradually withdrew to the north and 
disappeared from this local it v. North of the 



terminal moraine marking the farthest ad- 
vance of the iee-sheet will be found almost 
all of our small inland lakes, the distinguish- 
ing mark of beauty of this locality. The 
former lakes which once dotted the older 
glaciated surface had long before been carried 
away by erosion or filled up with silt. Before 
the coming of this last ice the surface soil of 
Indiana was composed of clay and fine sand, 
with lime, slate and sandstone pebbles; no 
granite bowlders or pebbles at that time were 
present. It was entirely through the agency 
of the last ice-sheet that they were carried 
from the north and spread over this locality. 
The Maumee or Erie ice lobe advanced 
from the Lake Erie basin in a southwesterly 
course, and the border of the lobe entered 
Indiana at the northeast corner of Elkhart 
county and took a westerly course through 
the northerly part of Elkhart and St. Joseph 
counties to a point about five miles west of 
South Bend Avhere it began to angle to the 
south through the western part of the county 
and continued along the Avestern borders of 
Marshall and Fulton counties and on to the 
Wabash river at Logansport. The withdrawal 
of the ice-sheet from this line and the deposit- 
ing of its earthy and stony contents mark 
the age of the lofty range of hills lying south 
of Mishawaka and South Bend. To the west, 
the Lake Michigan lobe filled its basin and ex- 
tended east from thirty to forty miles beyond 
the present shore line, where it curved south- 
west around the southeast corner of the lake. 
It overlapped the northwest corner of St. Jo- 
seph county and approached near to the city 
limits of South Bend. The highlands along 
the north bank of the Kankakee valley, Port- 
age Prairie and the uplands west of the city 
of Niles mark the eastern or southeastern 
border of the Michigan ice lobe. The Saginaw 
glacier advanced from the Huron basin, 
pushed south between the Michigan and 
Maumee or Erie glaciers and reached a point 
one mile northeast of South Bend, its moraine 
commencing about one mile east of Notre Dame 
and a little south, forming the range of hills 

beginning at that point and extending in a 
general northeasterly direction, passing near 
Dowagiac, Decatur and Lawton, Michigan, 
and terminating west and north of Saginaw 
Bay. This range of hills marks the western 
and part of the southern terminal moraine 
of the Saginaw glacier, its eastern arm and 
part of its southern arm having been eroded 
and washed away by the great Kankakee 
river. From this outline of the glacial bor- 
ders, it will be noticed that the city of South 
Bend is located where three great ice lobes 
met, the Maiunee or Erie, the Saginaw and 
the Michigan. These great lobes here marked 
their existence by massive accumulations, 
forming rugged and permanent ranges of 
hills and uplands which fix the contour of the 
landscape in St. Joseph county perhaps for- 

Sec. 2. — The Ancient Waterways. — This 
brings us to the ancient waterways of our 
county. The melting of the vast fields of ice 
brought on great floods and torrential 
streams. South Bend and St. Joseph county 
being peculiarly located as to the three 
glaciers, were also peculiarly located as to 
ancient streams. Where the busy city now 
lies nestling in a beautiful valley, partly sur- 
rounded by hills, a wonderful river once flow- 
ed, a stream three miles wide and one hun- 
dred feet or more in depth, moving from east 
to west. From the north also a great tribu- 
tary, whose mouth was three miles wide, 
emptied its waters into the main stream with- 
in the present limits of the city of South 
Bend. If a man could have stood upon the 
hilLs of Rum Village, just south of the city, a 
vast panorama of water would have met his 
gaze. To the northeast, a flood from five to 
six miles in width and extending up the val- 
ley as far as the eye could reach, would have 
been seen, passing at his feet and rolling on- 
ward to the southwest, confined only by the 
hills on the north and on the south. To the 
northwest, he would perceive a tributary 
stream entering the great flood, three miles in 
width and limited in the line of vision onlj^ 



by the horizon. And if a man today should 
stand on the same hills of Rum Village, or on 
those to the south of the city of Mishawaka, or 
upon Lowell Heights, or upon any other high- 
lands on either side of the great valley, he 
could still see the broad bed, miles in width, 
through which the ancient river once flowed. 
The great stream was the Kankakee of that 
day, which had its origin at the foot of the 
Saginaw glacier and received its tributaries 
from the Maumee and the Michigan glaciers. 
The great Kankakee was the outlet for the 
waters flowing southwest from Lake Huron, 
through Saginaw Bay. We know that this 
valley served as a waterway during the with- 
drawal of the first ice-sheet from the fact that 
its channel was silted up like all other valleys 
during the Champlain epoch, or age of de- 
pression. It was never re-excavated to any 
extent, and remains today a filled valley. It 
is probable that the Kankakee valley also 
carried the waters flowing from the northeast 
during the advance of the last glacier; but, 
soon after the withdrawal of this ice-sheet 
began, the waters found an outlet into Lake 
Michigan, leaving the Kankakee valley at the 
point where South Bend now stands, and pass- 
ing to the lake through the large tributary 
already referred to. The old valley of tlie 
great Kankakee extends from a point in Illi- 
nois where the present Kankakee and the 
Desplaines unite, northeasterly through Illi- 
nois, Indiana and Michigan to the watershed 
between the streams flowing into Saginaw 
Bay and the headwaters of the present St. 
Joseph river. The St. Joseph now flows south- 
westerly through this old Kankakee channel to 
South Bend, and there turns abruptly north 
and reaches Lake Michigan at the city of St. 
Joseph. The valley of the Kankakee was the 
chief outlet to Lake Huron during glacial 
times, as the Wabash valley was Lake Erie. 
The flood plain, where once flowed this mighty 
Kankakee, varies in width from three miles 
at its narrowest point, which is one mile below 
South Bend, to about twenty at its broadest, 
which is between Porter and Lake counties 

on the north and Newton and Jasper on the 
south. The southeasterly bank of the valley, 
from about six miles below South Bend to its 
source, near Saginaw Bay, is from fifty to 
one hunded feet high, while the northwesterly 
bank, from South Bend to the same point, is 
generally low and shelving. From South 
Bend down the valley to the Illinois line, 
that is, from the point where the great 
stream emerged, between the Maumee and 
Michigan moraines, to its confluence with the 
Desplaines, the banks are low, generally not 
exceeding fifteen or twenty feet in height. 
On the southeasterly side of the old channel 
will be found quite an extensive sandy flood 
plain, extending from the border of the 
Maumee moraine southwestward. covering al- 
most the entire surface of Starke county to- 
gether with the northern part of Pulaski, 
Jasper and Newton counties. On the north 
the main channel largely borders on the 
Michigan moraines. 

The great width of the stream from South 
Bend to the eastern part of Illinois was ow- 
ing to three causes : 

First. The surface of the country through 
which this part of the stream flowed was des- 
titute of rugged features. 

Second. The stream, just beyond the pres- 
ent Illinois line, crossed the arched bed rock 
which extends in a northwesterly course across 
Indiana into Illinois. Near the present site 
of Momence, Illinois, this rocky ridge pro- 
duced a well marked rapids, similar to that 
in the Ohio river near Louisville, which 
tended to dam the waters and cause them to 
overflow a wide territory above and causing 
this region to appear today as if a great lake 
had occupied the territory. 

Third. At the present site of South Bend, 
the Dowagiac, a tributary one-third the size 
of the main stream, was added to its volume. 

The principal tributaries of the great Kan- 
kakee were the Elkhart and Yellow rivers, 
draining from the Maumee glacier, also the 
Tippecanoe at the point where it enters the 
southeast corner of Starke countv: besides, 



the stream here called the great Dowagiac, 
now represented by the Dowagiac creek, 
which heads south of Kalamazoo, but whose 
ancient waters probably accumulated far 
north of that point, gathering from the slope 
of the eastern lateral moraine of the Michi- 
gan glacial lobe. Those waters formed a 
mighty glacial river, flowing south to a point 
three miles north of Niles, Michigan, where 
it received a tributary which had opened a 
way through the lateral Michigan moraine 
and discharged its waters from the Michigan 
basin before these waters had found an open- 
ing to the south between the Michigan ice- 
lobe and its moraine. The great Dowagiac, 
after receiving these overflow waters from 
the Lake ^Michigan basin, continued south 
and emptied into the Kankakee at the pres- 
ent site of the city of South Bend. 

The old channel of the Dowagiac where 
that stream emptied into the Kankakee is 
three miles wide, with well defined banks 
rising from fifty to seventy-five feet above 
tb(^ l)ed of the valley, which had been cut to 
bed rock and silted up about one hundred 
and twenty feet, leaving the above mentioned 
banks vet remaininR-. These great streams, 
the Kankakee and the Dowagiac, existed for 
long periods of time. They conveyed the 
glacial waters during the advance of the ice- 
sheet, also during the period that it stood 
at its most advanced point and during its 
withdrawal, until the Michigan ice-lobe had 
sufficiently receded to allow the waters along 
its eastern border to escape through the Des- 
plaines opening. This escape by the Des- 
plaines promoted a rapid lowering of the 
watei*s between the ice-lobe and its lateral 
moraine and terminated the flow of waters 
from the Michigan basin into the Dowagiac 
river, leaving a broad, water-worn plain lead- 
ing from the Dowagiac river back northwest- 
erly to Lake Michigan. 

Sec. 3. — Origin op the St. Joseph River. 
— Here began a system of river robbing, if 
we may call it so. The Dowagiac, at a point 
just below Niles, doubled upon itself at an 

angle of forty-five degrees, followed the aban- 
doned channel of its former tributary and 
discharged its waters into Lake Michigan; 
leaving in turn, a well worn channel from 
three to four miles wide and thirteen miles 
long leading to the great trunk stream, or 
Kankakee, at South Bend. The distance 
from South Bend, the point where the Do- 
wagiac had formerly emptied its waters into 
the great Kankakee, to St. Joseph, IMichigan, 
is thirty-eight miles, with a fafl of one hun- 
dred and forty-one feet. From South Bend 
to Momence, Illinois, the distance is ninety- 
two miles with a fall of ninety-three 
feet. It can be readily understood that 
with the first annual flood a part of the 
waters of the Kankakee would follow the 
abandoned Dowagiac channel, from South 
Bend to Niles, there mingle with the Dowag- 
iac in its new route and pass onward into 
Lake Michigan, at the city of St. Joseph. 
The fall over the new route being three and 
a half times greater than over the old, the 
new channel would rapidly cut through the 
old river deposit, finally taking all the waters 
of the once mighty Kankakee, and leaving 
the valley from South Bend to the Des- 
plaines a geological monument to tell of the 
eternal past. 

A physical force which most likely aided in 
turning the current of the Kankakee into the 
channel of the Dowagiac, and so forming the 
stream known to us as the St. Joseph, re- 
sulted from an ice gorge formed seven miles 
below South Bend, where a point of land jut- 
ting out from the Michigan moraine, and now 
called Crum's Point, extends into the valley 
proper two miles and a half in an almost 
transverse direction. Just below this point 
we find an ancient flood plain two miles wide 
which was supplied with overflow water from 
the basin of Lake Michigan, but which over- 
flow entirely subsided when the waters of the 
lake receded from the rim of this basin. This 
valley, extending to and including the beauti- 
ful Terrc Coupee Prairie, is now drained by 
a small nieandering stream known as Grape- 



vine creek, the remnant of a once mighty 
glacial river. Strong and pronounced evi- 
dences of an ice gorge or dam having formed 
at Crum's Point and extended up the river 
to the mouth of the old Dowagiac at South 
Bend are yet plainly visible from the scouring, 
leveling and erosion of morainic hills on the 
south, and by a chain of lakes and lake beds 
on the north, the latter connected by a gorge 
with the glacial stream aforesaid. Evidences 
of the gorge are also found at the head and 
north of the ice dam, which passed well up 
above the mouth of the Dowagiac, east and 
north of which the Avaters pouring around this 
dam into the Dowagiac valley excavated an in- 
terrupted channel or chain of depressions. 
These depressions are linear, extending from 
southeast to northwest, being from one-fourth 
to three-fourths of a mile long, twenty to 
forty feet deep and from two hundred to 
four hundred yards wide, with sharp and 
well-defined banks. They all show evidences 
of having been filled with water for a long 
period of time. All have become dry except 
the lower two, the Notre Dame lakes, which 
contain from twenty to thirty feet of water 
at present. This channel or chain of depres- 
sions extends from near Mishawaka, north- 
westerly, to a point on the St. Joseph river 
one mile north of South Bend, a distance 
of four miles and a half. When the ice-dam 
gave way the waters abandoned those circuit- 
ous or temporary routes and returned to their 
former channels; only the smaller part, how- 
ever, continuing down the old Kankakee, while 
the larger body moved along the new route 
through the Dowagiac channel to Lake Michi- 
gan. The fall by the latter way being three 
and a half times greater than by the former, 
a channel sufficient to carry the entire body 
of water w^as soon eroded. A bluff twelve 
to fourteen feet high, formed at firat as a 
sandbar from sediment supplied by what is 
now known as the Wenger creek, extended 
in a diagonal direction across the old Kan- 
kakee bed and parallel to the new current 
until it reached the opposite bank, Avhen the 

great Kankakee valley was sealed forever, and 
the upper stream became a distinct river, the 
beautiful St. Joseph as we know it. The sand- 
bar or bluff referred to, and which thus fin- 
ally sealed up the valley of the great Kan- 
kakee, is the shelf or hill extending diagon- 
ally from southeast to northwest, through the 
City of South Bend, on the west side of the 
St. Joseph. Tippecanoe place is built on the 
edge of this bar, which was well known to our 
early settlers as the Bluff. This ridge, while 
originally built up as a sandbar by sediment 
from the creek, was increased in height by 
erosion as the new St. Joseph cut into its 

Long before those great stream changes had 
taken place, the swift current of the Do- 
wagiac had carried down large quantities of 
gravel, and as the gravel-laden waters came 
in contact with the waters of the Kankakee 
the velocity of the former was checked and 
the gravel was laid dow^n on the west bank 
where the current remained the swiftest. 
This gravel bed extends north of the city 
limits of South Bend, down the west bank 
of the St. Joseph, a distance of three or four 
miles, and is about one-half mile in width. 
It forms the eastern slope or border of Port- 
age Prairie. The bed has been sounded in 
a number of places and found to be from 
forty to fifty feet in depth, and all smOoth, 
rounded, water- worn gravel; placing at the 
city's gates an inexhaustible supply of finest 
road gravel. The Dowagiac hurling its great 
volume of water against the current of the 
Kankakee, also had the effect of slowing the 
latter stream and causing it to deposit its 
heavier material ; which we find stored away 
in the form of acres of river gravel at Twin 
Branch, just east of Mishawaka. The east 
side of the Dowagiac near its mouth was 
much more obstructed than the west, and con- 
sequently the gravel and coarser material 
were slowly laid down farther above and 
only the finer material was carried down to 
the mouth, where it was laid down in great 
quantities of sand, forming Lowell Heights. 

/^M"'-, ar,(i rildfln/'' 





If a careful examination is made of the sand 
on these heights, numerous small particles of 
coal will be found, indicating that the Sagi- 
naw glacier had cut deep into the surface 
and uncovered in places the coal fields of 
Michigan and mingled their contents with the 

The great Kankakee river, from its source 
near Saginaw Bay, took a southwesterly 
course to its junction with the Desplaines, 
forming with the latter the Illinois river. 
When the waters left the old channel at the 
point where the city of South Bend now 
stands they took an almost due northerly 
course, thus forming a great bend in the new 
river and giving to the future county seat of 
St. Joseph county its name. Since the for- 
mation of the St. Joseph from the changes 
thus made in the Kankakee and the Do- 
wagiac, the new river has eroded its valleys 
from fifty to sixty feet into the old river de- 
posits, but has not yet reached their base 
level. The Kankakee valley at South Bend, 
where it escapes from between the Maumee 
and Michigan moraines, is narrowed to three 
miles, with high, rugged banks and no flood 
plain. Five miles east and up the valley 
from South Bend, it reaches a width of six 
miles, which width it holds, with slight varia- 
tion, until it arrives at the rim of the Saginaw 
basin. This end of the valley is thoroughly 
drained by the present St. Joseph river. 
There are a few peat bogs and marshes lying 
back from the river where the valley is broad 
and the modern channel well to one side. 
Otherwise the old valley above South Bend 
is one vast level sand-plain. Below South 
Bend, where the old valley remains silted up 
and there is no sufficient modern channel for 
complete drainage, the spring waters escaping 
from beneath the Michigan moraine, on the 
west, and from the foot of the Maumee, on 
the east, and also bubbling up from the bed 
of the old stream itself, as reported by Mr. 
William M. Whitten, when engineer in charge 
of the rock excavations at Momence, have 
caused a vast growth of peat or muck over 


the entire valley proper. Beneath this muck 
bed which extends from six to ten feet in 
depth, is found fine sand and river gravel, 
as shown by excavations made in the con- 
struction of large ditches, twenty to sixty feet 
in width, six to ten feet deep and now ex- 
tending sixty to seventy miles below South 
Bend. Had the stream not changed its course 
at South Bend, but continued down the orig- 
inal valley, eroding a channel or partially 
clearing the old silted valley to a depth of 
from fifty to sixty feet, as the waters have 
done through their new course down the St. 
Joseph, there would have been no "Kanka- 
kee Marsh," and all that part of the valley 
from South Bend to Momence would have 
been a vast sandy plain, covered with timber 
and in general appearance similar to that 
part of the valley above South Bend. 

Through the courtesy of Dr. Montgomery, 
we are enabled to illustrate the foregoing 
geological history with the annexed map pre- 
pared by him, which shows the moraines and 
ancient valleys and rivers, with the result- 
ing configuration of St. Joseph county, In- 
diana, and vicinity. 


From the preceding history of the recent 
geological formations of the surface, the 
general character of the soils, clays, gravels 
and other minerals of the county, as well as 
that of its lakes and underground waters, is 
apparent. There is not an outcrop of primi- 
tive rock in the county, the entire surface, 
as we have seen, being covered with gla- 
cial drift which will probably average two 
himdred feet in depth. The only place in 
the county where this drift has been pierced 
to the underlying stratified rock is at South 
Bend, where in boring for gas and oil a few 
years ago, the drift was found to be one 
hundred and sixty feet thick. This, how- 
ever, was in the valley of the St. Joseph 
river, seven hundred and twenty-five feet 
above tide, or fully one hundred and fifty 
feet lower than the uplands in the south- 



eastern part of the county, which are 875 to 
900 feet above the sea. The levels of the 
more important railway stations in the coun- 
ty show the following altitudes in feet, above 
tide: Osceola, 736; Mishawaka, 700 to 743; 
South Bend, 708 to 726; Notre Dame, 710; 
Warren, 730; Lakeville, 837; Walkerton, 711. 
In seeking- for natural gas and oil at South 
Bend three wells were sunk into the rock. 
The following is the result of the borings of 
one of these wells, as given in the 18th report 
of the state geologist, showing the depth in 
feet of the drift and of the several layers 
of rock at this point, down to the Trenton 
rock: Drift, 160: Sub-carboniferous and 
Devonian, 220; Corniferous, 60; Lower Hei- 
derberg, 40; Niagara, 640; Clinton, 60 ( ?) ; 
Hudson River, 200; Utica shales, 200; Tren- 
ton Limestone, 427. Total depth of well, 
2,027. No gas or oil. 

The drift over about one-half of the county 
is a gravel plain, formed, as we have seen, 
by the outwash from the ice-sheet. In the 
northwestern part of the county the outwash 
is from the Michigan moraine, and the plain 
descends from 800 feet at the border of the 
moraine to 725 at the Kankakee flats. In 
the southwestern part of the county the out- 
wash is westward from the moraine of the 
Maumee lobe, and there is a similar descent 
from the moraine to the Kankakee valley. 
In the northeastern part of the county there 
is an extensive gravel plain along the St. 
Joseph river. The southeastern part of the 
county is occupied by a till, or clay, plain, 
which borders on the Maumee moraine on the 

St. Joseph county contains an area of 
about four hundred and seventy-seven square 
miles, the surface of which is diversified by 
prairies, marshes, oak-openings and rolling 
timber lands. The oak-openings are covered 
with a light sandy soil, excellently suited to 
the raising of small fruits and vegetables. 
The timber lands possess a subsoil of clay, 
covered with a rich dark soil, which yields 
all the cereals in abundance. The prairies, 

both old and young, for the marshes and 
beds of former lakes are but incipient prai- 
ries, have the richest and most productive 
soils, and are unexcelled for the raising of 
all farm produce, except wheat, which winter- 
kills on the lowest grounds. No prairies in 
the world are more beautiful or fertile than 
those of St. Joseph county. The finest and 
largest of these is Terre Coupee, in Olive 
township, over six miles in length, east and 
west, by four or five miles, north and south. 
Others are : Portage Prairie, in German town- 
ship ; Palmer Prairie, in Center township ; 
Siunption Prairie, in Greene township ; ana 
Plarris Prairie, in Harris township. The flood 
valley of the Kankakee is itself a prairie of 
the richest and fairest promise, though as yet 
not fully reclaimed. No more varied, richer 
or more beautiful farm lands exist anywhere 
than in this good county of St. Joseph. 


The lakes of St. Joseph county, as said by 
Prof. Blatchley, in his reporc as state geolo- 
gist for the year 1900. are small in size, and 
most of them rapidly becoming extinct. De- 
posits of marl are found near and under 
many of them : not generally, however, of 
good workable area and thickness. 

Among the most beautiful and noted of our 
lakes are Chain and Bass lakes, in Warren 
township, a few miles west of South Bend. 
The marl beds in and around these lakes 
cover nearly three hundred and fifty acres. 
Their sparkling waters have always been fa- 
vorite resorts for boating and fishing. They 
were dear to the Indian long before the com- 
ing of the white man. Near by, to the east of 
these lakes, at Mount Pleasant, on Portage 
Prairie, stood the historic village of the 
Miamis, famous in story and song, where the 
treaty with LaSalle was made in 1681. 

The Lakes of Notre Dame, already men- 
tioned, lie northwest of and near to the Uni- 
versity, and about two miles northeast of 
South Bend. St. Joseph's, the upper lake, 
has an area of about sixtv-five acres, and a 



niaximuni depth, on the west side, of twenty- 
five feet. The water area of St. Mary's, the 
lower lake, is a little more than thirty acres. 
The two lakes are separated by a stretch of 
low ground containing ten or more acres, in 
the midst of which is a small gravel island 
rising to a level with the uplands surround- 
ing the lakes. In the past the lowland was 
covered with water, and there was but one 
lake, with the island in the middle. There 
is a marl deposit in and about these lakes 
which is of especial interest from the circum- 
stance that it furnished the carbonate of lime 
material for the first, and for more than 
twenty years the only, Portland cement fac- 
tory in Indiana. At St. Mary's lake the 
water deepens abruptly and close to the 
shore. The marl extends back several rods 
from shore. Under both lakes, it is claimed 
that the marl has an average thickness of 
more than thirty feet. 

Clear lake and Mud lake lie on and just 
south of the Michigan-Indiana state line, 
about eight miles northw^est of South Bend, 
the northern two-thirds of Clear lake being 
in Michigan, and the remainder in Warren 
township, this county. . There is no workable 
marl deposit at these lakes. Clear lake fur- 
nishes a typical example of a lake whose 
water area has been encroached upon by de- 
caying vegetation until the lake has become 
almost extinct. In 1880, according to the 
testimony of persons living in the vicinity, 
the entire basin of the lake, eighty acres or 
more, was covered with water to a depth of 
twenty to thirty feet. There was then no 
aquatic vegetation except along the south 
shore. Now the southern half is a vast morass 
of muck and spatterdock, with water nowhere 
more than six inches in depth. The western 
margin for one-third the distance across the 
lake is similarly filled. Many floating islands, 
or moving morasses of muck, rise nearly to 
the surface in other parts of the lake, so 
that its clear water area is but little over 
fifteen acres, and its deepest water only about 
twelve feet. A fine wooded ridge, with a 
gravely margin, rises twenty or more feet 
hiyh along the north half of the east side. 

The banks on the northwest are lower, while 
the southern shores are marshy. Game fish 
is abundant. The high banks of Clear lake 
are the resort of numerous pleasure parties 
m the summer; one of the most enjoyable 
being the annual picnic of the old settlers of 
St. Joseph county, Indiana, and Berrien coun- 
ty, Michigan. 

No one who has not visited a lake like this 
can realize how varied the kind and how 
abundant the individuals of plant life that 
can flourish in water. It is one of the best 
examples at present in Indiana of a dying 
lake, — an incipient marsh. Here one can see 
in actual progress many of those intermediate 
stages and processes which in time change a 
body of fresh water into a body of land. 

The northern edge of the basin of former 
Mud lake lies south of the basin of Clear 
lake about one-third of a mile. Its former 
water area was over three hundred acres and 
its outline very irregular. It has now be- 
come a vast marsh, with not more than Ihirty 
acres of water, and that shallow and occupy- 
ing two or three small isolated areas. The 
vegetation, however, is not nearly so dense or 
so varied as that at Clear lake. 

Goose lake, called also Sousley's lake, lies 
a little over two miles north of the to\\-n of 
North Liberty. It is surrounded by low 
ground, and formerly included what is now 
called Little lake. The total area, including 
marsh and the surface of both lakes, is about 
four hundred acres. Goose lake now has an 
area of forty or fifty acres, and Little lake 
about thirty acres. Goose lake is very shal- 
low. Little lake somewhat deeper. The sur- 
rounding bluffs are generally rather abrupt 
and fifteen to twenty feet high. There is an 
extensive deposit of marl in and about the 
lakes, but it is deeply covered over by muck. 

Ivu{)ers lake is a small body of water, lying 
southeast of North Liberty. It is shallow and 
mostly surrounded by flat marshy land, with 
beds of marl beneath. Other small bodies of 
water are Pleasant lake and Riddle's lake, 
in Union township, south of Lakeville: Whar- 
ton lake and Duck lake, in Greene township; 
find Fish lake, in Warren township. 




See. 1. — First Footprints. — The annals of 
St. Joseph county reach further back into the 
shadowy reahns of romance and tradition 
than do those of any other county in the 
state of Indiana. The landscape of this coun- 
ty was the first in Indiana to be looked upon 
by the eye of the white man, and its soil 
was the first to receive the impression of the 
white man's foot. As in case of many other 
localities in the state, it is not a question alto- 
gether free from doubt as to when civilized 
man first walked over our valleys and uplands 
and gazed upon the sparkling waters of our 
lakes and rivers ; yet, while it must be ad- 
mitted that the evidence is slight, neverthe- 
less it is the opinion of many of the most 
trustworthy authorities that such evidence as 
we have is sufficient to show that in the 
month of May, 1675, Father James Marquette, 
the intrepid Jesuit missionary explorer, dur- 
ing his last illness and a little before his 
death, journeyed up the winding Kankakee 
to a point a little below the limits of the 
present city of South Bend. The tradition 
is that his faithful Indians carried his frail 
bark and guided his feeble footsteps from that 
point along the ancient Portage, to the St. 
Joseph, then the River of the Miamis, upon 
whose crystal waters he floated down to Lake 
Michigan. It seems a benediction for all time 
that this saintly hero should thus, in his 
last hours upon earth, have passed along our 
rivers and walked upon our soil, drinking of 


the sweet waters of our valleys and breathing 
the airs that we breathe. As he moved by 
the well-worn trail across the highlands of 
Portage Prairie he must have looked into the 
valley where the busy city of South Bend 
now flourishes, and over the w^ooded plains 
beyond the St. Joseph where the sun-lit 
towers of Notre Dame and St. Marj^'s appear 
upon the distant landscape. Father Marquette 
represented in himself enterprise, heroism, 
love of God and a love of human kind. Are 
these high attributes, so strikingly manifested 
by our people to-day, the blessed heritage of 
that far off day ? 

Sec. 2. — Routes of Travel. — It was by way 
of the Sault de Ste. Marie (The Falls of St. 
Mary's River) and the straits of Mackinaw 
that the French reached the Northwest from 
Canada. In 1641 the first Canadian envoys 
met the western Indians at the Sault. It was 
not, however, until 1659 that any of the ad- 
venturous fur traders spent a winter on the 
shores of the northern lakes, nor till 1660 
that the devotion of the missionaries, led by 
Father ]\Iesnard, caused the first station to 
be established. Five years later, in 1665, 
Father Claude Allouez built the earliest of 
the lasting habitations of the white men 
among the kindly and hospitable Indians of 
the northern lakes. In 1668, came Fathers 
Claude Dablon and James Marquette and 
founded the mission at the Sault. Two years 
afterwards, in 1670, Nicholas Perrot, as agent 
for Talon, the Intendant of Canada, explored 



Lake j\Iichig-an« as far as Chicago; and in 
1671 formal possession was taken of tlie 
Northwest by French officers in the presence 
of Indians assembled from the surrounding 
regions. In the same year Marquette gath- 
ered a little flock of listeners at Point St. 
Ignace, on the mainland west of Mackinac 
Island. In 1673, two years after the found- 
ing of the mission at St. Ignaee, Marquette, 
with the sanction and active aid of Talon, the 
far-seeing intendant of Canada, began prep- 
arations for his long contemplated exploration 
to the west of Lake Michigan. He wished to 
establish missions for the conversion of the 
Indians living along the borders of the gTeat 
river running to the south, the existence of 
which was reported by the Indians and which 
was believed to flow either into the Gulf of 
Mexico or into the Pacific Ocean. The gov- 
ernment sent Louis Joliet, a merchant of 
Quebec, and five boatmen to accompany him. 
On the 13th of May, 1673, the little band 
of seven left Michilimackinac in two birch 
bark canoes. They proceeded across the head 
of Lake ^Michigan into and through Green 
Bay and thence up the Fox river to an In- 
dian village where Father Allouez had 
preached to the Miami, Mascouten and Kick- 
apoo tribes. From this village they crossed 
the portage to the Wisconsin river, down 
which they floated to the Mississippi, which 
was thus discovered June 17th, 1673.^ 

Another route to the west, which was used 
by the Indians and by the early explorers, 
was from the stations at the head of the 
lakes down by the west shore of Lake ]\Iiehi- 
gan to the Chicago river; thence up that 
river and by the portage to the Illinois river, 
and so down to the Mississippi. A third route 
was along the eastern or western shore of 
Lake ^Michigan to the mouth of the River of 
the Miamis, or St. Joseph, and up that river 
to the portage at South Bend; thence down 

a. For a time known as Lake of the Illinois, 
from the Indians of that name, and also as the 
Lake of the Dauphin, in honor of the heir to the 
French throne. 

b. Perkins' Annals of the West, St. Louis, 1851. 

the Kankakee and Illinois to the Mississippi. 
It is said that there is a southern current 
along the west shore of Lake Michigan and 
a northern current along the east shore ; and, 
consequently, that the voyage down the lake 
and to the west was usually taken by the 
Chicago portage, while the return journey 
from the Illinois country was more often 
taken by the portage of the Kankakee and 
the St. Joseph. 

There was also a route to the west by Lake 
Erie, the Maiunee river and the portage to 
the Wabash, and so on to the Ohio and the 
Mississippi. It is believed LaSalle knew of 
this route in his earlier explorations of the 
west, and that he was the discoverer of the 
Ohio and the Wabash. This :Maumee route 
was, however, for a long time unsafe by rea- 
son of the incursions of the Iroquois from 
TSTew York. The route was afterwards adopted 
as the main highway of civilized commerce to 
the Southwest, the Wabash and Erie Canal 
having been constructed over the old portage. 
The canal fell into disuse only on tlie build- 
ing of our modern railroads. 

After the discovery of the upper Missis- 
sippi by Marquette, in 1673, and his return 
to St. Ignaee, he went again to the Illinois 
Indians, at their urgent solicitation, and es- 
tablished missions among them, where he 
toiled until the failure of his health, in 1675. 
He then started on his I'cturn to the mission 
at St. Ignaee, near the island of Mackinac, 
proceeding, as it is believed, bv the more easy 
and direct way of the Kankakee and St. Jo- 
seph, and so passing through the whole length 
of our county, as already related. After en- 
tering Lake ]\Iichigan on this journey, he went 
along the eastern shore of the lake as far as 
the little river which bears his name ; on the 
banks of which, worn out with his labore, he 
died, May 18, 1675, at the age of thirty-eight 
years. Two years afterwards his affectionate 
Indians came down the lake in a fleet of 
canoes and reverently bore his body to his 
beloved St. Ignaee, where it was finally laid 
to rest, and where a suitable monument was 



erected to his memory on the two hundredth 
anniversary of the discovery of the upper 
Mississippi. The state of Wisconsin has 
caused the statue of Marquette to be placed 
in the Capitol at Washingrton as that of one 
of the great men of the West. 

Sec. 3.— Historical Data. — While, as al- 
ready intimated, the writers on our early his- 
tory are not in agreement on the point, yet 
there is good authority, as there are also 
satisfactory reasons, in support of the per- 
sistent belief that the great discoverer made 
his last journey from the west by the ancient 
route through our own county, so well known 
to his devoted Indian friends, and w^hich had 
been used by Indian and Mound Builder for 
hundreds, perhaps thousands, of years, in 
their annual journeys between the Mississippi 
and the lakes. This is the opinion of the 
eminent historian, John Gilmary Shea, who 
says that on this occasion Marquette "seems 
to have taken the way by the St. Joseph river 
and reached the eastern shore of Lake Michi- 
gan. "« 

Bishop Brute also, who in 1834 became the 
first bishop of Vineennes, says in his writings, 
as quoted by Henry S. Cauthorn, himself an 
honored member of an old Vineennes family, 
that "the St. Joseph portage was used by 
Father Marquette long before LaSalle and 
Hennepin passed through that portage." The 
saintly bishop further says, as also quoted 
in ]\Ir. Cauthorn 's exceedingly interesting his- 
tory of his native city, that, very early in 
their missionary career in the Northwest, 
"Fathers Marquette and Allouez passed 
through that portage on their way to the 
Oubasche country."^ Bishop Brute was a 
native of France ; and it is reasonable to 
believe that during the years while he was 

a. "Discovery and exploration of the Mississ- 
ippi Valley." See also "The St. Joseph-Kankakee 
Portage," by George A. Baker; and "La Salle in 
the Valley of the St. Joseph," by Charles H. 
Bartlett and Richard H. Lyon. And see Cowles' 
Hist. Berrien County, Mich., 1871, p. 27. 

6. Hon. Henry S. Cauthorn, former speaker of 
the Indiana House of Representatives. History 
of the City of Vineennes, p. 63. 

in charge of the diocese of Vineennes he be- 
came w^ell acquainted wdth the old French 
families of the city and the neighboring 
towns, and with their histories and traditions ; 
and that he also familiarized himself with the 
records of the missions, all of which were 
written in his native language. From the his- 
tory of Father Gibault, the friend of George 
Rogers Clark, we know that the missions of 
Kaskaskia. Cahokia and other Illinois settle- 
ments were closely associated with the mission 
at Vineennes. Mr. Cauthorn, as quoted by 
William H. English, tells us that the same 
missionaries often served at Kaskaskia and 
Vineennes; that the church records show 
many intermarriages ; and that there was fre- 
quent intercommunication between the two 
places.* As Marquette w^as himself in charge 
of those Illinois mis.sions during the last years 
of his life, we can well understand that what 
Bishop Brute has told us of the great mis- 
sionary and his journey has in it something 
of the certainty of contemporary history. ]\Ir. 
Cauthorn, former speaker of the Indiana 
house of representatives, who was one of the 
most distinguished sons of the old city, and 
who gave years of devoted study to her early 
histor^^, says that "It is w^eU known that he 
[^Marquette] left the Jesuit mission at Kas- 
kaskia a sick and worn out man in conse- 
quence of his labors and exposure, to return 
to St. Ignace, a few days after Easter, 1675. 
On this, his final trip, he traveled by way of 
the St. Joseph portage."^ These statements 
by Bishop Brute and Heniy S. Cauthorn, who 
had such unequaled opportunities to discover 
the facts of our early French history, are 
entitled to the greatest respect. So also is 
the guarded opinion expressed by John Gil- 
mary Shea. AVith the exception of Francis 
Parkman, if indeed Parkman be an exception, 
there is no historian who, from painstaking 
research, had acquired a more intimate knowl- 
edge of the early history of the northwest, or 

a. William H. English, Conquest of the North- 
west, Vol. 1, pp. 288-292. 

6, Cauthorn Hist. Vineennes, p. 65. 



who was more careful in his statement of 
facts, than Mr. Shea. It seems, then, reason- 
able to conclude that Marquette crossed our 
portage in 1675, and that he was therefore 
the first white man to visit the territory now 
comprising' the county of St. Joseph. 


Sec. 1. — Preparations. — IMarriuette and 
Joliet explored the Mississippi from the 
mouth of the Wisconsin to a point below the 
mouth of the Arkansas ; and then returned 
in their frail canoes, having become satisfied 
that the great river emptied into the gulf of 
Mexico. The report of this achievement fired 
the imagination of the people of all Canada, 
and of France itself. Rene Robert Cavelier, 
Sieur de La Salle, a native of Normandy, had 
emigrated to Canada from France, in 1666. 
In 1669 he set out upon a tour of western 
exploration, in the course of which he is be- 
lieved to have discovered the Ohio river and 
to liave followed its course down below the 
mouth of the Wabash. He now became am- 
bitious to follow in the footsteps of Marquette 
and Joliet and to perfect the discoveries so 
well begun by them. He went to Frontenac, 
then governor-general of Canada, and laid 
before him his plan for the establishment of 
a French empire in the west by connecting 
Canada and the Gulf of Mexico by a series 
of posts and forts from the great lakes down 
to the mouth of the Mississippi. The scheme 
was worthy the mind of a statesman and was 
at once accepted by Frontenac, who advised 
La Salle to proceed to France and obtain for 
his pro.ject the sanction and patronage of 
Louis XIV, then king, and of Colbert, his 
minister of finance and marine. Colbert and 
the king approved La Salle's plan of empire. 
He was made a chevalier and given command 
of the then frontier post of Fort Frontenac. 
This fort, named after the governor-general, 
was situated near the east end of Lake On- 
tario, at the head of the St. Lawrence river, 
on the site of the present city of Kingston. 
A fort had alreadv been built at the locality. 

but had fallen into neglect. It was to be re- 
built by La Salle and made the base of his 
operations. He returned from France in high 
spirits and labored until the close of 1677 in 
the rebuilding and strengthening of the fort. 
He then went to France again and obtained 
additional favors and assistance from the gov- 
ernment. On September loth, 1678, La Salle, 
with his lieutenant, Henry de Tonti, an Ital- 
ian, and thirty men, arrived at Quebec, and 
in a few days proceeded to Fort Frontenac. 
There he was joined by Father Louis Henne- 
pin, who was to become the principal his- 
torian of the proposed expedition, and who 
afterwards, under La Salle's direction, be- 
came an extensive explorer and discoverer 


Sec. 2. — On the Great Lakes. — On No- 
vember 18th, 1678,La Salle embarked in a lit- 
tle vessel, to cross Lake Ontario from Fronte- 
nac to Niagara Falls. This is said to have been 
the first ship that sailed upon this inland sea. 
The winter following and the first part of the 
year 1679 was employed in the fur trade with 
the Indians and in constructing a vessel on 
Niagara river. This vessel was named the 
Griffin and was the first to navigate the upper 
lakes. On the 7th of AugiLst they set sail, 
passed through Lake Erie, by the straits. Lake 
St. Clair and Lake Huron, to ]\Iichilimaek- 
inac, where they arrived on the 27th of tlie 
month. A fort was constructed at this point, 
and La Salle went with the Griffin to Green 
Bay for a load of pelts gathered there for 
him by the Indians. The vassel was sent back 
to Niagara with her precious cargo, and with 
instructions to exchange the furs for supplies 
needed for the expedition. 

While waiting for the return of the Griffin 
La Salle and his party made preparations to 
proceed to the south end of the lake where 
he i)roposed to erect a fort and fix permanent 
headquarters. The canoes were divided into 
two fleets, one of which started ahead under 
La Salle himself, while the other was to follow 
under command of Tonti. The meeting place 
was to be at the mouth of the River of the 



Miamis, afterwards named the St. Joseph. 
Here, after establishing a strong post to se- 
cure the future safety of the enterprise, they 
would await the coming of the Griffin. La 
Salle, coasting the western and southern 
shores of Lake Michigan, arrived at the river 
on November 1, 1679 ; and during that month 
built his fort on a high point between the 
lake and the river, where the city of St. 
Joseph now stands. He nained the post Fort 
Miamis. Tonti, coming by the eastern shore 
of the lake, arrived towards the end of the 

Sec. 3. — The Portage of the St. Joseph. 
— That La Salle should have selected the route 
by the St. Joseph for his first memorable 
expedition to the west, makes it evident that 
this route, and the portage by the Kankakee, 
were, even then, wtII known to the French 
missionaries and explorers. If Marquette, but 
a little more than three years previous, had 
chosen the same route on his last journey 
from the Mississippi, it is not hard to under- 
stand that La Salle should have followed his 
example. The building of the fort, even be- 
fore sailing up the river, is proof of La Salle 's 
confidence in the feasibility of reaching the 
Mississippi in this way. He must have had 
full and accurate knowledge of the St. Joseph 
and the Kankakee and of the portage connect- 
ing them. There can be no doubt that Mar- 
quette, who had a genius for geographical 
investigation and who had passed the last 
years of his life in the missions to the Illinois 
Indians, was familiar with all the routes from 

a. The point where La Salle built his fort at 
the mouth of the St. Joseph river is one of the 
rare historic spots in the United States. This 
point is on the lake bluff, at the junction of a deep 
ravine, seventy or eighty rods southwesterly from 
the present bank of the river. In 1902 the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution marked the place 
with a gneiss boulder set upon a granite foun- 
dation. On a bronze plate, inserted in the face 
of the boulder, is the following legend: "This 
glacial boulder, found in the bed of the Saint 
Joseph river, was erected, in 1902, by the Algon- 
quin Chapter, Daughters-American Revolution, to 
commemorate the landing of Rene Robert Cavelier 
Sieur de La Salle, and building on this point Fort 
Miamis, 1679." 

the lakes to the Mississippi, including this by 
the St. Joseph-Kankakee portage. It was the 
discoveries of jNIarquette that fired the ambi- 
tion of La Salle. The missionary, on his first 
voyage to the west, had piloted the way down 
the Mississippi ; and now, on his last voyage 
from the west, we may well believe, he piloted 
the way up the Illinois and Kankakee, across 
the portage and down the St. Joseph. It is 
not a little remarkable that on this first effort 
to reach the great river La Salle, with his fleet 
of frail canoes, should have crossed from 
j\Iichilimackinac to the west coast of Lake 
Michigan, passed the Green Bay route, which 
]\Iarquette had first followed, passed the Chi- 
cago river route, by which JNIarquette had 
returned from his first trip, should have 
coasted the southern extremity of the lake, 
and even turned north again on the east coast, 
until he reached the mouth of the St. Joseph 
river. He did not take this long trip around 
the lake without cause. If, however, he be- 
lieved there was a southern current on the 
west coast and a northern current on the 
east coast ; and, particularly, if he had in- 
formation that ]\Iarquette 's last and easiest 
journey was by the St. Joseph-Kankakee port- 
age, the reasons for his choice of route are 
perfectly clear. Marquette's fame and his 
pathetic death were fresh in the minds of his 
religious brethren at the northern end of the 
lake; and also in the minds of those Indians 
who had journeyed with him in his last ill- 
ness and those others who had even more 
recently sought out his grave and removed 
the revered body to St. Ignace. All these 
Indians were known to La Salle; and from 
them he certainly knew all the particulars 
concerning the whole history, and particular- 
ly the last journey, of his illustrious prede- 
ceasor. Going up the St. Joseph, therefore, 
we may well conclude. La Salle was but re- 
tracing the route so lately taken down the 
river by Marquette. 

It was on December 3rd, 1679, that the 
eventful voyage up the river was begun by 
La Salle and his party, leaving a small garri- 



son to defend the fort and to await the return 
of the Griffin. The boat, however, did not 
return, nor was it ever heard of again. The 
loss of his ship and supplies was a severe 
blow to the hopes of La Salle, and interfered 
greatly with the success of his plans. But 
he never knew discouragement. The fleet up 
the river consisted of eight canoes, with La 
Salle in command. His lieutenant was Tonti, 
who had served in the French army, where 
he had lost one of his hands. He was a son 
of the distinguished financier who gave his 
name to the tontine system of life insurance. 
Father Louis Hennepin was also with the 
party, as likewise were Fathers Gabriel de la 
Ribourde and Zenobe Membre. As guide La 
Salle had brought with him a Mohegan 
Indian named Nika, or the White Beaver, a 
most faithful follower. There were about 
thirty men in addition.* 



The beautiful St. Joseph, as we know it, was 
called by La Salle the river of the Miamis, 
from the great Indian tribe which then occu- 
pied its banks. The party expected to reach 
the portage from this river to the The-a-ki-ki 
(from theak, a wolf), a name insensibly 

a. "The St. Joseph-Kankakee Portage," the 
valuable paper already referred to, read before 
the Northern Indiana Historical Society by its 
secretary, George A. Baker. 

changed to Kankakee. This portage was 
known to be seventy or seventy -five miles from 
the mouth of the river of the Miamis; but it 
was passed without discovery by the fleet of 
canoes. The Mohegan guide had left the 
boats to hunt for game along the banks; 
and without his aid it was not easy to discover 
the old passageway up the high banks under 
the trees, particularly when covered with new 
fallen snow. The point where the trail starts 
from the river is at a sharp bend of the stream 
to the west, about two miles below the present 
limits of the city of South Bend and within 
the boundaries of River View Cemetery. 

In Parkman's "Discovery of the Great 
West," the missing of the portage and the 
incidents which resulted from that accident 
are referred to as follows: "When they ap- 
proached the site of the present village of 
South Bend, they looked anxiously along the 
shore on their right to find the portage or 
path leading to the headquarters of the Illi- 
nois. The Mohegan was absent, luuiting, and, 
unaided by his practiced eye, they passed the 
path without seeing it. La Salle landed to 
search the woods. Hours passed, and he did 
not return. Hennepin and Tonti grew un- 
easy, disembarked, bivouacked, ordered guns 
to be fired, and sent out men to scout the 
country. Night came, but not their lost 
leader. Muffled in their blankets and pow- 
dered by the thick falling snow-flakes, they 
sat ruefully speculating as to what had be- 
fallen him; nor was it until four o'clock of 
the next afternoon that they saw him ap- 
proaching along the margin of the river. His 
face and hands were besmirched with charcoal ; 
and he was further decorated with two opos- 
sums, which hung from his belt, and which he 
had killed with a stick as they were swinging 
head downwards from the bough of a tree, 
after the fashion of that singular animal. He 
had missed his way in the forest, and had been 
forced to make a wide circuit around the 
edge of a swamp, while the snow, of which 
the air was full, added to his perplexities. 
Thus he pushed on through the rest of the 



day and the greater part of the night, till 
about two o'clock in the morning he reached 
the river again and fired his gun as a signal 
to his party. Hearing no answering shot, he 
pursued his way along the bank, when he pres- 
ently saw the gleam of a fire among the dense 
thickets close at hand. Not doubting that he 
had found the bivouac of his party, he 
hastened to the spot. To his surprise no 
human being w^as to be seen. Under a tree 
beside the fire was a heap of dry grass im- 
pressed with the form of a man who must 
have fled but a moment before, for his couch 
was still warm. ... La Salle called 
out in several Indian languages; but there 
was dead silence all around. He then, with 
admirable coolness, took possession of the 
quarters he had found, shouting to their in- 
visible proprietor that he was about to sleep 
in his bed ; piled a barricade of bushes around 
the spot, rekindled the dying fire, w^armed his 
benumbed hands, stretched himself on the 
dried grass and slept undisturbed till morn- 


Father Louis Hennepin has left us a detailed 
account of this interesting incident, as also 
some observations on the journey up the St. 
Joseph, across* the portage and down the Kan- 
kakee*: "We embarked," says his narrative, 
"on the 3rd of December with thirty men in 
eight canoes and ascended the river of the 
Miamis, taking our course to the southeast 
for about twenty-five leagues.^ We could not 
make out the portage which we were to take 
with our canoes and all our equipage in order 
to go and embark at the source of the river, 
The-a-ki-ki,'' and as we had gone higher up in 
a canoe without discovering the place where we 

a. "Description de la Louisiane." Translation 
by Dr. John Gilmary Shea. 

h. The French league was about three miles. 
Charlevoix estimates the distance from the mouth 
of the river to Fort St. Joseph, near Niles, at 
twenty leagues, sixty miles, which is very nearly 
correct; making the distance by the river from 
South Bend to Lake Michigan between seventy 
and seventy-five miles. 

c. The Kankakee, which, together with the 
Illinois, was called by La Salle the Seignelay, in 
honor of the son of the great Colbert. 

were to march by land to take the other river 
which runs by the Illinois, we halted to wait 
for the Sieur de La Salle, who had gone ex- 
ploring on land, and as he did not return we 
did not know what course to pursue. I begged 
two of our most alert men to penetrate into 
the woods and fire off their guns, so as to 
give him notice of the spot where we were 
waiting for him. Two others ascended the 
river, but to no purpose, for the night obliged 
them to retrace their steps. The next day I 
took two of our men in a lightened canoe, 
to make greater expedition, and to seek him 
by ascending the river, but in vain; and at 
four o'clock in the afternoon we perceived 
him at a distance; his hands and face all 
black wdth the coals and wood that he had 
lighted during the night, which was cold. He 
had two animals'^ of the size of muskrats 
hanging to his belt, which had a very beauti- 
ful skin, like a kind of ermine, which he killed 
with blow^s of a stick without these little ani- 
mals taking flight, and which often let them- 
selves hang by the tail from branches of trees ; 
and as they were very fat our canoe men 
feasted on them. He told us that the marshes 
that he met with obliged him to make a wide 
sweep, and as moreover he was hindered by 
the snow, which was falling rapidly, he was 
unable to reach the bank of the river before 
two o'clock at night. He fired two gun-shots 
to notify us, and no one having answered 
him, he thought the canoes had gone ahead 
of him, and kept on his way along and up 
the^river. After marching in this way more 
than three hours he saw fire on a mound, 
which he ascended brusquely, and after calling 
two or three times ; but instead of finding us 
asleep, as he expected, he saw only a little 
fire among some brush, and under an oak 
tree the spot where a man had been lying 
down on some dry herbs, and who had appar- 
ently gone off at the noise which he had heard. 
It was some Indian. . . . He called to him 
in two or three languages, and at last, to show 
him that he did not fear him. he cried that he 
a. Opossums. 



was going to sleep in his place. He renewed 
the fire, and. after warming himself well, he 
took steps to guarantee himself against sur- 
prise by cutting down around him a quantity 
of bushes, which, falling across those that re- 
mained standing, blocked the way so that no 
one could approach him without making con- 
siderable noise and awakening him. He then 
extinguished his fire and slept, although it 
snowed all night. Father Gabriel and I 
begged the Sieur de La Salle not to leave his 
party as he had done, showing him that the 
whole success of our voyage depended on his 
presence. Our Indian had remained behind 
to hunt, and not finding us at the portage he 
went higher up and came to tell us that we 
would have to descend the river. All our 
canoes were sent with him, and I remained 
with Sieur de La Salle, w^ho was very much 
fatigued, and as our cabin was composed only 
of flag-mats, it took fire and would have burnt 
us had I not promptly thrown off the mats, 
which served as a door to our little quarters, 
and which was all in flames. We joined our 
party the next day at the portage, where 
Father Gabriel had made several crosses 
(blazes) on the trees that we might recognize 
it. We found there a number of buffalo 
horns and the carcasses of those animals, and 
some canoes that the Indians had made of 
buffalo skin to cross the river with their load 
of meat. This place is situated on the edge 
of a great plain," at the ejftremity of which, 
on the western side, is a village of Miamis, 
Mascoutens and Ouiaton (Weas) gathered to- 
gether.^ The river Seignelay (Kankakee), 
which flows to the Illinois, rises in a plain in 
the midst of much boggy land, over which it 
is not easy to waUc. This river is only a league 
and a half distant from that of the Miamis, 
and thus we transported all our equipage and 
our canoes by a road which we marked for 
the benefit of thase who might come after us, 

a. Portage Prairie. 

b. This village was located on the prairie at 
and about the high ground now known as Mount 
Pleasant. See note on p. 28, following. 

after leaving at. the portage of the Miamis 
river, as well as at the fort which we had 
built at its mouth, letters, which were hung 
on the trees at the pass to serve as a guide to 
them who were to come and join us by the 
barque," to the number of twenty-five. The 
river Seignelay is navigable for canoes to 
within a hundred paces of its source, and it 
increases to such an extent in a short time 
that it is almost as broad and deeper than the 
Marne. It takes its course through vast 
marshes, where it winds about so, though its 
current is pretty strong, that after sailing on 
it for a whole day we sometimes found that 
we had not advanced more than two leagues 
in a straight line. As far as the eye could 
reach nothing was to be seen but marshes full 
of flags and alders. For more than forty 
leagues of the way we could not have found 
a camping ground, except for some hummocks 
of frozen earth upon which we slept and lit 
our fire. "^ 

Sec. 4. — At the Village op the jMlvmis. — 
La Salle continued his voyage down the Kan- 
kakee and Illinois, past the great village on 
the north side of the river, opposite Starved 
Rock, until, on January 4, 1680, he reached 
a point on the Illinois, near the site of the 
present city of Peoria, where on a bluflf or 
rising ground he erected a fort. Owing to 
anxiety for the loss of the Griffin and the des- 
perate straits to which he tliereby' re- 
duced, he named the fort Crevecieur (Broken 
Heart). The winter wore away, and with 
discontent among his followei-s aiul danger 
from the Iroquois of New Yoi'k. who were 
constantly threatening war upon the friendly 
Illinois, La Salle found it necessary to return 
to Canada for additional lu'lp. lie sent 
Father Hennepin with a small \y.\v\y In ex- 
plore the upper Mississippi, placed Toiiti in 
charge of the little garrison of Crevecffiur; 
and, on the first of March, 1680, started on 

a. The barque was the Griffin, for whose safety 
La Salle still had hopes. 

h. See also Thompson's Stories of Tndinna. pp. 



foot on his journey of twelve hundred miles, 
taking with him three companions, including 
the faithful Mohegan. After reaching Can- 
ada he found, as he had expected, everything 
in confusion; the Griffin was lost; his agents 
had cheated him, and his creditors had seized 
upon his goods. But La Salle knew neither 
fear nor despair, and by midsummer he was 
on his way to rejoin the little band on the 
Illinois. His ill fortune, however, was not 
ended. On arriving at his posts he found 
them deserted. The Iroquois had come all 
the way from New York to harass the friendly 
Indians of the prairies; and Tonti and his 
few followers had with difficulty escaped 
north tow^ard the lakes. Bitterly disappointed, 
but Avith hopes not yet extinguished, the he- 
roic La Salle, in January, 1681, was com- 
pelled to return to Fort Miamis, at the mouth 
of the St. Joseph.f^ 

"There was," says Mr. Dunn, in his his- 
tory of Indiana,'' "something almost touch- 
ing the supernatural in the courage and reso- 
lution of La Salle. At that rude fort on the 
bank of the St. Joseph, in the discomforts of 
a severe winter, hundreds of miles from the 
French settlements, his faithful Tonti carried 
captive, killed, or a fugitive, he knew not 
which, his remaining comrades disheartened, 
his colony swept from the face of the earth, 
his credit shattered, his means dissipated by 
disasters of flood and field, this man calmly 
reconstructed his plans and prepared to re- 
new his enterprise on a more extended basis 
than before. He determined to refound his 
colony on the Illinois, and surround it with 
a confederation of the northwestern tribas 
that would be strong enough to repel any 
army the Iroquois could bring against it. His 
first converts were the warriors of a little 
band of Abenakis and Mohegans, driven from 
their New England homes in ihe border wars 
of the English colonists. These refugees had 

a. Perkins' Annals of the West. 

h. "Indiana, A Redemption from Slavery," 
Jacob P. Dunn, Jr., Sec'y Indiana Historical So- 
ciety, pp. 26-28. 

found no resting place till they reached the 
clear Avaters of the St. Joseph. They gladly 
allied themselves to the white chief who prom- 
ised to interpose the strong arm of the French 
king for their protection. Scarcely were they 
won when a Shawnee chief, from a village on 
the Ohio, appeared and asked protection from 
the Iroquois. La Salle with easy confidence 
promised what was asked: 'The Chaonan- 
ous^' are too distant ; but let them come to me 
at the Illinois and they shall be safe.' The 
chief promised to join him in the succeeding 
autumn, and kept his word. 

' ' As soon as the weather began to moderate 
La Salle started west on foot, wdth twenty 
men, to seek communication with the Illinois, 
who were necessary factors in his plan. The 
first Indians found were some Outagamies, 
from whom he received the glad tidings that 
Tonti was safe with the Pottawatomies near 
Green Bay. Soon after they found a band 
of Illinois, to whom La Salle, after making 
presents and lamenting their misfortunes, 
submitted his plan. They heard him with sat- 
isfaction, and departed to carry the proposal 
to the remainder of the tribe. Membre says 
that La Salle visited other tribes at this time, 
but he does not name them. His journey was 
not long, for early in the spring he was at 
Fort Miamis, and, taking with him ten men, 
went from there up the river to the Miamis, 
at the village above the portage.^ It was a 
propitious season for approaching them. In 
the late conflict they had remained neutral, 
but they were now beginning to realize that 
the intentions of the Iroquois towards them 
were none of the best. They had murdered a 
band of Miamis the preceding summer, and 
not only had refused to make reparation, but 
also had stationed parties of warriors in the 

a. The Shawnees. 

h. This great Village of the Miamis was located 
at and about Mount Pleasant, west of the site of 
South Bend. The territory covered, as near as 
can be determined, extended along the St. Joseph 
about two miles, from the Portage to Mosquito 
Glen, and west to Chain Lakes and the confines of 
the Kankakee. The visit of La Salle was made in 
May, 1681. 



Miami country, who assumed the air of con- 
querors and held up to contempt the power of 
the French. La Salle found one of these bands 
of Iroquois at the village. He at once con- 
fronted them, threatened them with punish- 
ment for their attack on Tonti, and chal- 
lenged them to repeat in his presence their 
insults to the French. The Iroquois had not 
forgotten the former commander of Fort 
Frontenac, and in his presence their courage 
oozed away. During the following night, 
much to the astonishment of the Miamis, they 
stealthily left the village. With so much of 
prestige, and by the aid of a band of refugee 
Indians from the east who were wintering at 
the point and who at once made alliance with 
La Salle, the JNIiamis were easily won. On the 
second day after the flight of the Iroquois 
they declared their determination to become 
brothers of the Illinois and children of the 
French king, and celebrated the new order of 
things with feasting and dances." 

The scene of this treaty with the Miamis, in 
their famous village at Mount Pleasant on 
Portage Prairie, one of the most important 
events in the history of St. Joseph county, is 
thus graphically described in "La Salle in 
the Valley of the St. Joseph," by Charles H. 
Bartlett and Richard H. Lyon : 

"To check the Iroquois and to provide for 
the common defense of the native inhabitants, 
La Salle sought to form a coalition of all the 
western tribes and to move the principal 
bands to the vicinity of Starved Rock,« on the 
Illinois river. He had matured such a plan 
while spending the winter at his stronghold. 
Fort Miamis, at the mouth of our St. Joseph 
river. He had retreated to this place for safety 
after having witnessed the desolation of the 
Illinois town. He found the various tribes 
favorable to such a plan of defense against 
the enemy from the east; but its permanent 
success could not be assured until he had won 

a. "Fort St. Louis was located on what was 
then called Le Rocher, now Starved Rock, on the 
south side of the Illinois river, opposite the town 
of Utica." Dunn's History of Indiana, p. 32. 

the powerful Miamis to the support of the 
cause. The Iroquois, however, were subtle 
enough to discover what was going on and, 
anticipating the movements of the French, 
they laid siege to the hearts of the JNIiamis 
with such success as to strongly incline them 
toward the English. At this critical moment, 
La Salle, with ten companions, visited the 
town of the Miamis on our Portage Prairie 
and in the Chain Lakes region, and invited 
these Indians to a council. They consented to 
hear what La Salle might have to say. They 
would hold a council at the lodge of their 
head chief on a certain day and when the sun 
stood at a certain height in the heavens. 

"This chief was a very remarkable man. 
Both the Jesuit missionary. Father Dablon, 
and also Nicholas Perrot, the most famous of 
all voyageurs, have left tributes to his mem- 
ory. They represent him a.s kind-hearted and 
gentlemanly and possessing great intellectual 
penetration. So just and wise was he that he 
was held in great esteem, even among other 
tribes more or less hostile to the Miamis, as 
was shown in the delegations which such tribes 
were constantly sending to consult this wilder- 
ness law-giver concerning their own affairs. 
Father Dablon says that he was a savage only 
in name. Yet this priest was probably the 
first white man that the chief had seen. When 
the hour for the council arrived some of the 
mats were lifted from the lodge of this head 
chief and the tent poles moved to one side, so 
that the people might see the council and 
might hear the discourse nnd imderstaiid the 
nature of the transactions that were going 
forward. The prominent warriors of Ihe tribe 
were arranged in a semi-circle on either side 
of their great leader, and before them stood 
La Salle with his companions around him. 

"The scene was one well worthy the brush of 
some great artist. The little prairie over whicli 
their glances swept from time to liiiH". .iikI 
through which the portage path Hk'Ii ran. is 
spoken of by the early traveler as a place of 
oreat beauty. Its eastern margin reaches in 



one spot almost to the landing on the St. 
Joseph, where the Frenchmen had drawn 
their canoes out of the water, and after rising 
by gentle swells to the high point where these 
lodges of the Miamis then stood, the plain 
sinks gradually to the west. . . . From 
the elevated spot at the center, the vision 
easily includes many miles along the charm- 
ing valley of the St. Joseph on the east, the 
tract where South Bend now stands. In that 


day, sylvan avenues replaced our streets and 
gigantic forest trees our dwellings, trees that 
stood far apart and lifted their lowermost 
branches thirty to forty feet from the ground. 
Beneath, no undergrowth was allowed to sur- 
vive, but everywhere was spread a soft, thick 
turf, W'hile here and there in the park-like 
vistas could be seen the antlered buck or the 
does with their fa^ois. 

' ' But when those who had assembled for this 
council turned their eyes to the south and the 
west, they beheld the great fens and marshes 
of the Kankakee land sweeping far away with 
the river's onward course to the plains of Illi- 
nois and the Mississippi. Glistening pools 
everywhere dotted this vast area, pools that 
were the homes of countless millions of water- 
fowls. Flocks of plover and snipe swept 
around the borders of the marsh land, while 

the cranes stood in a row in the shallow water, 
or rising on slow and ponderous pinions, tiled 
off in a never varying line toward the sky's 
silver edge. A veritable cloud of ducks and 
geese and swans, coming in from the swift 
cold waters of the St. Joseph, fell into the 
silent pools with splash and clamor and con- 
fusion of buffeting wings. The unaccustomed 
eye of the guest in this Indian encampment 
must have given more than a passing glance 
to this endless whirl of happy life that flut- 
tered over the marshes. But the red skinned 
host fixed his gaze not on the water fowls, not 
on the hundreds of hawks that patrolled the 
vast fields of wild rice, but upon the great war 
eagles that rose on slanting pinions, 'climb- 
ing their airy spirals to the clouds.' Happy 
the Indian whose brave deeds were such that 
his tribe would allow him to fasten to his hair 
the plumes of the war eagle. Each feather is 
an historical record. The first one stands for 
the brave act in which this hero overcame his 
people 's foe at the ford near the portage land- 
ing. The next marks the time when he re- 
pulsed the Kickapoos that lay in the tall 
grasses along the Kankakee to ambush a 
]\Iiami hiuiter. And this third feather stands 
for the victory which he won when the young 
men of his tribe contended with the Ottawas 
on this very prairie in the famous ball play. 
But concerns more important than the birds 
of the air filled the mind of La Salle as he 
turned to meet the glance of those flashing 
eyes that alone gave aniination to the dark 
and rigid features of those men of the wilder- 
ness. One can picture in his fancy the stal- 
wart explorer, with pentrating eye, flowing 
hair and bronzed, stern visage, standing fear- 
less and self-reliant and drawing to himself 
the unflinching gaze of those solemn auditors.. 
La Salle, at the height of his strong manhood, 
was then thirty-seven .years of age and in per- 
fect health. He was of powerful mold, but 
there was nothing of the braggart ; yet, when 
it became necessary, he displayed both his 
physical strength and his mental force. 

Neither affrighted bv 

goblins, nor 



awed by threats, he was, withal, a cultivated 
and refined gentleman, and could shine in the 
palace of a king as well as in this red man's 
wigwam. The listening warriors w^ere quickly 
moved by his eloquence, for La Salle was 
deeply skilled in the forensic arts as they 
held sway at that time in the American 
forest. . . . 

"We are sorry that our ancestors did not 
understand the Indian. We wish that they 
could have understood him as the French did, 
as La Salle did. The latter having won their 
hearts, proceeded to show them at this council 
what great advantages might be theirs, if they 
would stand under the banner of the great 
king, Louis XIV. 'He who is my master,' 
said he, 'and the master of all this country, is 
a mighty chief feared by the whole world ; but 
he loves peace, and the words of his lips are 
for good alone. He is called the King of 
France, and he is the mightiest of the chiefs 
beyond the great water. . . It is his will 
that you should obey his laws, and make no 
war without leave of Onontio,* who com- 
mands in his name at Quebec and who loves 
all the nations alike, because such is the will 
of the great king. You ought, then, to live 
at peace with your neighbors, and above all 
with the Illinois. You have had causes of 
quarrel with them; but their defeat has 
avenged you. Though they are still strong, 
they wish to make peace with you. Be con- 
tent with the glory of having obliged them 
to ask for it. You have an interest in preserv- 
ing them : since, if the Iroquois destroy them, 
they will next destroy you. ijet us all obey 
the great king and live together in peace un- 
der his protection. Be of my mind, and use 
these guns that I hJive given you, not to make 
war, but only to hunt and to defend your- 
selves. ' 

"And now, to confirm his words and to 
supply them with a token of his pledge to be 
their defender, he handed to their chief two 

a. The Indian title for the Governor-General 
of Canada. 

belts of wampum." The chief received the 
tokens. His act was significant, for it showed 
that he and his people were disposed to con- 
sider carefully the propositions of their 
French guest. The chief rfiade no further re- 
ply, but dissolved the council. He could 
make no further reply until the members of 
the tribe had been given an opportunity to 
express their preferences. But they did not 
deliberate long among themselves, for it was 
found that all with one accord called loudly 
for the French alliance. So the following 
day the council was convened again, and the 
chief gave the tribe's endorsement of a treaty 
of mutual helpfulness between Miamis and 
Frenchmen. The oration of the chief was a 
series of metaphors in which he accepts for 
his people the protection of the great king, 
and pledges to his cause the 'beaver and the 
lands of the Miamis, ' and themselves individ- 
ually — body, intellect and heart. His speech 
had all the ecstacy and sincerity of a lover's 
song. And the Anglo-Saxon must admit that 
it was greatly to the credit of the French that 
their empires in the American wil(l(M-iu\ss 
were thus wooed and won. ' ' 

Sec. 5. — Down the Mississippi. — After his 
success in the formation of his Indian con- 
federacy and in securing the agreement of the 
Miamis and other Indians of Indiana. ]\Iichi- 
gan, Illinois and Wisconsin to remove to tlu' 
country around Starved Rock, where Fort St. 
Louis under command of Tonti should prove 
a stronghold for their j:)rotection and secure 
both Indians and French fi-om the incursions 
of the Iroquois, La Sjtllc. with renewed confi- 
dence, went forward in the prosecution of his 
great enterprise, the exploration of the ^Nlissis- 
sippi and its valley down to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico, His good fortuni' in the organization of 
the Indians into a confederacy friendly to the 
French and strong enough to resist the Iro- 
quois, seemed the beginning of a cliange in 
the fortunes of the hard-tried leader. In 
June. 1(J81, he had the pleasure of meeting 

a. Beads, made of shells, and wrought Into 
belts. Used as money or for ornament. 



Tonti at ]\Iackinae. From there he went to 
Fort Frontenac where he made preparations 
for his new expedition, and in November was 
back at Fort Miamis. About the middle of 
December all things were ready. They did 
not go at this time by the Kankakee, but 
moved along the south shore 6t Lake Michigan 
to the Chicago river, up which they sailed, 
crossed the portage and passed down the Des 
Plaines and Illinois to Fort Crevecoeur. On 
February 6th, 1682, they were on the banks 
of the Mississippi, and on April the 6th they 
reached the mouth, or rather the three mouths, 
of the great river. On the 9th of April, an 
elevated spot was selected on the bank, in 
latitude twenty-seven degrees, where a column 
and a cross were solemnly set up, and the 
whole country watered by the Mississippi and 
its tributaries was taken possession of for 
France and for the Christian religion.'^ La 
Salle called the country Louisiana, in honor 
of Louis XIV. of France; and the empire so 
established by this intrepid explorer con- 
tinued, with one interruption, to be French 
territory for over one hundred and twenty 
years, and until another great French ruler. 
Napoleon Bonaparte, to prevent the rich val- 
ley from falling into the hands of the English, 
conveyed it, in 1803, to the American repub- 
lic, during the presidency of Thomas Jeffer- 

La Salle called the river "Colbert or 
Mississippi ; " the first in honor of his friend 
and patron, the great French statesman, the 
second being the Indian Mesi-sepi, or great 
river. Marquette had called it the river of the 
Immaculate Conception. While the discov- 
eries made by ^Marquette and La Salle are 
those that have been fruitful of great results 
to our country and to the world, yet the river 
had been seen by white men many years be- 
fore either Marquette or La Salle. In 1519, 
the mouth of the Mississippi was discovered by 
the Spanish explorer, Alonzo de Pineda, who 
called it the Espiritu Santo. In 1528, another 

a. Perkins' Annals of the West, pp. 41-44. 

Spaniard, Cabeza de Vaca, crossed the river 
near its mouth. On May 1, 1541. Hernando de 
Soto, almost as great a man as La Salle him- 
self, in his expedition from Florida, reached 
the jNIississippi, not far from the thirty-fifth 
parallel of latitude, at the lower Chickasaw 
bluft's, a little below the present city of Mem- 
phis."^ He called the river Rio Grande, mean- 
ing the same as the Indian ]Mesi-sepi, great 

In 1684, La Salle led another expedition 
from France. This final venture went all the 
way by sea, sailing directly for the mouth of 
the Mississippi ; the intention being to found 
a -colony at that point. In this voyage the 
evil fortune of La Salle seemed to return. As 
he had missed the portage of the Kankakee in 
coming up the St. Joseph with his fleet of 
canoes, in 1679, so now his ocean fleet missed 
the mouth of the Mississippi, and he landed at 
Mat-agorda bay, or Bay St. Louis, as he 
called it, in the prasent state of Texas. Here 
they built a fort and tried to discover the 
' ' Hidden River, ' ' as they called the Mississip- 
pi. Matters grew worse from month to month, 
until in ]\Iarch, 1687, a mutiny broke out and 
many of La Salle's friends, including the 
faithful Mohegan, were put to death. On the 
20th of the month he was hiuLself stricken 
down.^ So perished the discoverer of the 
lower Mississippi and founder of Louisiana ; a 
man fitted for empire, and the greatest, per- 
haps, of the leaders of French enterprise in 

Sec. 6. — The Passing op the Portage. — In 
St. Joseph county, local interest in La Salle 
centers in his voyage up the St. Joseph and 
over the portage, in 1679; and in his treaty 
with the Miamis, in 1681. It is a question 
how far he w^ent up the river when he missed 
the landing at the portage on his first visit to 
our county. "We do not know," say Bartlett 
and Lyon, in their historical sketch of La 
Salle in the Valley of the St. Joseph, "how 

a. Century Cyclopedia. 
&. The Century Cyclopedia of Names, 
kins' Annals of the West, pp. 45-52. 




far they ascended the river beyond this point 
[the portage landing] before their mistake 
was discovered. It is fair to presume, how- 
ever, that they could not have continued for 
any great distance above the spot known as 
the south bend of the river [a little east of the 
present Miami street] ; for they must soon 
have discovered that beyond this place the 
trend of the river-bed led away from the 
region of the Kankakee. They landed and 
prepared to search for the portage. La Salle 
in his eagerness to find the path, set forth 
alone. And here the unexpected happened. 
He was soon lost. . . . The situation 
was one which might easily confuse any ex- 
plorer. He was on the spot where the very tip 
end of the Kankakee valley merges into that of 
the St. Joseph. Over this spot the water of 
the latter river once ran, when, in ancient geo- 
logical times, the portion of our river above 
the south bend was a continuation of the val- 
ley of the Kankakee.* La Salle was looking 
for a ridge which should divide the two river 
velleys. He doubtless supposed that the hills 
to the south of the present road between South 
Bend and ]Mishawaka [Vistula Avenue], 
formed that ridge and strove to reach their 
summit. In doing so, he was compelled to 
pick his way through the long, swampy tract 
lying between these hills and the St. Joseph. 
The view from the highland showed him the 
great Kankakee marsh on the west. But in 
his return to his companions, he missed the 
devious path by which he had come, and tried 
to go around this marshy tract extending for 
several miles to the east. Tonti says that 'he 
had to make the detour. ' In doing so he must 
have gone east nearly as far as the present site 
of the village of Osceola. Here he came again 
to the banks of the St. Joseph. ' ' 

In Hennepin's account, already quoted, we 
are informed that it was two o'clock in the 
night when La Salle reached the river. He 
had left the party the day before, and con- 
sidering the shortness of the days in Decem- 

a. See Chapter First, Sub-Division VII, "The 
Great Kankakee." 

ber, he must have been walking for ten or 
twelve hours before he got around the swampy 
grounds which are now the rich peppermint 
flats above Mishawaka. Hennepin tells us, 
moreover, that after La Salle had reached the 
river and fired his gun to notify his followers, 
and, receiving no response, he thought the 
canoes had gone ahead of him ; and that he 
then kept on his way along up the river, 
marching more than three hours more before 
he saw the light on the high ground, where he 
believed his companions were asleep, but 
which was an Indian's resting place in which 
he soon after went to sleep. This gives us 
probably fifteen hours of travel from the time 
La Salle left the canoes at the south bend of 
the river until he settled himself to sleep in the 
frightened Indian's bed of grass and leaves. It 
would seem that, allowing for the difficulty of 
walking in the snow and for all other delays 
and obstructions, this fifteen hours of con- 
tinuous walking would have taken La Salle 
far above the present site of Osceola. The 
next morning he seems to have changed his 
mind and turned down the river to find his 
companions; but it was four o'clock in the 
afternoon when those in the advance saw him 
coming along the margin of the river. How 
high up the river was this point of meeting is 
also uncertain. From Hennepin's account it 
is certain that it was far above the portage, 
for the canoes had gone up beyond the south 
bend of the river before La Salle left llirm to 
search for the trail, and Hennepin says that 
next day he took a lightened canoe and as- 
cended the river to seek their leader. And 
after they had found him and the IMohegan 
had come up and told them that the portage 
was far below, and they had sent back all 
their canoes with the Indian to wait at the 
portage, Hennepin says that he staid all night 
with La Salle "who was very much fatigued," 
and that on the next day they went down the 
river and joined the rest of the party at the 
portage. Tonti says that the point where the 
Mohegan found the party was two leagues, 
that is, six miles, above the portage. It would 



appear, therefore that the point where La 
Salle was tirst discovered coming down the 
margin of the river, with the opossums hang- 
ing from his belt, must have been not lower 
than within the present limits of the city of 
Mishawaka, while the night before was spent 
by him at least as high up as the site of 


Dr. J\Iontgomery,« in speaking of the time 
towards the close of the last ice age, when the 
great Kankakee carried its waters from Sagi- 
naw Bay down the valleys of the St. Joseph 
and the Kankakee to the Mississippi, tells us 
that, "If a man could have stood upon the 
hills of Rum Village, a vast panorama of 
water would have met his gaze : To the north- 
east, as far as the eye could reach, a stream 
from five to six miles wide and a hundred 
feet in depth, passing at his feet and rolling 
onward to the southwest, confined only by 
the hills on the north and on the south ; and to 
the northwest a tributary of the same great 
stream three miles wide and limited in the line 
of his vision only by the horizon." And he 
adds: "And primitive man was here." This 
conclusion, that the first man was .already 
here, is read by the learned scientist in the 
records of our rocks. 

Sec. 1. — The Mound Builders. — But other 
and more easily deciphered records are found 
upon the face of the earth, all over the region 
of the Mississippi valley, indicating the 
presence, at a comparatively recent period, of 
a highly intelligent race. These people, for 
whom we have no name, but who are vaguely 
included under the general term of ]\Iound 
Builders, have left evidences of extensive 
works in the vicinity of our great rivers and 
their tributaries. These works are of three 
kinds: Mounds; square and circular enclos- 
ures ; and raised embankments of various 
forms. The absence of remains of buildings 
is explained by the circumstance that timber 

a. "The Glacial Phenomenon, etc.," cited in 
Chapter I. 

was here abundant, and would therefore be 
chosen for building instead of stone. The 
Mound Builders are believed to be the same 
people who have left buildings of stone in 
New Mexico, Arizona, Mexico and various 
parts of Central and South America. The 
stone structures of those countries remain, 
but the wooden buildings of our own region 
would leave no trace after a few hundred 
years. These mysterious people disappeared 
from our country ages ago. Nature does not 
give a forest growth at once to abandoned 
fields ; a preparatory growth of shrubs and 
softer timber comes first. But forest trees 
have been found upon the summit of these 
mounds which show, by annual rings and 
other signs, at least six hundred years of 
growth. There could be no better proof of 
the great antiquity of these mounds. The 
Mound Builders occupied the country, at least 
the southern part of it, where their popula- 
tion was densest, for a very long time. This 
is shown by the extent of their remains, by 
their workings in the copper mines of the 
Lake Superior region, and by many other 
proofs. At the south they were at peace ; 
but as they advanced northward they came 
more and more into contact with the wild 
tribes, before whom they finally retired again 
towards the southern countries from which 
they had come. 

In the Lake Superior region have been 
found, as already intimated, the copper mines 
worked by these ancient people. In one of 
these mines there was discovei*ed an immense 
block of copper weighing nearly six tons. It 
had been left in the process of removal to 
the top of the mine, nearly thirty feet above, 
and was supported on logs of wood which 
were partly petrified. The stone and copper 
tools used by the miners were discovered 
lying about as they had been left by their 
owTiers ages ago. At the mouth of this mine 
are piles of earth thrown out in digging the 
mine ; and out of these embankments trees are 



^rowing' which are nearly four hundred 
yeare old."^ 

As said by ^laurice Thompson, in his de- 
lightful Stories of Indiana, it is hard to realize 
now what the face of the land looked like 
fifty or sixty years ag'o, even when old people 
most graphically describe it from memory. 
Still more difficult do we find it when we try 
to look back to the far-off time when the first 
human footprints were made in Indiana. 
We might naturally suppose that these first 
visitors were Indians, but we do not know 
that this conjecture is anywhere near the 
truth. What we do know is tnat strange and 
interesting traces of hmnan activities, dating 
back probably many centuries, are clearly 
marked in almost every region. These are 
mostly earthworks of various forms — ^mounds, 
embankments, and curious garden-like ar- 
rangements of soil beds with walks between. 
In some places beds or heaps of shells, broken 
and charred bones of fish, birds and quad- 
rupeds, suggest camping spots where cook- 
ing and feasting went on for years. And al- 
most always in connection with these mounds 
and the like are found human bones, curious 
copper and stone and pottery implements, 
and the crude ornaments worn by the people. 
They had for arms bows and arrows and 
spears, and used stone axes and knives; 
while the women sewed with flint needles. 
They were hunters, fishermen and warriors. 

It is said that the Indians found here when 
white men first arrived had a va^ie tradition 
that their distant ancestors came from far 
towards the setting sun. probably the south- 
west. These first men liked to dwell beside 
running streams, where they could build 
earthworks, on high, well-drained land over- 
looking the course of the w^ater and command- 
ing a view of the surrounding country. Some 
of the most beautiful landscapes in Indiana 
lie round about these sites of ancient encamp- 
ments. Doubtless the Mound Builders were 

o. The Undeveloped West, by J. H. Beadle, as 
cited in Northrop's Four Centuries of Progress, 
p. 18. 

expert canoemen and used the streams as 
highways of travel and as base lines from 
which to make explorations and hunting ex- 
cursions; for almost every water course in 
Indiana then navigable for canoes has here 
and there along its banks traces of the Mound 
Builders' art. The implements of copper, 
of stone and of pottery found imbedded in 
the mounds show the effect of patient and 
quite accurate work. Arrowheads of flint 
were sometimes so neatly finished that they 
are marvels of symmetry even when compared 
with like heads made of steel by the best 
workmen of Europe for archers in the time 
when the bowmen of England were the finest 
soldiers in the world. Stone mortars and 
pestles for pounding grain and the kernels of 
nuts and acorns into meal served them in- 
stead of mills. For knives they had sharp 
stones and keen-edged blades of bone. It is 
evident that the Mound Builders depended 
mostly upon spears and bows and arrows for 
killing game. If we knew the form of their 
bows it would aid us greatly in finding out 
more about their character as men ; for among 
the wildwood hunters, before firearms 
reached them, the bow was the best sign of 
their condition. Short, weak bows stood for 
an inferior people; long and strong bows in- 
dicated a stalwart race of men. But many 
of the arrowheads found in the mounds are 
large and heavy, fitted for use only with 
powerful bows ; and the axes and spear points 
were ponderous weapons suggestive of great 
muscular force in those who used them. 

From the northernmost part of the state 
down to the Ohio river the INIonnd Builders 
had their fortifications, and the same may 
be said of the whole country on down to the 
Gulf of Mexico. In many places stone walls 
were built instead of earthworks, the masonry 
being regular and strong, but laid without 
mortar. We have noted that the mounds 
were almost invariably built on high points 
of ground overlooking considerable areas of 
surrounding countrv. This choice may have 
been a measure of precaution against the ap- 



proach of enemies, but there was a more 
urgent and natural reason for it. In those 
early days Indiana's territory was almost as 
much water as dry land. During a great part 
of the year nearly all the low, flat lands were 
too wet for camping purposes, and in times 
of long-continued rain even the animals were 
all forced by the water to take refuge on the 
high places. How easy it was then for the 
Mound Builders to go in their light canoes 
to the grounds thus surrounded by water and 
take all the game they needed. No doubt the 
floods often drove whole herds of deer, flocks 
of wild turkeys, and even many bears and 
pimias, wild cats and wolves up to the very 
walls of the encampments. And this may be 
why such vast numbers of arrowheads are to 
this day found on the high grounds. 

A great many signs point to the south and 
southwest as the direction whence the first 
inhabitants reached Indiana. Sometimes lit- 
tle things are more significant than large 
ones, and the fact that some of the arrow- 
heads and stone ornaments found in and 
around our ancient earthworks are made of 
certain kinds of stone not appearing any- 
where this side of Tennessee, speaks almost 
as clearly as written legend of the route by 
which their owners came to this region. Some 
historians have thought that the Mound 
Builders were a race greatly superior to the 
Indians found here by the whites, and have 
tried to show, by remains left here by that 
vanished people, that they were advanced in 
intelligence. Others maintain that the Mound 
Builders were but ordinary Indians, the an- 
cestors of tribes still in existence when the 
French missionaries and traders came to this 
region. <* 

While no remains of great magnitude, left 
by the Mound Builders, are found in St. 
Joseph county, yet indications of the presence 
of those mysterious people are discovered in 
many places in and near the valleys of the 
St. Joseph and the Kankakee. 

a. Thompson's Stories of Indiana, pp. 15-20. 
See also Smith's Hist. Indiana, Vol. 1, pp. 41-61. 

Near New Carlisle, on the borders of Terre 
Coupee Prairie, and at various other points 
such remains are discovered. The most re- 
markable of these are three large mounds and 
two small ones, found in Warren township, 
on the northwest bank of the furthest south 
of the group of Chain lakes, just south of 
the Lake Shore railroad tracks. These 
mounds have supplied some of the finest of 
the copper axes in the collections of the 
Northern Indiana Historical Society and 
other collections; while in the vicinity of the 
mounds are the usual cloth-marked frag- 
ments of pottery and broken stone imple- 
ments indicating the presence of that old race 
Avhose remains are so conspicuous throughout 
the valley of the Kankakee and the Illinois. 

Across Portage Prairie, by the portage or 
pathway from the St. Joseph to the Kankakee, 
the Mound Builders, like the Indian tribes 
that came after them, carried on the com- 
merce that went from the lakes to the gulf 
in those far off years. Old residents who yet 
remain with us remember this pathway as 
deep and straight, so deep in places that a 
man on horseback could abnost touch the 
level ground on either side with his foot. It is 
not difficult to understand why this pathway, 
this ancient trail from the St. Joseph to the 
Kankakee, should have been straight and 
deep ; caused as it was by one dusky traveler 
and burden bearer, moving, man after man, 
in the footsteps of his predecessor, and by the 
moccasined foot pressing the soil deeper and 
deeper, year after year and age after age. 

Unnumbered centuries and countless hosts 
knew the trend of this ancient highway ; ages 
when the hosts of the lower Mississippi and 
the gulf, and the regions to the south, sought 
the copper mines of the upper lake region. 
Not only in the mounds throughout the great 
valley and the gulf region, but also in the 
oldest of the Peruvian tombs, are found im- 
plements and tokens made from Lake Su- 
perior copper. And we maj^ not doubt that 
the traffic which these facts imply was itself, 



in part, responsible for the depth of this path 
across our Portage Prairie." 

Sec. 2. — Our Miamis and Pott aw atomies. 
— But the earth records of the Mound 
Builders are almost as unsatisfactory in the 
reading as are the records of the rocks which 
tell us of the presence of man in the geologi- 
cal ages ; and we turn with relief to the some- 
what scanty written records, — letters, jour- 
nals and reports of missionaries, fur traders, 
explorers and adventurers, — who tell us of the 
people that occupied these regions when they 
first became known to civilized man. 

When La Salle reached the St. Joseph, in 
1679, he found the country in the possession 
of the Miami Indians, and he gave the name 
of that tribe to the river. Mr. Dunn says 
that, "The main body of the Miamis proper, 
whom the English called Twigh-twees, were 
located in 1680 on the St. Joseph of Lake 
]\Iicliigan, a little above the site of South 
Bend."^ This was the Miami village at 
Mount Pleasant on Portage Prairie. The 
Miamis were a tribe of the great Algonquin 
nation. This nation formerly occupied the 
territory now comprized in the New England 
states, eastern New York and Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, 
parts of North Carolina. Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, and nearly all of Ohio, Indiana, Illi- 
nois, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. 
There were no less than eleven or twelve 
tribes of the Algonquin nation : Ottawas, 
Chippewas, Sacs and Foxes, Miamis, Potta- 
watomies, Shawnees, Powhatans, Delawares, 
Mohegans, Naragansetts and Pequods; all 
speaking different dialects of the same speech. 
The Algonquins were the most extensive and 
powerful of the Indian nations. Their bitter 
enemies were the Iroquois, who occupied 
western Canada and New York and the 
country on the south shore of Lake Erie. The 
nation of the Iroquois was divided into five 
tribes: Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Onei- 

a. Bartlett and Lyon's "La Salle in the St. 
Joseph Valley," pp. 52, 64. 

b. Hist. Indiana, p. 22. 

das and Mohawks. Several years after La 
Salle's visit, in 1722, they admitted into their 
confederacy the Tuscarosas, who had some 
time previously emigrated to New York from 
the Carolinas. The Iroquois are therefore 
known in history at first as the Five Nations, 
and afterwards as the Six Nations. They 
were perhaps the most highly accomplished 
and the bravest of the northern Indian na- 
tions. They are known to our state only by 
their warlike incursions from the east, and 
their attacks upon different tribes of their 
hereditary enemies, the Algonquins. At La 
Salle's coming there was almost constant war 
between the Iroquois and a confederacy of 
tribes, who called themselves Illinois, that is, 
real men, or manly fighters. The Illinois, 
properly speaking, did not constitute a tribe, 
but a confederacy: Kaskaskias, Cahokias, 
Tamaronas, Peorias and Mitchigamias. The 
last tribe,, which is said to have come from 
west of the Mississippi, gave its name to Lake 
Michigan, formerly called, from the con- 
federacy. Lake Illinois. The Illinois con- 
federacy was formed to resist the incursions 
of the Iroquois, but was scarcely a match for 
the latter. This enmity of the two great con- 
federacies was at first a chief obstacle to the 
success of La Salle's explorations. The Iro- 
quois were allies of the English, while their 
ancient enemies, the Algonquins, were almost 
always on good terms with the French. The 
country to the south of the lakes was there- 
fore unsafe ground for the French, wlio were 
consequently compelled to make their ap- 
proaches by the lakes from the north." But 
even the Indiana and Illinois territory was 
invaded by the terrible Iroquois ; and the less 
warlike and less united Algonquins seemed 
unable to resist them. It was for this reason 
that La Salle determined to form a powerful 
and well united confederacy which should 
take the place of the inefficient Illinois con- 
federacy, and so protect both the French 
posts and missions and the western Indians 

a. Parkman's Discovery of Great West, p. 
17, n. 



themselves from their eastern foes. In this 
he succeeded, as we have seen. The jNIiamis 
,of our valley, and indeed of all northern In- 
diana, were at first timid about joining 
against the dreaded Iroquois, but they were 
finally persuaded by the argimients and the 
eloquence of La Salle. The result was that 
the Miamis and all other Indians left north- 
ern Tndiana and went to reside in the Illinois 
country, around Starved Rock, joining the 
great confederacy of Algonquins formed at 
that point by La Salle. In speaking of two 
ancient maps, dra^^^l about 1684, Mr. Dunn" 
says : ' ' On neither map is there any mark 
of an Indian village or French post within 
the limits of Indiana, although all other 
known villages and posts are marked. The 
reason was that there were no Indians resid- 
ing in Indiana. They had all removed to the 
Illinois. So far as has yet been discovered, 
none of them returned before the opening of 
the eighteenth century." 

Soon after La Salle's death his confederacy 
began to dissolve. The French, however, were 
then better able to protect themselves, and 
the Iroquois generally found enough to oc- 
cupy their attention in the east. Of the tribes 
gathered by La Salle at Starved Rock, some 
returned to their former abode, while others 
sought new habitations. The Pottawatomies 
who had come from the Green Bay country, 
in Wisconsin,^ took possession of the southern 
shores of Lake ^Michigan and the adjacent 
territories now known as southwestern Michi- 
gan, northwestern Indiana and northeastern 
Illinois. The Indians known to the early 
English speaking inhabitants of St. Joseph 
county were therefore chiefly Pottawatomies. 
With them were mingled some Miamis. Chip- 
pewas and others. The great body of the 
jNIiamis, however, went farther south and east 
in Indiana and into Ohio, their chief settle- 
ments in Indiana being on the Wabash and 

c. Hist. Indiana, p. 34. 

b. Dunn's Hist. Indiana, p. 27. And see speech 
of Hon. Daniel McDonald, in Division VI of this 

near the head waters of the Maumee, where 
the city of Fort Wayne now stands. But the 
Miamis always considered themselves the 
rightful owners of all the territory included 
within the state of Indiana, as well as a large 
part of the adjacent sections of Ohio, Illinois 
and ^Michigan. 

More than a hundred years after the death 
of La Salle, the renowned i\Iish-i-kin-ak-wa, 
or Little Turtle, the greatest of the Miamis, 
at the treaty of Greenville, in 1795, said to 
General Anthony Wayne : "I hope you will 
pay attention to what I will now say to you. 
I wish to inform you where your younger 
brothers, the Miamis, live. . . . You 
have pointed out to us the boundary line be- 
tween the Indians and the United. States; but 
I now take the liberty to inform you that 
that line cuts off from the Indians a large 
portion of country which has been enjoyed by 
my forefathers from time immemorial, with- 
out molestation or dispute. The print of my 
ancestors' houses are everywhere to be seen 
in this portion. ... It is well known 
by all my brothers present, ihat my fore- 
father kindled the first fire at Detroit; from 
thence he extended his lines to the headwaters 
of the Scioto; from thence, to its mouth; 
from thence, doAvn the Ohio, to the mouth of 
the Wabash; and from thence, to Chicago, on 
Lake Michigan. ' ' 

Dillon informs us that, "In the early part 
of the eighteenth century, and perhaps for a 
long period before that time, the Miamis 
dwelt in small villages, at varioiis suitable 
places within the boundaries of their large 
territory. Some of these villages were found 
on the banks of the Scioto — a few were situ- 
ated in the vicinity of the headwaters of the 
great Miami — ^some stood on the banks of the 
river ]\Iaumee — others on the St. Joseph of 
Lake ^Michigan — and many were found on 
the borders of the Wabash, and on some of 
the principal tributaries of that river. The 
villages which stood on the banks of the St. 
Joseph of Lake Michigan, those which lay 
about the headwaters of the ]\Iaumee, and 



those which stood on the borders of the Wa- 
bash, were often visited by Christian mission- 
aries and by fur traders, before the middle 
of the eighteenth century."* 

It is plain, therefore, that our Pottawato- 
mies occupied the valleys of the St. Joseph 
and Kankakee by grace of the Miamis. 
"Branches of the Pottawatomie, Shawnee, 
Delaware and Kickapoo tribes," says Dillon, 
"were, at different periods of time, permitted 
to enter, and reside at various places, within 
the boundaries of the large territory which 
was claimed by the Miamis."^ Indeed it was 
not at all uncommon for bands of different 
Algonquin tribes to dwell in peace within one 
another's territory. Such a band of the 
Miamis themselves lived in Wisconsin with 
the Kickapoos and Mascoutins.'^ 

IV. FORT ST. Joseph's. 

Sec. 1. — TiiE French Po^ver. — While the 
famous post kno^^^l as Fort St. Joseph was 
not located within the limits of St. Joseph 
county, and not even within the limits of the 
State of Indiana, yet for nearly a hundred 
years the history of that post was the history 
of the valley to which it gave its name, and 
no history of our county could be complete 
without giving some attention to the old fort. 

On the west bank of the St. Joseph, about 
sixty miles from the mouth of the river, 
measured by the windings of the stream, the 
]\Iiamis retained a noted fishing village which 
had been located at this point long before the 
white man's day. "The town," says Mr. 
Bartlett in his charming volume. Tales of 
Kankakee Land, "was there when La Salle 
invaded the region, and doubtless the spot had 
been held by many races through many ages 
past ; for this part of the stream was one of 
the famous fLshing grounds."^' Across the 
river, and not far from the east bank, at- 
tracted no doubt by the same cause, the Potta- 

a. Dillon, Hist. Indiana, pp. 5, 6. 

Ti. lb., p. 14. 

c. Dunn's Indiana, pp. 6, 22. 

d. Tales of Kankakee Land, p. 158. 

watomies, probably soon after coming into the 
valley, established a village of their own. 
These towns were located about a mile above 
the present city of Niles and ten or twelve 
miles below South Bend." Here, on the east 
bank of the river, was established, at a very 
early date, the mission of St. Joseph. It 
would seem that this mission was founded by 
Father AUouez, the same zealous missionary 
who, in 1665, had established at the Falls of 
St. Maiy (Sault Ste. Marie) the firet perma- 
nent mission in the northwest. In 1673, as 
already noted, when ]Marquette was on his 
way to the discovery of the upper Mississippi, 
he came to an Indian village on the Fox river 
where Father Allouez had preached to the 
^liamis, Mascoutins and Kickapoos of the 
Green Bay country.^ It is also known that 
in 1670, 1671 and 1672, Allouez and Dablon 
traversed the whole region along the western 
and southern shores of Lake Michigan;'' and 
there can be little doubt that on such a jour- 
ney the missionaries would visit the famous 
fishing village of the Miamis. 

In Nevin's "Black Robes, or Sketches of 
Missions and Ministers in the Wilderness and 
on the Border," it is said that the fii-st at- 
tempt at establishing a mission at this point 
was made in 1675 ; and that the design was 
permanently accomplished in 1()80. when 
Allouez and Dablon, having coasted Lake 
]Michigan from Green Bay, entei-ed the St. 
Joseph and proceeded up the i-iver until they 
reached this yioint. ITci-c. adds llic writci-. 
on the east hank of tlu' rivci-. rises a semi- 
circular blufl'. at the base of which, and 
through the soil of the niaishy h'veh runs a 
hi-ook into the St. Joseph. On this blntV 
Allouez huilt a chapel, aiul neai-by a log 
• cabin for his own accommodation. This mis- 
sion cared not only for the T^lianiis across the 

a. Mr. Dunn's Hist. Indiana, in a note at page 
26, says that an itinerary in the Haldiniand Col- 
lection fixes this point at twelve miles below the 
South Bend Portage. This might be nearly cor- 
rect, measuring by the windings of the river. 

b. Perkins' Annals of the West, p. 30. 

c. Dillon, Hist. Indiana, pp. 2, 12. 



river, but, in the course of the next few years, 
watched over all the Pottawatomies and other 
tribes on both sides of the stream, including 
those around the Notre Dame lakes and along 
the banlvs of the Kankakee. . Bartlett and 
Lyon say that "It does, indeed, seem not 
unlikely that Allouez, who was with the 
Miami Indians in 1672, should have followed 
them from their Wisconsin home when they 
migrated to this valley. He was certainly 
here at a later datej devoting the closing years 
of his life to the work of the mission on the 
St. Joseph, where he died in 1690. "« The 
same authors, in another connection, say that " 
about seven thousand Miamis left the St. 
Joseph valley after the treaty on Portage 
Prairie with La Salle, and joined that ex- 
plorer's confederacy on the Illinois, at 
Starved Rock; and that when La Salle lost 
his life in Texas, and Tonti retired from the 
Illinois country, "Father Allouez brought 
back a remnant of these people to their old 
home on the St. Joseph."'^ 

On the same high bluff on which the mis- 
sion of St. Joseph's was established, but how 
soon after or by whom is not certainly known, 
a fort was erected, which took its name from 
the mission, being called Fort St. Joseph's. 
This fort was thereafter the chief stronghold 
of the French in this vicinity; and the post 
was for many years one of the most important 
in French America. It was the center of the 
fur trade and other commerce of the St. 
Joseph and Kankakee valleys. Here came 
French and Indians from all the surrounding 
country; and to this point expeditions were 
sent up the river from Lake Michigan, and 
from here they passed on to the south, across 
the portage and down the Kankakee, to the 
Illinois country. The center of missionary 
effort among the Pottawatomies, Miamis and 
other tribes ; the center of commerce ; and the 
strong arm of French authority; the mission 
and post at St. Joseph 's long continued to be 

a. La Salle in the Valley of the St. Joseph, 
p. 7. 
1). lb., p. 89, note. 

one of the best known of the French stations 
in the northwest. Fort Miamis, established 
by La Salle at the mouth of the river, fell into 
disuse after he left the valley, and Fort St. 
Joseph took its place." 

Some have conjectured that it was La Salle 
himself who, attracted by the unfailing sup- 
ply of food at this fishing place, and by the 
opportunities for traffic in the Indian village 
across the river, built his second fort at this 
point. ^ It is more probable, however, that 
Fort St. Joseph's was built later, and after 
the establishment of the mission by Allouez; 
although the idea of a fort at this point might 
well have occurred to the far-seeing mind of 
La Salle, as he passed up and down the 
river.c The better opinion is that the military 
post was established here in 1697.^^ But what- 
ever may have been the origin of the old fort, 
it is one of the historical certainties of this 
region, that Fort Miamis, built by La Salle 
at the mouth of the river, ceased to be oc- 
cupied after he left the valley; while, on the 
high bluff between South Bend and Niles, 
Fort St. Joseph's took its place, and became, 
and for nearly a hundred years remained, the 
stronghold of the French and their secure 
asylum in the surrounding wilderness.^ 

With the change from Fort Miamis to Fort 
St. Joseph's, the river also changed its name. 
The mission gave its name to the fort, and 
the fort to the river. It was no longer called 
the river of the Miamis, but the river St. 
Joseph. To distinguish it from the small St. 
Joseph, which, with the St. Mary 's, near Fort 
Wayne, forms the Maumee, our river was for 
a time called the Big St. Joseph's, the St. 
Joseph's of the Lakes, or the St. Joseph's of 
Lake Michigan. In time, however, it became 
known, simply as the St. Joseph. From the 
river the name passed to the valley, and from 

a. Baker, St. Joseph-Kankakee Portage, p. 42, 

b. Bartlett, Tales of Kankakee Land, p. 159. 

c. Dunn, Hist. Indiana, p. 26, note. 

d. Baker, St. Joseph-Kankakee Portage, p. 43, 

e. Bartlett, Tales of Kankakee Land, p. 160. 



the river and the valley came the name of 
our county, as also the familiar title of our 
county seat, the Queen City of the St. Joseph 
valley, — all from the pious name given to 
the ancient mission of St. Joseph's by its 
founder, the simple-minded and zealous Al- 
louez. So, too, not only the name but the 
civilization of the beautiful valley dates from 
the Mission of St. Joseph's. 

Two objects chiefly seemed to engage the 
attention of the French at Fort St. Joseph's: 
The centralizing of the labors of the sur- 
rounding missions; and the protection of the 
fur trade with the tribes of the northwest. 
While the fort was strong, yet there was com- 
paratively little resort to force or intimida- 
tion. The French understood the Indians 
and lived on friendly terms with them. Not 
until the year 1730 is there any record of 
important military operations. In that year 
an expedition went up the river and over the 
portage by the Kankakee to punish the Out- 
agamies at StarVed Rock for outrages com- 
mitted against the Pottawatomies and other 
peaceful tribes. This successful operation 
appears to have been conducted in conjunc- 
tion with another from post Vincennes 
against the barberous Outagamies. 

Sec. 2. — -British Supremacy. — But the 
comparative peace which had happily pre- 
vailed from the days of Marquette and Al- 
louez and La Salle was brought to a rude 
termination by the Seven Years' War, — the 
French and English war, as it was called in 
America. This conflict had long been brew- 
ing : it was a struggle of giant powers for the 
possession of a continent. On May 18, 1756, 
war was declared; and on September 17, 
1759, after the deaths of Wolfe and Mont- 
calm, Quebec passed from France to Britain. 
A little less than one year afterwards, on 
September 8, 1760, Montreal was surrendered. 
With jMontreal went all Canada, which, in 
the articles of capitulation, was said "to ex- 
tend to the crest of lands dividing branches 
of Lakes Erie and Michigan from those of the 
Miami [the Big Miami, flowing into the 

Ohio], the Wabash and the Illinois rivers."" 
For nearly two years and a half, or until 
the treaty of Paris, that provision in the ar- 
ticles of capitulation made the boundary be- 
tween the British and French possessions in 
the northwest a very irregular line. The 
lands drained by the ^laumee and the St. 
Joseph became British territory; those 
drained by the Wabash and the Kankakee re- 
mained French. The northeast part of St. 
Joseph county, including the greater part of 
South Bend and all of jMishawaka, ceased 
forever to be French. The boundary ran ir- 
regularly along the summit dividing the 
waters of the St. Joseph from those of the 
Kankakee. This took the present townships 
of Clay and Harris, and the greater part of 
German, Portage and Penn, within the 
British line; while the rest of the county re- 
mained French territory. Under the terms 
of the capitulation of ^Montreal, Detroit was 
taken over in the fall, 1760; but Fort St. 
Joseph's and the other frontier posts were 
not garrisoned with British troops until the 
spring of 1761, and some of them even later. 
By the treaty of Paris, which was signed 
February 10, 1763, the British boundaries 
were extended to the ]\Iississippi. The line 
drawn through that river from its source to 
its mouth was made the boundary between the 
two nations, except that the city and island 
of New Orleans were to remain with France. 
Thereafter the province of Louisiana was con- 
fined to the territory west of the Mississippi. 
Spain was a party to the treaty of Paris, and 
in that treaty ceded the Floridas to Great 
Britain. By way of compensation for this 
loss, France, by a private agreeincnt. made 
over to Spain, New Orleans and what re- 
mained to her of Louisiana.^ Thus Spain, 
for a time, came into the history of the j\Iis- 
sissippi valley, and, incidentally, as we shall 
see, into the history of our own valley of the 
St. Joseph. 

a. Bancroft, Hist. U. S.. Vol. 2. pp. 522-24. 
Smith, Hist. Ind., Vol. 1, Chap. 7. 

h. Dyer's Hist. Modern Europe, Book 6, Chap. C. 



Sec. 3. PoNTiAc's War. — The discomfiture 

of France and the transfer of the northwest 
territory to Great Britain brought about a 
state of sullen displeasure in the minds of 
the Indians, who had lived so long on friendly 
terms with the French. Accordingly, in the 
early part of 1763, Pontiac, the distinguished 
chief of the Ottawas, formed a confederacy 
to expel the English from their newly ac- 
quired territory. The Ottawa chief was by 
birth a Catawba, but being captured in war 
by the Ottawas was adopted by that tribe. 
By his wisdom and bravery he became not 
only the chief of the Ottawas, but the leader 
of the whole Algonquin nation. The con- 
federacy formed by Pontiac, one of the 
strongest and best ever organized by the In- 
dian race, was composed not only of all the 
Algonquin tribes, but embraced also the 
Wyandots and .the Senecas, the latter being 
one of the Iroquois confederacy, so long at 
enmity with the Algonquins. Pontiac 's plan 
was to take all the English forts at the same 
time, by a similar stratagem. A body of 
picked men was to visit each post in a 
friendly manner during the mouth of May, 
1763, and then, while the men and officers 
were off their guard, make a sudden attack 
and capture the garrison. The plan might 
have succeeded if it had not been for the 
treachery of an Indian girl at Detroit, who 
disclosed Pontiac 's design to Major Gladwin, 
the commander of that post. Major Gladwin 
immediately sent a message to warn the com- 
mander at Fort Pitt, formerly, Fort Du 
Quesne, where the city of Pittsburg now 
stands. The well conceived stratagem there- 
fore failed at those two posts. All the other 
forts, however, were taken by the Indians. 
Sandusky was captured May 16; St. Joseph's, 
May 25; Miami (Fort Wayne), May 27; 
Ouiatanoii (Lafayette), June 1; and Michil- 
limackinac, June 2. Pontiac 's war lasted 
through 1763 and 1764, during Avhich time 
his will was law from the lakes to the Ohio 
and the Mississippi, except at Fort Pitt and 
Detroit; but the failure to capture those tw^o 

strong posts was fatal to his enterprise. His 
powerful confederacy became dissipated by 
degrees ; and the mighty chief of the Ottawas 
retired to the Illinois country, near St. Louis, 
where in 1769. he was basely assassinated by 
a Kaskaskia Indian, prompted by a reward 
for his murder by Amherst, the British com- 

Fort St. Joseph's was again an English 

Sec. 4. — George Rogers Clark and Fort 
St. Joseph's. — The British occupancy of the 
northwest was not again disturbed until after 
the opening of the American revolution. But 
on July 4, 1778, George Rogers Clark acting 
under a commission from Patrick Henry, 
then governor of Virginia, captured Kaskas- 
kia, and soon after took possession of Cahokia 
and other villages situated on the east side 
of the Mississippi, a little below where St. 
Louis now stands. A few days later, through 
the good offices of Father Gibault, then in 
charge of Kaskaskia and the adjacent mis- 
sions, the inhabitants of Viucennes joyfully 
raised the American flag and proclaimed 
themselves citizens of the new republic. The 
French people in the west had no love for 
the British; and when they learned of the 
assistance given to Washington by La Fayette 
and that France herself was aiding the 
American cause, they were glad to take the 
first opportunity to throw off the yoke of 
their ancient enemies. 

The British, however, were not disposed to 
yield possession of this rich territory without 
a struggle. Towards the end of the same 
vear a strong force was sent from Detroit, 
by way of the Maumee and the Wabash, and 
on December 17. 1778, Vincennes was re- 
taken from the little garrison of Virginians. 
Although it was mid-winter. Col. Clark pre- 
pared at once to re-capture the fort; and, on 
February 24, 1779, after a most heroic march 
from Kaskaskia, the post on the Wabash 

a. Dunn's Hist. Indiana, 69. Poole's Hist. The 
West, Vol. 6, Chap. 9. 



passed forever into possession of the Ameri- 

During the summer of 1779, Clark made 
preparations to take Detroit and the remain- 
ing- British posts in the western country, in- 
chiding Fort St. Joseph's. He tells us, in the 
Memoir which he has left of his conquest of 
the northwest, and which Mr. William H. 
English has pri"nted in full ni his valuable 
history and life of George Rogers Clark, that 
the British sent an expedition from Michili- 
mackinac, to proceed by way of Fort St. 
Joseph's and the portage of the Kankakee, for 
the purpose of driving the American traders 
out of the Illinois country ; but that on arriv- 
ing at the fort they were deserted by their 
Indian allies, and becoming alarmed with- 
drew to the mouth of the river and sent back 
to Michilimackinac for help. When the troops 
came down the lake to the assistance of the 
expedition and saw the camp at the mouth 
of the St. Joseph (probably on the site of 
La Salle's old Fort JMiamis), they mistook 
their friends for Americans and hastily with- 
drew, believing that Fort St. Joseph's had 
fallen into the hands of the Americans. Clark, 
however, found himself unable to raise a force 
sufficient to proceed against the northern 
forts, and, for the time. Fort St. Joseph's and 
the other northern posts continued in posses- 
sion of the British." 

Sec. 5. — Taken by the Spaniards. — But 
the romantic story of Fort St. Joseph's had 
yet another episode. Early in 1779, war had 
again broken out between Spain and England. 
Louisiana still continued in possession of the 
Spaniards, and they had a strong military 
post at St. Louis. Mr. English in his life of 
George Rogers Clark says that: "General 
Clark's possession of the Illinois and Wabash 
country was not only good as against the 
British, but also as against the Spaniards, 
and there is scarcely a doubt that the latter 
would have seized the French towns, antl 
occupied the territory, if it had not already 

a. See Vol. 1, English's Conquest of the North- 
west, pp. 552-4. 

been in actual American possession." And 
he adds: "The Spaniards did make a raid, to 
that end, in the winter of 1780-81, and cap- 
tured Fort St. Joseph's; but they made no at- 
tempt to hold the country. "« This Spanish 
expedition left St. Louis January 2, 1781, 
under command of Don Eugenio Pourre, the 
detachment consisting of sixty-five soldiers 
and sixty Indians.'' They marched rapidly 
across the frozen lands of Illinois and north- 
western Indiana, and surrounded Fort St. 
Joseph before there was any intimation of 
their approach. The garrison was easily over- 
come, and the Spaniards took formal posses- 
sion of the post and its dependencies, in the 
name of the king of Spain. The valley of the 
St. Joseph, including the territory of our own 
county, thus for a time became a part of the 
dominion of Spain. Not desiring to occupy 
the fort, the Spaniards burned it to the 
gTound and returned to St. Louis. Spain 
afterwards made a vain attempt to found, on 
this capture, a claim to a large tcrritoiy cast 
of the Mississippi. It is interesting to ob- 
serve that this victory of the little Spanish 
army from St. Louis marks the extreme 
northern limit in the new world of the power 
of Spain, whose flag then floated from the 
valley of the St. Joseph to the Straits of 
Magellan. The old fort was never rebuilt: 
and soon after, on the establishment of 
American indejiendence. the soil on which it 
stood, together with that of all tlie iioii Invest, 
was, by reason of the victories ol' (leorge 
Rogers Clark, acknowledged as a part of the 
territory of the young republic. So passed 
Fort St. Joseph's, a little over a hundred 
years aftei' the founding of the mission of 
AUouez upon tlie hanks of our beautiful 


While the banks of the Kankakee arc low 
and the soil dark and rich: tlu' banks of the 

a. 11). Vol. IT, pp. 764-5. 

h. See Chap. 3, siibcl. 2, of this work. 

c. Dunn, Hist. Indiana, p. 160. Dillon, Hist. 
Indiana, p. 173. Bartlett, Tales of Kankakee 
Land, pp. 183-4. 



St. Joseph are high and the soil dry and 
gravelly. Accordingly, the growth of timber 
along the St. Joseph was not ''thick woods," 
but the trees stood well apart, as in a great 
natural park. The Indian custom of keeping 
the underbrush and leaves annually burned 
away added to the park-like appearance of 
the lands. The expressive phrase "oak open- 
ings" well describes the fine vistas through 
the ancient forests that decorated the banks 
on either side of the beautiful river. Added 
to the beauty and shade of the woodlands, the 
waters of the St. Joseph were always, as they 
are today, clear and cool, while refreshing 
springs bubbled up everywhere under the 
high banks or trickled down their face to 
the stream below. It is little wonder there- 
fore that this ideal solitude was dear not only 
to the redman, but also to the birds of the 
air and the four-footed creatures that roamed 
the wilderness. Here came the elk and the 
deer ; but, more than all, this was the favorite 
haunt of the buffalo, the great wild oxen and 
cows that came into the cool shadows from 
the hot sun of the prairies, to browse on the 
fresh grass and drink of the sweet waters. 
From the mouth of the river, on either side, 
and far up beyond the limits of St. Joseph 
county, extended this magnificent park-like 
buffalo range. So accustomed were the early 
French hunters and traders to see the buft'alo 
cows come with their calves for rest and re- 
freshment to these pleasant haunts along the 
St. Joseph, that they gave to the place the 
picturesque appellation of Pare aux Vaches 
(literally, park of the cows), a term changed 
in the spelling by our early settlers to parko- 
vash. The term "parkovash" has been usu- 
ally, no doubt properly, confined in applica- 
tion to the plain along the eastern bank of 
the river above and below the cities of South 
Bend and Mishawaka." 

Sec. 1. — Camps and Fishing Resorts. — 
Fort St. Joseph's was in the heart of the 

a. Baker, The St. Joseph-Kankakee Portage, 
p. 6. Bartlett and Lyon, La Salle in the Valley 
of the St. Joseph, p. 40. 

Parkovash ; and into and through these beauti- 
ful woodlands along the eastern and northern 
banks of the river came every trail from the 
surrounding wilderness. Here the bands set 
up their wigwams, and here the council fires 
arose. Hard by, on some open spot or high- 
land, stood a village of Miamis or of Potta- 
watomies. For in this valley as elsewhere, 
as said by Maurice Thompson, the villages, or 
rather camps, of the Indians were usually 
situated, as were those of the Mound Builders, 
on highlands close to a stream, pond or lake 
where plenty of water could easily be had.* 

Favorite fishing places were, of course, an 
additional attraction. Such was the location 
in the river at Fort St. Joseph's; where, on 
one side of the stream, was the ancient vil- 
lage of the Miamis, and, on the other, the 
village of the Pottawatomies. "Here," says 
Mr. Bartlett, "at a place where the waters 
were shallow, the aborigines had paved a strip 
of the river's bed from shore to shore with 
great slabs of limestone. Just who they were 
that labored at this task, or when they toiled, 
no one will ever know. These slabs of lime- 
stone are a characteristic of the surrounding 
glacial hills. The purpose of dragging the 
huge, flat stones into the river and disposing 
them so as to form a paved path through the 
waters was an important one, since thereby 
the people might more easily take the great 
fish with which the river at certain seasons 
was fairly alive. The canoes were accustomed 
to go up stream some miles, and then, descend- 
ing in an open line that reached from bank 
to bank, so agitated the waters as to drive 
before them the finny game. Companions, 
who in the meantime had taken their sta- 
tions at frequent intervals across the lime- 
stone floor, stood with uplifted spears await- 
ing the moment when the form of the rolling 
sturgeon or the catfish or the swift pickerel 
or the quick-darting pike should be outlined 
against the underlying pavement. Those who 
sometimes witnessed these operations have left 
the record that when the spearmen were at 

a. Stories of Indiana, p. 29. 



work, the boats went frequently to the shore 
and were often weighted down to the water's 
edge with the burden of fishes. It was noth- 
ing strange, therefore, that just above this 
renowned fishing-place a great Indian village 
should have survived from remote times down 
to a period within the memory of men now 

After the Miamis went east and south, to 
the vicinity of the Maumee and the Wabash, 
the Pottawatomies were left in sole possession 
of the valleys of the St. Joseph and the 
Kankakee; but, while these Indians came 
every year in great numbers by way of the 
St. Joseph portage, with their furs, maple 
sugar, baskets and trinkets, to the markets at 
the trading posts down the river, yet no large 
villages of the tribe were to be found within 
the limits of St. Joseph county. Pokagon's 
village was on the west side of the St. Joseph, 
two miles north of the St. Joseph county line, 
near Bertrand, and there was a small band 
settled about a mile or two southwest of the 
site of South Bend, at a place called Raccoon 
village ; but the main body of the Pottawato- 
mies was farther south, in Marshall county, 
around Twin Lakes and Lake Maxinkuckee, 
and in Fulton county. Accordingly, while the 
roving Indian was constantly on the trails 
throughout all this region, hunting, fishing, 
or going to or from the trading stations, yet 
his more permanent abode was in the villages 
to the south, and when finally he came to be 
removed to the west, the gathering places for 
the beginning of his long journey to the lands 
beyond the Mississippi were, in general, with- 
out the confines of St. Joseph county. And 
while of course many redmen had their fixed 
abode within the limits of St. Joseph county, 
yet the romantic Parkovash, the prairies, the 
woodlands and the streams were for visiting, 
for sightseeing and for hunting and trading, 
rather than for permanent dwelling places. 

Sec. 2. — Trails and Traces. — And so it 
came to be that into and through the fair 
Parkovash ran those numerous traveled ways, 

a. Tales of Kankakee Land, pp. 158-9. 

out of the surrounding wilderness. When 
whitemen first came into the Indian country 
they found everywhere those well marked 
pathways, trodden by human and pony feet, 
but not by buffaloes or other animals. To 
these pathways was given the name of trails, 
and sometimes that of traces. The word trail, 
as often used by hunters and frontiersmen, 
denoted the slight trace left where an animal 
or a man had passed but once, and to follow 
such a trail was no easy matter ; but the term 
was also used to denote a well worn narrow 
pathway that might have been trodden hun- 
dreds or thousands of times. These trails 
have in many instances been adopted as the 
lines of permanent roads by the civilized suc- 
cessors of the roving Indians and their ancient 
predecessors, the Mound Builders. This use 
of the trails for our modern highways re- 
sulted from convenience and long continued 
custom; for traders, travelers, scouting par- 
ties and frontiersmen passed along these trails 
for many years before the wagons of the 
pioneers widened them out with their Avheels, 
and before the civil authorities finally fixed 
them as legal public highways." 

The most noted of these trails was that 
of the Portage, already referred to, extending 
from La Salle's landing, at a sharp western 
bend of the St. Joseph, thence across to the 
headwaters of the Kankakee, a little to the 
west and south of the blue sheet of water, 
sometimes known as La Salle's and sometimes 
as Stanfield lake, but perhaps even still more 
appropriately called Summit lake, because lo- 
cated almost on the line of the watershed 
between the St. Joseph and the Kankakee. 
This famous trail was used chiefly for the 
carrying of boats from one river to the other ; 
and therefore came to be named the Portage, 
from the French word porter, to carry. The 
beautiful prairie over which the ])ortage 
passed was naturally called Portage Prairie. 

Other trails seem to have led from the St. 
Joseph, over the prairie to the IMiami village 
at Mount Pleasant, and to Chain lakes, near- 

a. Ball, Hist. Northwestern Indiana, pp. 76-78. 



by, and thenee on to Crum's Point and other 
places along the Kankakee. 

See. 3. — Chari^voix on Portage Prairie. 
— It was while encamped on one of these 
trails, September 17, 1721, that the celebrated 
traveler and missionary, Father Charlevoix, 
wrote his very interesting letter to a friend 
in France descriptive of our Portage Prairie, 
as he then found it. The visit to this county 
at that early date of so distinguished a char- 
acter as Charlevoix is of itself of sufficient 
historical interest to justify the making of 
an extract from his letter written on that oc- 
casion. The letter also serves to throw light 
on many points already touched upon in this 
chapter. The extract is as follows : 

"I believe I gave you to understand in my 
last letter that I had two routes to choose 
from in going to the Illinois. The first was to 
return to Lake jNIichigan, follow along its 
southern course and enter the little Chicago 
river. After ascending that river five or six 
leagues, one passes into the Illinois by two 
portages, the longer of which is five quarter 
leagues; but as that river is only a brook at 
the point, I was warned that at this season 
I should not find in it enough water for my 
boat, and therefore I took the other route 
[by the St. Joseph], which, indeed, has also 
its inconveniences, and is not nearly so agree- 
able, but is surer. Yesterday I left the fort 
of St. Joseph river [Fort St. Joseph's], and 
ascended that river about six leagues. I dis- 
embarked on the right, walked five quarter 
leagues, first following the edge of the water 
and then crossing the fields into a great prai- 
rie, all sprinkled with little tufts of woodland 
which have a very beautiful effect. It is called 
Ox-Head Prairie, because there was found 
there, as they say, the head of an ox of 
monstrous size. Why may there not have been 
giants among these animals also?'* I en- 

a. This "ox-head" was perhaps that of an un- 
usually large buffalo. More likely, however, it 
was the head of a mastadon or of a mammoth, 
many of the remains of both being found at dif- 
ferent places in the county, particularly in the 
miry stretches of the Kankakee bottoms. See 
note to Bartlett and Lyon's La Salle in the Valley 
of the St. Joseph, p. 37. 

camped in an exceedingly beautiful place 
called the Fort of the Foxes, because the Fox 
Indians [the Outagamies] had a village there 
not long ago, fortified in their way. This 
morning I went a league farther into the 
prairie, my feet almost constantly in the 
water, and then found a sort of pond, which 
communicates with several others of different 
sizes, the largest of 'which is only a hundred 
paces in circuit. These are the sources of 
a river called the Theakiki, which our Cana- 
dians here corrupted into Kiakiki [Kanka- 
kee] . Theak means wolf, I do not remember 
in what language ; but this river bears that 
name because the Mahingans, who are also 
called the Wolves, formerly took refuge there. 
We put our boat, which two men had carried, 
up to this point, into the second of these 
sources, and embarked; but we had scarcely 
enough water to keep afloat. Ten men in two 
days could make a straight and navigable 
canal which would save much trouble, besides 
ten or twelve leagues of travel, and it is 
necessary continually to turn so sharply that 
at each instant one is in danger of breaking 
his boat [a bark canoe], as has just happened 
to us."" It is an interesting circumstance 
to note in this connection that the canal, or 
ditch, suggested by Father Charlevoix in 
1721. nearly two hundred years ago, has re- 
cently been dug, and the Kankakee straight- 
ened and shortened, accordingly, as he said it 
could be; though it has taken the labor of 
more than ten men for two days to do it. 

Sec. 4. — Other Trails.— Next in impor- 
tance to the Portage trail was the Great Sauk 
Trail. To the travel and commerce of the 
wilderness, between the east and the west, 
this trail was what our great trunk lines of 
railroad are now to the travel and commerce, 
between the same distant localities. The Sauk 
Trail received its name from the Sac tribe 
of Indians. The Sacs and Foxes used it in 
their journey ings from Canada and other 
eastern points to their homes in the far north- 

o. CTharlevoix's Travels in North America, Vol. 
6, pp. 103-5. 



west. The trail started near the site of De- 
troit, followed the high ridges across Michi- 
gan, crossed the St. Joseph river at Bertrand, 
six miles north of South Bend, and then ran 
westerly, crossing the northwest part of St. 
Joseph county, over Warren and Olive town- 
ships, passing through Terre Coupee, and 
then, by Hudson lake, formerly called Lake 
du Chemin, through the county of La Porte, 
and on to the site of Chicago and beyond to 
the Illinois and northwestern country. This 
was the path taken by the Iroquois of New 
York, in their raids against the Miamis, Il- 
linois and other western tribes. A multitude 
of smaller trails ran into and out from this 
great thoroughfare. A well-know^n Potta- 
watomie town, called the village of Pokagon, 
after the wise chief of that name, stood on 
the Avest side of the St. Joseph, just south 
of the Sauk trail. For fifty years and more 
the Sauk trail has been called the Chicago 
Road, this name having been given to the old 
trail after the national government had 
smoothed and straightened its course from 
Detroit to Chicago." 

The Dragoon trace was a well-worn trail 
leading from Fort Wayne to Chicago. 
Through this county it passed under the hills 
above Misha"\vaka and came into what is now 
South Bend over the line of Vistula avenue, 
passing to the west until it united with the 
Sauk trail. Near the extreme south bend of 
the St. Joseph river, by what has been known 
as the Turkey Creek road, now Miami street, 
another trail left the Dragoon trace and 
passed on southeasterly through the coimty. 
South ^Michigan street, a part of the old 
IMichigan road, marks the line of yet another 
southern trail, reaching to the Pottawatomie 
habitations at Twin lakes. Lake Maxinkuckee 
and other points in Marshall county; while 
still another trail went out southwesterly over 
the line of Sumption Prairie road. Along the 
east side of the St. Joseph, from its mouth 

a. George A. Baker, in The Indianian, Vol. IV., 
p. 344. Bartlett, Tales of Kankakee Land, p. 223. 
Ball, Hist. Northwestern Indiana, p. 77. 

almost to its source, ran a well-marked trail, 
connecting at Bertrand with the Sauk trail, 
and receiving from place to place all the minor 
trails that entered the Parkovash. Indeed 
every stream had its trail on either side ; for 
although the canoe glided along the water, 
yet the chief travel of the wilderness was 
along the trails, on foot or on the backs of 
the precious ponies. 

Another trail, and the last that need be 
mentioned, was the Pottawatomie trail, which 
followed the Kankakee from the Illinois coun- 
try, crossed the St. Joseph near the site of 
South Bend, one branch joining with the trail 
along the river down to Fort St. Joseph's, and 
another continuing along what is now South 
Bend avenue and the Edwardsburg road, and 
connecting at Edwardsburg with the great 
Sauk trail. As South Bend avenue and the 
Edwardsburg road mark this trail east of the 
St. Joseph, the Crum's Point road marks it 
on the west. 

Throughout its course the Indian trail was 
at first simply a pathw^ay, which in time de- 
veloped into a well trodden highway. This 
pathway "never crossed over a hill which it 
might go around; it crept through the hol- 
lows, avoiding, however, with greatest care, 
those conditions in which a moccasin could 
not be kept drj' and clean ; it clung to the 
shadows of the big timber-belts, and, when 
an arm of the prairie intervened, sought to 
traverse such a place of possible danger by 
the route which was shortest and least ex- 
posed. At every step the ancient path tells 
the story of wilderness fears. Yet the pre- 
cincts of this venerable avenue of the old life 
had also their own peculiar delights. A warm 
and sheltered path in the winter-time, its fra- 
grant airs were cool and soft in the siunmer 
days. . . . And then to the Pottawatomie 
this, above all others, was the ancient high- 
way of his people. Along its course he saw 
the war-parties filing away to find the enemy 
in distant lands and among strange peoples. 
And he heard the forest walls of the old 
path re-echo the exultant cry of the returning 



band, saw the unhappy captives schooling 
their hearts to a stoic's cahn, or following 
with proud disdain in the footsteps of their 
conquerors, or nursing thoughts of grim 
vengeance by glaring scowls and vain mutter- 
ings. At such an hour the Pottawatomie, 
standing by the path of his fathers, rejoiced 
to know that the name of his people was 
terrible in the land of the enemy. The old 
men loved to wander along this path and re- 
hearse the stories of the past, and tell of the 
times when they with their people, in tumul- 
tuous throng, hurried home from the chase. ' '"^ 


The last fact of importance in the history 
of the Indians of St. Joseph county is the 
This pathetic story has been so well told by 
removal of the Pottawatomies to the west. 
Marshall county in the general assembly of 
1905 and 1907, and the story as told by him 
is crowded with such a wealth of historical 
facts, that we cannot do better than give in 
full his admirable and eloquent speech, de- 
livered in the House of Representatives, Feb- 
ruary 3, 1905. Mr. McDonald is one of the 
best informed men in Indiana on the early 
history of this section of the state ; and, as 
shown by his address, his heart was in his 
subject. The address is as follows: 

Address of Representative Daniel McDon- 
ald of Plymouth, delivered in the House of 
Representatives, Indianapolis, Friday, Febru- 
ary S, 1905, on the bill to erect a monmnent 
to the Pottawatomie Indians at Twin Lakes, 
Marshall county, published by direction of 
the House of Representatives. 

The bill to erect a monument to the mem- 
ory of the Pottawatomie Indians at Menom- 
inee village, in Marshall county, being under 
consideration. Representative Daniel McDon- 
ald said : 

Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen of the House of 
Representatives : 

In order that a fair understanding may be 
had in regard to the subject matter embraced 
in this bill, I desire to submit the following: 

The question of the extinguishment of the 

a. Bartlett, Tales of Kankakee Land, 83. 

Indian titles to the lands of the 
Pottawatomie Indians in northern Indiana 
and southern ^Michigan, and their removal to 
a reservation to be provided for them west 
of the Missouri river, was one of the most 
important and delicate questions the govern- 
ment had to deal with in the early settlement 
of this part of the Northwest Territory. Gen- 
eral treaties were made from 1820 to 1830 
between the government agents and the chiefs 
and headmen of the Pottawatomies by which 
large tracts of land were ceded to the gov- 
ernment, and numerous reservations made to 
various bands of Pottawatomie Indians in 
northern Indiana and southern Michigan. 
Later these reservations were ceded back by 
treaty by the Indians for a stipulated amount, 
and in all the treaties it was provided that 
the Indians should remove to the reservation 
west of the Missouri river within two years 
from the date thereof. The dates of these 
treaties were about all in the years 1835 and 
in 1836, the last date for removal expiring 
about the first of August, 1838. 

The territory now included within the 
boundaries of Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, 
which was the home of the Pottawatomie In- 
dians for many years prior to the time they 
were removed to the ' reservation west of the 
Missouri river, was in the early days of the 
history of America owned and occupied by 
the Miami Indians, originally kno^^^l as the 
Twightwees. It was claimed by France from 
the time of the discovery of the mouth of the 
Mississippi river by La Salle, in 1682, to 
1763, when it was relinquished by treaty to 
the government of England and held by it 
until 1779 as a part of her colonial possessions 
in North America. The state of Virginia ex- 
tended its jurisdiction over it until 1783 when 
it became by treaty of peace and by cession 
from Virginia the property of the United 
States. In 1787 an ordinance was passed by 
Congress creating the territory northwest of 
the river Ohio, which embraced the territory 
of the states above mentioned. 

The Pottawa.tomie tribe of Indians, the 
owners and inhabitants of the territory now 
comprising northern Indiana, belonged to the 
great Algonquin family, and were related by 
ties of consanguinity to the Ojibways, Chip- 
pewas and Ottawas. The first trace we have 
of them locates their territory in the Lake 
Superior region on the islands near the en- 
trance of Green bay, holding the country 
from the latter point to the headwaters of the 



great lakes. Subsequently they adopted into 
their tribe many of the Ottawas from Upper 

About 1817 it was estimated that there were 
in the region north of the AVabash river and 
south of Lake ]\Iichigan something more than 
two thousand Pottawatomies. They were lo- 
cated in villages on the Tippecanoe ; Kanka- 
kee; Iroquois; Yellow river; St. Joseph 
of Lake Michigan ; the Elkhart ; INIaumee 
or ^liamis of the Lake ; the St. Jo- 
seph emptying into it; the St. Marys; 
Twin lakes ; Maxinkuckee ; and Lake Ke- 
wanna. At that time they had no uniform 
abiding place of residence. During the fall, 
winter and part of the spring they were scat- 
tered in the woods hunting and fishing. Their 
wigwams were made of poles stuck in the 
ground and tied together with strips of bark, 
slender hickory withes or raw hide strings. 
They were covered with bark or a kind of 
mat made of flagweeds. There was an occa- 
sional rude hut made of logs or poles, but 
nearly all the dwellings were wigwams hastily 
put up as here diseribed. They raised some 
corn, but lived principally on wild game, fish, 
fruits, nuts, and roots and were clothed with 
blankets and untanned skins. 

From the date of the treaty of peace at 
Greenville in 1795 to 1832, all the lands in 
possession of the Pottawatomie and Miami 
Indians were ceded to the United States. 
Nearly all the titles to the lands in this part 
of the country reserved for various bands by 
the treaty of 1832 were extinguished by 
United States Commissioner Abel C. Pepper, 
who seems to have been well fitted for the 
difficult task assigned him. 

In 1831 the legislature of Indiana passed 
a joint resolution requesting an appropriation 
by Congress for the. purpose of the extinguish- 
ment of the remaining titles of lands held by 
the Indians within the state. The appropria- 
tion was made and three' citizens — Jonathan 
Jennings, first governor of Indiana; John W. 
Davis and Marks Crume — were appointed by 
the secretary of war to carry into effect the 
law authorizing the appropriation. The com- 
missioners assembled with the several Indian 
chiefs concerned at a place called Chippe- 
wayning on the Tippecanoe river where the 
Michigan road crosses that stream two or three 
miles north of Rochester and sixteen miles 
south of Plymouth, where they concluded a 
treaty October 27, 1832, by which the chiefs 
and warriors of the Pottawatomies of Indiana 

and Michigan territory ceded to the United 
States their title and interest to all the lands 
in Indiana, Michigan, and in Illinois south of 
Grand river. From this general treaty a large 
number of small individual reservations were 
made. Among them was a reservation of two 
sections to Naswagee, and one section to 
Quashqua, both on the east shore of Lake 
^Maxinkuckee, and twenty-two sections to Me- 
nominee, Pepinawa, Nataka, and Macataw- 
maaw, adjoining the town of Plymouth on the 
west and extending south to Twin Lakes, a 
short distance north of Lake ilaxinkuckee ; 
several sections in the vicinity to Aubenaube 
and other chiefs making in all 160 sections. 
These reservations were all ceded back to the 
government between 1834 and 1837, mostly 
under treaties negotiated by Abel C. Pepper. 
All of these treaties contained the following: 

"Article 3.— The United States further 
agrees to convey by patent to the Pottawato- 
mies of Indiana a tract of country on the 
Osage river, southwest of the Missouri river, 
sufficient in extent and adapted to their wants 
and habits, remove them to the same, furnish 
them with one year's subsistence after their 
arrival there, and pay the expenses of the 
treaty, and the delegation now in this city." 

The first removal under these treaties took 
place in July, 1837, and within the two years 
from the date of these treaties to August. 
1837. all had gone peaceably, or had been 
removed without force, except IMenominee cind 
his band, whose village w^as on the north bank 
of Twin lakes. On the 6th of August. 1838, 
the time stipulated in the treaties for the In- 
dians to emigrate having expired, and Menom- 
inee and his band declining to go, a council 
was held at his village, at which Col. Abel C. 
Pepper, agent of the Govei-nment. was present, 
and most of the chiefs in that i)art of the coun- 
try, as also many white residents of the sur- 
rounding country. The treaty was read where- 
in it was shown that in ceding their lands the 
Indians had agreed to remove to the western 
reservation within the time specified and that 
the date was then at hand when they must go. 
It was plain to those present who were fa- 
miliar with the Indian character that there 
was great dissatisfaction among them and a 
si)irit of rebellion growing which if not soon 
suppressed would probably lead to serious 
results. The leader and principal spokesman 
for the Indians was Menominee. By the 
treaty of 1832 twenty-two sections of land 
had been reserved to him and three other 



chiefs, viz., Pepinawa, Xataka and Macataw- 
maaw. The last three named chiefs entered 
into a treaty, with Col. Abel C. Pepper on 
behalf of the government August 5, 1836, 
by which they ceded all their interest in the 
reservation above described for which the gov- 
ernment paid them $14,080 in specie, and they 
agreed to remove to the country west of the 
Missouri river provided for them within two 
years from the date of the treaty. Chief 
Menominee refused to sign the treaty and per- 
sistently declined to release to the government 
his interest in the reservation. When Col. 
Pepper had made his final appeal and all had 
had their say, Menominee arose to his feet, 
and, drawing his costly blanket around him, 
through an interpreter 'he addressed the coun- 
cil as follows: 

"Members of the Council — The President 
does not know the truth. He, like me, has 
been imposed upon. He does not know that 
you have made my young chiefs drunk and 
got their consent and pretended to get mine. ' 
He does not know that I have refused to sell 
my lands and still refuse. He would not by 
force drive me from my home, the graves of 
my tribe, and my children who have gone to 
the Great Spirit, nor allow you to tell me 
your braves will take me tied like a dog if 
he knew the truth. My brothers, the Presi- 
dent is .iust, but he listens to the word of 
young chiefs who have lied; and when he 
knows the truth he will leave me to my own. 
I have not sold my lands. I will not sell 
them. I have not signed any treaty and will 
not sign any. I am not going to leave my 
lands, and I don't want to hear anything 
more about it." 

Describing the scene, one who was present 
said: "Amid the applause of the chiefs he 
sat down. Spoken in the peculiar style of 
the Indian orator — although repeated by an 
interpreter — with an eloquence of which Lo- 
gan would have been proud, his presence the 
personification of dignity, it presented one of 
those rare occasions of which history gives but 
few instances, and on the man of true appre- 
ciation would have made a most profound 

Considerable time was spent in trying to 
persuade IMenominee and his following to ac- 
cept the inevitable and remove peaceably to 
the reservation provided for them, and that 
if they did not, the government would be 
compelled to remove them by force. Without 
accomplishing anything, however, the council 

disbanded. ]\Ienominee was a wise and ex- 
perienced chief, and he knew the final con- 
summation was near at hand. As soon as the 
council had disbanded the began at once to 
fire the hearts of his followers, with a deter- 
mination to resist the government officers in 
their evident intention to remove them, peace- 
ably if they could, forcibly if they must. The 
consequence was the Indians became desper- 
ate, intoxicating liquors were drank to excess ; 
threats of violence were freely made, and the 
white settlers in the immediate neighborhood 
became greatly alarmed for the safety of 
themselves and families. In this alarming 
condition of affairs, a number of white settlers 
of Marshall county, early in August, 1838, 
petitioned the governor of Indiana for pro- 
tection against what they believed would re- 
sult in the certain destruction of their lives 
and property. In his message to the legisla- 
ture December 4, 1838, Governor David Wal- 
lace said: 

"By the conditions of the late treaty with 
the Pottawatomie Indians in Indiana, the time 
stipulated for their departure to the west of 
the Missouri expired on the 6th of August 
last. As this trying moment approached a 
strong disposition was manifested by many of 
the most influential among them to disregard 
the treaty entirely, and to cling to the homes 
and graves of their fathers at all hazards. In 
consequence of such a determination on their 
part, a collision of the most serious character 
was likely to ensue between them and the sur- 
rounding settlers. Apprehensive of such a 
result, and with a view to prevent it, the 
citizens of Marshall county, early in the month 
of August, forwarded to the executive a peti- 
tion praying that an armed force might be 
immediately sent to their protection. On re- 
ceipt of this petition I i-epaired as speedily 
as circumstances would permit to the scene 
of difficulty in order to satisfy myself by a 
personal examination whether their fears were 
justifiable or not. On my return to Logans- 
port a formal requisition awaited me from 
the Indian agent. Col. A. C. Pepper, for one 
hundred armed volunteers to be placed under 
the command of some competent citizen of the 
state, whose duty it should be to preserve the 
peace and to arrest the growing spirit of hos- 
tility displayed by the Indians. The requisi- 
tion was instantly granted. I appointed the 
Hon. John Tipton to this command and gave 
him authority to raise the necessary number 
of volunteers. He promptly and patriotically 



accepted the appointment, and, although sick- 
ness and disease prevailed to an alarming ex- 
tent throughout northern Indiana, yet such 
was the spirit and patriotism of the people 
there that in about forty-eight hours after 
the requisition was authorized the requisite 
force was not only mustered, but was trans- 
ported into the midst of the Indians before 
they were aware of its approach or before 
even they could possibly take steps to resist 
or repel it. The rapidity of the movement, 
the known decision and energy of General 
Tipton, backed by his intimate acquaintance 
and popularity with the Indians, whom it 
was his business to quiet, accomplished every- 
thing desired. The refractory became com- 
placent; opposition to removal ceased, and 
the whole tribe, with a few exceptions amount- 
ing to between 800 and 900, volimtarily pre- 
pared to emigrate. General Tipton and the 
volunteers accompanied them as far as Dan- 
ville, Illinois, administering to them on the 
way whatever comfort and relief humanity 
required. There they were delivered over to 
the care of Judge Polke and the United States 
removing agents. Copies of all the communi- 
cations and reports made to the executive by 
General Tipton while in the discharge of this 
duty I lay before you, from which I feel as- 
sured you will discover with myself that much 
credit and many thanks are due not only to 
him but to all who assisted him in bringing so 
delicate an alfair to so happy and successful 
a termination." 

David Wallace served as governor of In- 
diana from 1837 to 1840. The most important 
act of his administration was his order to re- 
move the remaining Pottawatomie Indians as 
set forth in his message herein quoted. After 
his term as governor expired, he was subse- 
quently elected to Congress. He was made a 
member of the committee on ways and means, 
and in that committee gave the casting vote 
in favor of assisting with a donation to Pro- 
fessor Morse to develop the magnetic tele- 
graph. This vote was ridiculed by his po- 
litical opponents and cost him many votes the 
last time he ran for Congress. But he lived 
to see the telegraph established in nearly all 
the countries of the world and the wisdom 
of his action acknowledged bj' all. 

General Tipton recruited and organized the 
company of soldiers authorized by Governor 
Wallace*^ immediately after the requisition was 
made. These recruits were nearly all from 
Cass county, at .Logansport, and in the vicin- 

ity. They started from Logansport the latter 
part of August, marching along the Michigan 
road through Rochester, across Tippecanoe 
river, and then along the old Indian trail 
northwestward until they came to Menominee 
village at Twin lakes, five miles southwest 
from Plymouth. A great many of the white 
settlers in the neighborhood turned out to 
welcome the soldiers and to render such as- 
sistance as might be necessary. The Indians 
were surrounded before they realized that the 
soldiers had been sent to remove them. Such 
arms as they had were taken from them and 
preparations at once commenced for the start- 
ing of the caravan. Squads of soldiers were 
sent out in every direction for the purpose of 
capturing the straggling bands encamped in 
various places in the county, and such others 
as might be found hunting and fishing in 
the neighborhood. Several days were occu- 
pied in getting everything in readiness. The 
names of heads of families, and other Indians 
were registered, and when the list was com- 
pleted it showed a total of 859. 

On the day prior to the exodus a meeting 
of the Indians was held at the little grave- 
yard, a short distance from the village, at 
which a final farewell of the dead was taken 
by those who were to leave the following 
morning, never to return. Addresses were 
made by the chiefs present and several white 
settlers. (An address of some length was de- 
livered by Myron H. Norton of Laporte which 
was afterwards printed, but unfortunately no 
copies of it can now be found.) The scene 
is said to have been affecting in the extreme. 
Weeping and wailing, which was confined to 
a few at first, became general, and until they 
were finally induced to disperse, it looked as 
though a riot would surely ensue. In solemn 
reverence they turned their weeping eyes from 
the sleeping dead never to look upon the 
graves of their kindred again. 

The Indian chapel which was used as Gen- 
eral Tipton's headquarters while preparing 
for the removal was situated on the north 
bank of the middle Twin lake about twenty 
rods west of the Vandalia railroad. It was 
erected by Rev. Stephen Theodore Badin, 
the first Catholic priest ordained in the 
United States. He was born at Orleans, 
France, in 1768, ordained May 23, 1793, 
and died at Cincinnati, April, 19, 1853. 
The chapel was erected about 1830 and 
was built of hewn logs and covered 
with clH])boai-ds. It was about 30 by 40 feet, 



the west half being two stories high. There 
was a hallway through the center. The room 
for the missionary was over the west end of 
the chapel which was reached from below by 
means of a rustic ladder. The furniture was 
of the most primitive kind; and the food, 
corn, and wild meat and such fruits and 
vegetables as were suitable to eat during the 
summer season. The chapel was torn down 
many years ago. Bishop Brute, of Vincennes, 
under whose supervision this mission was 
established, writes as follows in regard to the 
Indians, their village and chapel: 

"A large number of their huts are built 
around their chapel, which is constructed of 
logs with the bark on with a cross erected 
behind and rising above it, and filled with 
rudely made benches. The Indians begin and 
end their work without hammer, saw or nails, 
the ax being their only implement, and bits 
of skin or bark serving to fasten the pieces 
together. The room of the missionary is over 
the chapel, the floor of the one forming the 
ceiling of the other. A ladder in the corner 
leads to it, and his furniture consists, as did 
the prophets, of a table and chair, and a bed. 
or rather a hammock swung on ropes. Around 
the room are his books, and the trunks which 
contain the articles used in his chapel, as vs'ell 
as his own apparel. He spends his life with 
his good people, sharing their corn and meat, 
with water for his drink, and tea made from 
the herbs of his little garden. He abjures 
all spirits, as all Catholic Indians are for- 
l)idden to touch that which is the bane of 
their race and he would encourage them with 
his example. I attended at the evening cate- 
chism, prayers and canticles, and in the morn- 
ing said mass, at which a large number at- 

At the time the arrangements for the re- 
moval were being perfected. Father Benjamin 
Marie Petit was the missionary in charge of 
the chapel. He was about twenty-five years 
old, and had been born and reared in France. 
This ardent youthful spirit evinced an in- 
tense enthusiasm from first to last in the work 
of his chosen field, and in an outburst of 
fervency he tells something of his feelings and 
of his ministrations: "How I love these chil- 
dren of mine, and what pleasure it is for me 
to find myself among them. There are now 
from 1,000 to 1.200 Christians. Could you 
see the little children when I enter a cabin 
crowding around me and climbing on my 
knees — the father and mother making the 

sign of the cross in pious recollection, and 
then coming with a confiding smile on their 
faces to shake hands with me — you could not 
but love them as I do." Of the chapel exer- 
cises he gave the following interesting ac- 
count : "At sunrise the first peal was rung ; 
then you might see the savages moving along 
the paths of the forest and the borders of the 
lakes. When they were assembled the second 
peal was rung. The catechist then, in an ani- 
mated manner, gave the substance of the ser- 
mon preached the evening before ; a chapter 
of the catechism was read and morning 
prayers were recited. I then said mass, the 
congregation singing hymns the while, after 
which I preached, my sermon being trans- 
lated by a respectable French lady, seventy- 
two years old, who had devoted herself to the 
missions in the capacity of interpreter. The 
sermon was followed by a pater and ave ; after 
which the congregation sang a hymn to Our 
Lady, and quietly dispersed. The next thing 
was confession which lasted till evening, and 
sometimes was resumed after supper. At sun- 
set the natives again assembled for catechism, 
followed by an exortation and evening prayers 
which finished with a hymn to Our Lady. I 
then gave them my benediction — the benedic- 
tion of poor Benjamin. In the first three 
weeks of my pastorate I baptised eighteen 
adults and blessed nine marriages." 

About this time officers and soldiers arrived 
at the chapel and village to arrange for the 
departure of the Indians. Father Petit again 
wrote as follows : 

' ' One morning I said mass and immediately 
afterward we began removing all the orna- 
ments from my dear little church. At the 
moment of my departure I assembled all my 
children to speak to them for the last time. I 
wept, and my auditors sobbed aloud. It was 
indeed a heartrending sight, and over our dy- 
ing mission we prayed for the success of those 
they would establish in the new hunting 
grounds. We then with one accord sang: 

" 'O. Virgin, we place our confidence in 
Thee. ' 

"It was often interrupted by sobs and but 
few voices were able to finish it. I then left 

When General Tipton and his soldiers had 
arranged everything in readiness to move, the 
teepees, wigwams and cabins were torn down 
and destroyed and Menominee village had the 
appearance of having been swept by a hurri- 



cane. Early on the morning of September 4, 
1S38. orders were given to move, and at once 
nearly one thousand men, women and chil- 
dren, with broken hearts and tearful eyes took 
up the line of march to their far western 

General Tipton accompanied the Indians as 
far as Sandusky Point, Illinois, at which place 
the caravan arrived on September 18, 1838. 
two weeks after the departure from Twin 
lakes. From that point he made a lengthy 
report to Governor Wallace, giving a histori- 
cal sketch of the occurrences that led up to 
the removal, together with a copy of his daily 
journal in which is shown in detail all that 
occurred during the time he had charge of 
the caravan. The report is too lengthy for 
insertion here in full, and only brief extracts 
can be given. He says: 

"The arrival of the volunteers in the In- 
dian village Avas the first intimation they had 
of the movement of men with arms. Many of 
the Indian men were assembled near the 
chapel when we arrived and were not per- 
mitted to leave camp or separate until matters 
were amicably settled and they had agreed to 
give peaceable possession of the land sold by 

As has been stated heretofore, Menominee, 
the principal chief in the owaiership of the 
reservation which bore his name, never signed 
the treaty executed by the three chiefs asso- 
ciated with him in the reservation, viz., Pe- 
pina.wa, Xataka and ]\Iackatawmaaw. The 
reason he did not sign this treaty was because 
he knew from past experience that the amount 
of money received from the government by 
these chiefs would all be spent for whisky 
and riotous living before the two years ex- 
pired stipulated by the treaty that they 
should remove to the west. His worst fears 
were fully realized. The $14,080 the govern- 
ment paid them to sign the treaty had all been 
squandered for spirituous liquors and trinkets 
of one kind or another purchased at enor- 
mous prices from the white traders that gath- 
ered about them like crows about a dead car- 
cass until their money was all gone. J\Ienom- 
inee declined to sign the treaty, and never did 
sign it, but there was at no time any danger 
of an uprising. The Pottawatomies as a tribe 
were always friendly with the white settlers, 
and in northern Indiana never caused any 
disturbance except in individual cases where 
they were driven into it by white traders and 
other designing persons who sold and gave 

them whisky for the purpose of getting them 
drunk and robbing them of their lands and 
annuities paid them by the government. 

At the time of the removal none of these 
Indians were armed for defense or warfare, 
and had only a few rifles which they had 
purchased from the white traders at exorbi- 
tant prices, and the bows and arrows for 
killing game for food. Menominee, the head 
of the band, was a religious man. and an 
exhorter. He taught his followers to avoid 
the use of intoxicating liquors; not to cheat, 
or murder, or lie, or steal, or quarrel with 
one another, or the white settlers, although 
they might have ample provocation, but to 
live in peace with all men. They were com- 
pletely under his control, and that of their 
priest. Father Petit. No trouble ever occurred 
between them and the whites except that re- 
lated by General Tipton in his report to Gov- 
ernor Wallace, as follows : 

"On the 5th of last month, the day on 
which the Indians were to have left the res- 
ervation, the whites demanded possession 
which they — the Indians — absolutely refused. 
Quarrels ensued and between the 15th and 
20th the Indians chopped the door of one 
of the settlers — :\Ir. Watters — and threatened 
his life. This was followed by the burning 
of ten or twelve Indian cabins which produced 
a state of feeling bordering on hostilities. 

Having made a thorough and exhaustive 
investigation of this subject a few years ago 
when many of the settlers were still living 
and several who were there at the time and 
participated in the removal and knew all 
about the circumstances leading up to the re- 
moval, it is but the truth to say that the origin 
of the trouble was not with the Indians, but 
with Mr. Watters, who had settled in the 
reservation, without authority, a few months 
previous, and desired the Indians to leave so 
he could preempt 160 acres of the reservation 
under the laws of Congress passed in June 
of that year. He was the disturbing element, 
and set about deliberately to work up the dis- 
turbance so that the Governor would be com- 
pelled to remove them. The infomiation on 
which Governor Wallace based his action was 
that received from ]\Ir. Watters and a few 
other white settlers in the vicinity that al- 
lowed him to be the spokesman. The Indians 
were not consulted and had no say in the 

Further along in his report General Tipton, 
speaking of the Indians, said: 



"Most of them appeared willing to go. 
Three of their principal men, however, ex- 
pressed a wish to be governed by the advice 
of their priest (Mr. Petit, a Catholic gentle- 
man), who. had resided with them up to the 
time of the commencement of the quarrel be- 
tween the Indians and the whites, when he 
left Twin lakes and retired to South Bend 
[Notre Dame]. I addressed a letter inviting 
him to join the emigration and go west. He 
accepted the invitation and I am happy to 
inform you that he joined us two days ago 
and is going west with the Indians. It is but 
justice to him to say that he has both by 
example and precept, produced a very favor- 
able change in the morals and industry of 
the Indians; that his untiring zeal in the 
cause of civilization has been and will con- 
tinue to be eventually beneficial to these un- 
fortunate Pottawatomies, when they reach 
their new abode." 

On the 16th of September Father Petit re- ' 
joined his flock near Danville, Illinois. He 
found them moving onward, enveloped" in 
clouds of dust, and surrounded by the sol- 
diers who hurried on their march. Behind 
came the wagons in w^hich were crowded to- 
gether the sick, the women and the children. 
The scene as described by Father Petit was 
one of the most mournful description; the 
children overcome by heat were reduced to 
a wretched state of languor and exhaustion. 
By this time General Tipton had begun to 
understand something of Father Petit 's worth, 
and treated him with marked respect. The 
chiefs who had hitherto been treated as pris- 
oners of war were released at the priest's 
request and took their places with the rest 
of the tribe. First went the flag of the 
United States borne by a dragoon ; after 
which came the baggage ; then the vehicle 
occupied by the native chiefs ; next followed 
the main body of the emigrants, men, women 
and children, mounted on horses, marching "in 
file after Indian fashion, while all along the 
flanks of the multitude might be seen dragoons 
and volunteers urging on unwilling stragglers, 
often with the most violent words and 
gestures. The sick were in their wagons 
under an awning of canvas, which, however, 
far from protecting them from the stifling 
heat and dust, only deprived them of air. The 
interior was like an oven, and many conse- 
quently died. Six miles from Danville, Il- 
linois, there was a halt for two days. "When 
we quitted the spot," Father Petit said, "we 

left six graves under the shadow of the 
cross." Order had been so thoroughly re- 
stored through the presence of the good priest 
that the troops now retired and Father Petit 
was left with the civil authorities to conduct 
the emigrants to their destination. Having 
seen the emigrants safely landed on their res- 
ervation on the Osage river southwest of the 
Missouri river, such as had not died and 
escaped on the way, Father Petit started on 
the return trip. At St. Louis he was taken 
sick from fatigue and malarial fever and died. 
His remains were afterward removed to Notre 
Dame, Indiana, where they lie buried beneath 
a beautiful chapel at that place. 

Of the onward journey after leaving San- 
dusky Point, Illinois, where the caravan was 
placed in charge of Judge Polke, we have only 
the general statement that 150 persons were 
lost on the whole way by death and desertion. 
"What amount of suffering fell to the lot of 
these poor Indians every day of this horrible 
journey, no tongue can tell. Hundreds of 
them were daily burning with the terrible 
malarial fever so universally prevalent during 
the warm part of 1838. These hundreds were 
crowded into common rough wagons and com- 
pelled to bear the downpouring rays of a 
sultry sun, and the only beverage to quench 
the prevailing thirst was dipped from some 
mud stream just drying up. The food was 
composed of beef and flour cooked as might 
be while encamped for the night. Alas, how 
these poor little dusky infants must have suf- 
fered. No wonder that their little graves 
marked the daily journey. 

In the southern part of Indiana, the legisla- 
ture two years ago authorized the erection of 
a monument to the memory of the pioneers 
of that section of the state who were massa- 
cred by the Shawnee Indians during the 
period of the War of 1812 with England. The 
massacre was cruel and inhuman and without 
excuse, but in the history of that most de- 
plorable event, the Indian side of the question 
that led up to the culmination of the dispute 
has never been written. The monument at 
Pigeon Eoost, while it commemorates the mem- 
ory of the murdered dead, also perpetuates 
the worst feature in the Indian character. 

On the other hand the state, through its 
legislature, is now asked to authorize the erec- 
tion of a monument to mark the dawn of civ- 
ilization in northern Indiana; the rebuilding 
of the first house of Christian worship in the 
entire great northwest, east of the Pacific 



coast, and to perpetuate the memory of the 
Pottawatomie Indians, the owners and first 
inhabitants of the country north of the Wa- 
bash river, and south of the lakes, whose writ- 
ton liistory is entirely the work of the white 
people, the g'overnment agents, traders, and 
schemers who wrote from the white man's 
selfish and prejudiced standpoint. I stand 
here to-day, in this magnificent presence, to 
plead for the Pottawatomie Indians; to give 
their side of the story which has never before 
been told. As I stand here to-day I wish you 
to imagine that the spirit of the good Indian 
Menominee has come back after nearly three- 
quarters of a century to tell you the truth in 
regard to the cruel and inhuman manner in 
which he and his tribe were treated by the 
government agents who dispossessed him of 
his property against his will, without com- 
pensation, and forced him and his people into 
captivity beyond the great Missouri, where he 
was never heard of again and where he un- 
doubtedly died of a broken heart. 

They are now all gone — not one is left to 
tell the story. But whether the legislature 
authorizes the erection of this monument or 
uot^the Pottawatomie Indians will not be for- 
gotten. Their memory has been preserved, 
and will continue to be perpetuated for all 
time to come in the rivers, lakes and various 
localities bearing their names. Aubenaube 
and Kewanna, and Tiosa, in Fulton county, 
perpetuate the names of noted Indian chiefs; 
and the beautiful Tippecanoe, with its rip- 
pling waters Of blue ; and the picturesque 
Manitou, and the lovely Maxinkuckee, the St. 
Joseph, and especially the famous Wabash, 
" 'Round my Indiana homestead wave the 

In the distance loom the woodlands clear and 

cool ; 
It was there I spent my days of early child- 
hood — 
It was there I learned the love of nature's 

I can hear my mother's voice call from the 

As she stood there years ago and watched 

for me; 
I can hear the birds sing sweetly in the 

On the banks of the Wabash, far away. 

Oh, the moon is fair tonight along the Wa- 

From the fields there comes the breath of 
new-mown hay. 
Through the sycamores the candle-lights are 
On the banks of the Wabash, far away. ' ' 

All these names will perpetuate for all 
time to come the memory of the Pottawatomie 
Indians, the first owners and inhabitants of 
all the beautiful country north of the Wabash 
river and south of the great lakes. 
"The Indians all have passed away, 
That noble race and brave. 
Their light canoes have vanished 

From off the crested wave. 
Amid the forest where they roamed 

There rings no hunter's shout — 
But their name is on your waters — 
You can not wash it out." 

While the house of representatives showed 
its appreciation of the eloquence of Mr. Mc- 
Donald by ordering his address published in 
pamphlet form (the only address of the ses- 
sion so honored), yet the members were not 
prepared to pass his bill for the erection of 
the modest memorial which he requested. It 
is gratifying, however, to know that Mr. 
McDonald was . returned to the general as- 
sembly for the session of 1907, and that his 
bill was re-introduced during that session and 
became a law by the approval of the gov- 
ernor, March 12, 1907. The memorial to the 
great Menominee will be no less a monument 
to the noble heart and wise head of his advo- 
cate and defender, the Hon; Daniel MeDon- 

In 1840, Alexis Coquillard, the first white 
man to establish a trading post on the site 
of the city of South Bend, was commissioned 
by the general government to remove certain 
bands of Pottawatomies who still remained 
in St. Joseph county. They had agreed to go 
peaceably with, "the Pottawatomie Chief," as 
Mr. Coquillard was called by the Indians, 
who had much admiration and affection for 
this distinguished pioneer. These last Indians 
were removed by Mr. Coquillard without 

a. For the act as passed by the general as- 
sembly and signed by the governor, see Acts 
1907, p. 623. 



trouble, and in a most humane manner. There 
was in this case none of the sadness and suf- 
fering so graphically described by Mr. Mc- 
Donald in the former case, — ^the Ooquillard 
removal being all in wagons. The only re- 
grettable circumstance connected with this last 
Indian emigration is the fact that Alexis 
Ooquillard was defrauded by his partner, a 
man named Alverson. who appropriated to 
himself the large sum of money, $40,000 and 
over, which the general government had ap- 
propriated and paid for this important serv- 
ice. The defalcation of his partner, for a 
time, weighed heavily upon the spirits and 
fortunes of Mr. Ooquillard, but only for a 
time. The same indomitable energies that 

made his fortunes restored them. He was a 
fine type of those business men that followed 
him, men who refused to be suppressed by 
adverse circumstances and who have made 
the business enterprises of St. Joseph county 
known to the people of the world. 

With this last removal of the primitive 
inhabitants, but two or three Pottawatomie 
families were left in St. Joseph county, and 
now there is not an Indian of full blood 
where once the race was in absolute posses- 
sion. As said by Mr. McDonald, in closing 
his notable speech in the state house at In- 
dianapolis: "They are now all gone — not one 
is left to tell the story." 




Sec. 1. — Nature of the French Occu- 
pancy. — Not taking into account the nomadic 
occupancy of the Indians or of others who 
may have preceded them, the first people to 
exercise governmental authority within the 
limits of the territory northwest of the Ohio 
river were the French. In 1641, just a hun- 
dred years after Hernando de Soto had pene- 
trated to the shores of the Mississippi, in the 
south, the first conference of the French with 
the Indians of the northwest took place at the 
Sault Ste. Marie, between Lake Superior 
and Lake Huron : but it was not until 1660 
that a mission was established in that locality. 
In 1665 Allouez renewed in that region the 
work of Father Mesnard. In 1668, Fathers 
]\Iarquette and Dablon were laboring at the 
same place ; and in 1670, Talon, the intendant, 
or governor-general, of Canada, sent out 
Nicholas Perrot, who explored Lake Michigan 
as far as Chicago. It was in 1671, after the 
establishment of those missions and the mak- 
ing of those explorations, that the French took 
formal possession of the northwest; and in 
the same year jMarquette established the noted 
mission at St. Ignace, on the main land near 
the island of Mackinac. Two years afterwards 
INIarquette passed over Lake Michigan and 
northern Wisconsin, and on June 17, 1673, 
discovered the Mississippi, down which he 
sailed to a point below where de Soto had 
reached the river in 1541.« During the years 

a. Perkins' Annals of the West, pp. 28-33. Ban- 
croft, Hist. U. S., Vol. III. 

1670, 1671 and 1672, Allouez and Dablon con- 
tinued their missions to the Indians and made 
explorations through eastern Wisconsin, 
northeastern Illinois, northern Indiana and 
southwestern Michigan." It seems well estab- 
lished also that as early as 1669, La Salle went 
south from Canada through the eastern part 
of the northwest territory until he discovered 
the Ohio river, down which he voyaged as far 
at least as the mouth of the Wabash, if not 
to the Mississippi itself. The earliest claims 
made by France to the country west of the 
Alleghenies and south to the Spanish posses- 
sions and the Gulf of Mexico, were based upon 
these explorations and discoveries of La 
Salle,'' as also those made by Marquette, 
Allouez and others about the great lakes. 

On April 9. 1682, La Salle, after having 
sailed down the Mississippi and discovered its 
outlets into the Gulf of Mexico, solemnly took 
possession, in the name of France, of all the 
territories drained by the great river and its^ 
tributaries, which domain he called Louisiana, 
in honor of Louis XIV, then King of France. 
Thereafter the territory claimed by the 
French extended from the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence, by way of the great lakes and the Mis- 
sissippi, to the Gulf of Mexico. Following 
out La Salle 's plan of empire, the government 
of France established military posts within 
supporting distance of one another through- 
out this vast region. Besides Quebec, Mon- 
treal and Frontenac, there were forts at the 
Sault Ste. Marie, Michilimackinae (Macki- 


a. Dillon, Hist. Indiana, pp. 2-3. 
h. Dunn, Hist. Indiana, pp. 5-14. 



naw) ; Detroit: DuQuesne (Pittsburg) ; Chi- 
cago; Miamis (at the mouth of the St. Joseph, 
afterwards abandoned for Fort St. Joseph's, 
near Xiles) ; Fort WajTie; Ouiatanon (near 
La Fayette); Vineennes; Kaskaskia; Fort 
Chartres; St. Louis; Natchez; New Orleans; 
and numerous smaller posts. 

See. 2.— Canada and Louisiana. — The 
upper part of this great territory of French 
America, was called Canada, and sometimes 
New France ; the lower part retained the 
name Louisiana. The boundary between Can- 
ada and Louisiana was not well defined, nor 
did it always remain the same. The country 
west of the Mississippi was always referred 
to as a part of Louisiana, as was also the 
country east of that river and south of a line 
through Terre Haute.* Vineennes, accord- 
ingly, was at all times included in Louisiana; 
while Detroit, Chicago, Fort St. Joseph's, 
Fort Wayne and other posts situated on 
waters flowing into the great lakes were re- 
garded as being within the limits of Canada. 
As to territory north of Terre Haute, but 
drained by the "Wabash, Illinois and other 
rivers flowing into the Ohio or IMississippi, 
there was little uniformity. In the articles of 
capitulation of Montreal, as Ave have already 
seen, when, on September 18, 1760, all Can- 
ada was surrendered to Great Britain, it was 
agreed that the limits of Canada included all 
territory drained into the great lakes.^ This 
statement in the articles left all the territory 
now embraced in Indiana within the domain 
of Louisiana, except only a small and irreg- 
ularly bounded part in the north, drained by 
^he St. Joseph and the Maumee rivers. Ac- 
cordingly, by the terms of the capitulation so 
much of St. Joseph county as is embraced 
within the St. Joseph valley w^as regarded as a 
part of Canada and became British territory, 
while the rest of the county, being within the 
valley of the Kankakee, remained a part of 
Louisiana, and continued to be French terri- 

a. Dillon, Hist. Indiana, pp. 23-25. Dunn, Hist. 
Indiana, p. 58. 

h. See Chapter II., Division V., p. 4.3. 

tory, until, by the treaty of Paris, February 
10. 1763, the whole country east of the ]\Iiss- 
issippi passed to Great Britain. 

The respective governments of Canada and 
Louisiana were almost as uncertain as was 
the boundary between them. At times the 
governments of the two provinces were quite 
distinct, but more often Louisiana was subject 
to the superior rights of Canada, or New 

While the many posts from Quebec to New 
Orleans, and from Michilimackinac, on the 
north, to DuQuesne, on the east, and St. Louis 
on the west, commanding the waters and the 
valleys of the St. Lawrence, the great lakes, 
the Maumee, the St. Joseph, the Illinois, the 
Wabash, the Ohio and the Mississippi, consti- 
tuted the framework of a mighty French em- 
pire, according to the fine scheme of La Salle ; 
yet when the transfer of Canada and eastern 
Louisiana was made to Great Britain, in 1763, 
it w^as indeed but the framework of an empire. 
Outside the several forts, and excepting the 
districts near Quebec and Montreal, the 
French inhabitants of the immense region 
were exceedingly few in number. In the ter- 
ritory northwest of the Ohio the chief of the 
small centers of population M'ere at Michili- 
mackinac, Detroit and Chicago, on the great 
lakes ; Kaskaskia and Fort Chartres, on the 
Mississippi; Vineennes, on the Wabash; and 
Fort Wayne, on the Maumee. 


From the capitulation of Montreal, Septem- 
ber 8, 1760, and the treaty of Paris, at the con- 
clusion of the Seven Years' War, February 
10, 1763, until the beginning of the American 
revolution, the country northwest of the Ohio 
continued to be, nominally at least, a part of 
the British dominions. In 1778 and 1779, the 
expedition from Virginia and Kentucky, 
under George Rogers Clark, resulted in the 
capture of Kaskaskia and Vineennes and the 
conquest of the southern part of this terri- 
tory; and, in 1781, the Spanish expedition 
from St. Louis resulted in the capture of Fort 
St. Joseph's, and the claim by the Spaniards 



to the northern part of the territory. It was 
not, however, until the treaty of peace recog- 
nizing the independence of the United States 
of America, September 3, 1783, that the 
claims of Great Britain, as well as those of 
Spain, were altogether finally extinguished. 

The fifteen years of uninterrupted British 
occupancy, from the treaty of Paris to the 
capture of Kaskaskia, was merely occupancy, 
and nothing more. The forts taken over from 
the French were garrisoned by British troops ; 
but the population remained practically what 
it had been under the French rule. The gar- 
risons, too, with the exception, perhaps, of 
those at ^Nlichilimackinac, Detroit, Fort Pitt, 
were feeble, barely sufficient to hold the coun- 
try and protect the scattered posts from the 

The Spanish expedition from St. Louis, in 
1781, found it an easy matter to capture Fort 
St. Joseph's, the English garrison being quite 
insignificant, and not at all prepared to re- 
sist an attack in force by regular troops. The 
Spaniards themselves made no pretense to 
hold the country ; but were content to destroy 
the old fort, and so remove all semblance of 
British authority in the north, while setting 
up a visionary claim of their own.*^ 

Indeed, neither British nor Spanish author- 
ity was ever much more than nominal in 
northwestern Indiana. 

For forty years after the secret treaty of 
1763, Louisiana was Spanish. In 1801, by 
another secret treaty, it passed again to 
France, but remained outwardly under Span- 
ish rule until the transfer to the United States 
by Napoleon, in 1803, during the presidency 
of Jefferson. Other conditions might have 
made the capture of Fort St. Joseph's, in 
1781. of national importance. But Clark had 
taken Kaskaskia and Vincennes, the southern 
part of the great northwest was in American 
hands, and the American revolution was suc- 
cessful. The picturesque Spanish expedition 
across Illinois and Indiana was but an epi- 
sode, and left no trace in our history. 

a. See Chapt. II., subd. 4. 


Sec. 1.— Clark in Kentucky. — The history 
of Indiana, proper, as the state now exists, 
begins with the expedition of George Rogers 
Clark, and his capture of Kaskaskia, July 4, 
1778. This begining was an auspicious one, 
•occurring two years, to a day, after the sign- 
ing of the Declaration of Independence. But 
the infant nation was yet in the struggle for 
existence; and comparatively few persons 
then realized, indeed to this day many fail to 
realize, how important to the nation, and to 
the world, was this daring enterprise of the 
young Virginian, "The Hannibal of the 

It is well to keep in mind that the con- 
quest of the northwest was not made under 
the authority of the United States, but under 
that of the state of Virginia. This great com- 
monwealth was not only the mother of presi- 
dents, but the mother of states. West Vir- 
ginia, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan, Wisconsin and part of Minnesota 
were at one time included in the territory of 
the great state of Virginia, and were all 
directly subject to her laws and government. 

Kentucky, during the period of the Revolu- 
tion, was occupied by sparse settlements of 
emigrants from Virginia, surrounded by hos- 
tile Indians and exposed to attack from the 
British posts at Detroit, Vincennes, Kaskaskia 
and other points. The people looked for pro- 
tection to the home government of Virginia; 
but the settlements of Kentucky were far re- 
moved from their friends in Virginia, and all 
the forces of the state were strained to the 
utmost in aiding the other colonies in the dis- 
tressing war then waged with Great Britain. 

Among the Vii-ginians who went to the 
assistance of their brethren in Kentuckj^ was 
George Rogers Clark ; and he very early made 
up his mind that the best way to protect the 
people of that "dark and bloody ground" was 
to wrest the country north of the Ohio from 
the English, who were constantly inciting the 
Indians against the feeble settlements south 



of the river, and who might at any time send 
an expedition from Detroit to capture the 
Kentucky posts and thus also be enabled to 
attack Virginia, Pennsylvania and the Caro- 
linas from the west, while other British troops 
attacked them from the east. The necessity 
of capturing Vincennes, Kaskaskia and De- 
troit seemed to Clark to be most urgent, not- 
withstanding the great difficulty of the enter- 
prise, and the slender assistance which he 
could hope to receive. He determined, there- 
fore, to return to Virginia and present the 
matter to Patrick Henry, then governor of the 
state, the man whose eloquence had roused 
the enthusiasm of the colonists to declare 
their independence of Great Britain. 

Sec. 2. — His Appeal to Virginia. — Mr. 
English, in his History of the Conquest of the 
Northwest, presents the situation as it took 
place on Clark's return substantially as fol- 
lows : Clark 's stay in the Kentucky country 
in 1777, had still further endeared him to the 
inhabitants, who now looked upon him as the 
leader upon whom they could rely with great- 
est safety. They instinctively felt that his 
active spirit was not likely to remain quiet in 
these dangerous times; and, Clark says, that 
when he was about to leave for Virginia, in 
the fall, every eye seemed to be turned on 
him in expectation that he was going to under- 
take some enterprise that would benefit them. 
There were some, however, who thought he 
contemplated entering service in the revolu- 
tionary army of Virginia, in the east, and 
feared he would never return to the Kentucky 
frontier. ' ' I left them with reluctance, ' ' said 
he, "promising them that I would certainly 
return to their assistance, which I had prede- 
termined." This was on the 1st of October, 

He had carefully looked over the western 
field and determined that he could best serve 
his country by leading a force against the 
enemy's posts in the Illinois and on the Wa- 
bash. The authority to do it, and the men 
and means necessary to make it a success, 
could only come from the home government of 

Virginia. To that he now directed his atten- 
tion, with his usual caution, good judgment 
and energy'. He went to Williamsburg, still 
the capital of the state, and there, at first, 
quietly employed himself in settling the ac- 
counts of the Kentucky militia, which shows 
that he had been in military authority in the 
Kentucky country; but he was, in fact, all 
the time feeling his way to the development 
of his great plan of striking the British posts 
northwest of the Ohio river. Events in the 
east about this time proved favorable to the 
adoption of his plans. The capture of the 
British army under Burgoyne had greatly en- 
couraged the Americans, and they were feel- 
ing more as if they might be able to carry the 
war into the enemy's country. Clark talked 
confidently upon the subject to a few discreet 
friends, but it was about two months after 
his arrival in Virginia before he ventured to 
lay his plans before the governor of the state. 
The eventful day was the 10th of December, 
1777, when he first presented the matter to the 
great governor, Patrick Henry. They were 
not strangers to each other. The grand old 
patriot gave eager attention to the youthful 
Virginian, but the plans now presented were 
vastly greater in importance then those he had 
presented the previous year in relation to giv- 
ing the settlers in Kentucky a government 
and the stations gunpowder. In Clark's Me- 
moir, he says : "At first he seemed to be fond 
of it ; but to detach a party at so great a dis- 
tance, although the service performed might 
be of great utility, appeared daring and haz- 
ardous, as nothing but secrecy could give suc- 
cess to the enterprise. To lay the matter 
before the assembly, then sitting, would be 
dangerous, as it would soon be known through- 
out the frontiers, and probably the first pris- 
oner taken by the Indians would give the 
alarm, which would end in the certain destruc- 
tion of the party." Henry's great mind, no 
doubt, grasped not only the danger the invad- 
ing party might be involved in, but the vast 
benefit it might be to the future of the coun- 
try if the campaign should prove successful. 



He realized that it was a matter of the gravest 
importance, and required the earnest and 
careful consideration of the wisest and most 
discreet men in the state. lie invited as his 
confidential counsellors and advisers upon this 
memorable occasion three men who fully 
came up to the requirement, namely Thomas 
Jefferson. George Wythe and. George Mason. 
Seldom in the annals of military affairs has a 
stronger body of men assembled to consider 
the expediency of a campaign than was 
assembled on this occasion. Patrick Henry, 
Thomas Jeff'ei-son, George Wythe, George 
Mason and George Rogers Clark — five men 
who made an honorable impress upon the age 
in which they lived, and who may justly be 
ranked with the fii*st men of their time, 
indeed, of any time. 

These distinguished gentlemen were in con- 
sultation upon the subject of the contem- 
plated campaign for several weeks, and Clark 
records in his Memoir that every enquiry was 
made into his proposed plan of operations, 
and particularly that of retreat, in case of 
misfortune, across the Mississippi into the 
Spanish territory. Friday, January 2, 1778, 
seems to have been the day the proposed 
"expedition against Kaskaskia" was formally 
communicated bv the governor to the council 
and approved — the same to be set on foot 
"with as little delay and as much secrecy as 
possible." This action of the governor and 
privy council was under a law of the Virginia 
legislature, passed by the General Assembly 
then in session, authorizing the governor, with 
the advice of the privy council, to organize an 
expedition, to march against and attack any 
of our western enemies, and give the neces- 
sary orders for the expedition. Clark says 
this law was passed to enable the governor to 
order the Illinois campaign, but that when it 
passed but few in the house knew the real 
intent of it.* 

Sec. 3. — Secret Preparations. — On Janu- 

a. Conquest of the country northwest of the 
River Ohio, Vol. 1, pp. 86-93. The text slightly 
condensed and abbreviated. 

ary 4, 1778, Clark, having received his instruc- 
tions from the governor, together with £1,200 
to defray expenses, set out to collect troops 
and supplies for the most brilliant enterprise 
in American history, following the conquest 
of Mexico by Cortez. On February 1st, he 
arrived at Red Stone, now^ Brownsville, Penn- 
sylvania. He tells us in his Memoir that he 
found much opposition to the enterprise in 
the Pittsburg country. The Pennsylvanians 
seemed opposed to the raising of troops for 
the use of Virginia. "As my real instruc- 
tions," he continues, "were kept concealed, 
and only an instrument from the governor 
was made public, wherein I was authorized to 
raise men for the defense of Kentucky, many 
gentlemen of both parties conceived it to be 
injurious to the public interest to draw off 
men at so critical a moment for the defense 
of a few detached inhabitants, who had better 
be removed, etc." After collecting a part of 
his troops and leaving instructions for further 
enlistments, Clark took his stores at Pittsburg 
and Wheeling and proceeded cautiously down 
the river. He occupied a small island at the 
Falls of the Ohio, afterwards called Corn 
Island, opposite the present city of LouLsville, 
where he arrived May 27, 1788, and here for 
the first time, he made know to his officers 
and men the nature of his design and the 
secret instructions received from the governor 
of Virginia. "Almost every gentleman," he 
says, "warmly espoused the enterprise, and 
plainly saw the utility of it, and supposed 
they saw the salvation of Kentucky nlniosl in 
their reach ; but some repined that we were 
not strong enough to put it beyond all doubt. 
The soldiery, in general, debated on the sub- 
ject, but determined to follow their officers: 
some were alarmed at the tliought of being 
taken at so great a distance into the enemy's 
country, that if they should have success in 
the first instance they might be attacked in 
their- ]K)sts without a possibility of getting 
succoi- oi- making their retreat." There were 
some desertions at this time. l)ut Clark reso- 
lutely pursued aiid punished the guilty par- 



ties, as everything now depended on the 
observance of the most rigid discipline. 

Sec. 4. — Capture of Kaskaskia. — On June 
24, 1778, they left Corn Island. The force 
consisted of four companies, commanded by 
Captains John Montgomery, Joseph Bowman, 
Leonard Helm and William Harrod. The 
total number of men was about one hundred 
and seventy-five, besides the officers." The 
force being so small Clark found it necessary 
to alter his plans. In his jNIemoir, he says 
that, "As Post St. Vincennes at this time was 
a town of considerable force, consisting of 
near four hundred militia, with an Indian 
town adjoining, and great numbers continu- 
ally in the neighborhood, I had thought of 
attacking it first, but now found that I coula 
by no means venture near it. I resolved to 
begin my career in the Illinois where there 
were more inhabitants, but scattered in differ- 
ent villages, and less danger of being immedi- 
ately overpowered by the Indians ; in case of 
necessity, we could probably make our retreat 
to the Spanish side of the Mississippi, but if 
successful, we might pave our way to the pos- 
session of Post Vincennes." 

As Clark intended to leave the Ohio at Fort 
Massac, three leagues, or nine miles below the 
Tennessee, he landed. at a small island in the 
mouth of that river to prepare for the march 
overland to the British posts. Here they sur- 
prised a party of huntsmen coming up the 
river, who proved to be Americans recently 
engaged in hunting in the country about Kas- 
kaskia. They willingly agreed to join the 
expedition and gave much needed information 
of conditions in and around the forts. On 
the evening of July 4, 1778, after a trying 
march of one hundred and twenty miles,- the 
little army arrived within a few miles of the 
town of Kaskaskia, and soon after dark com- 
pletely surprised the fort and captured its 
garrison, without striking a blow. The com- 
mander, or commandant, as he was called by 
the French, a ]Mr. Roeheblave, was himself a 

a. English, Conquest of the Northwest, Vol. 1, 
p. 153. 

Frenchman, though serving as a British 
officer, and was exceedingly chagrined 
at the clever manner in which he had 
been overcome by Col. Clark. The French 
inhabitants proved to be exceedingly 
friendly. They took the oath of al- 
legiance and joyfully proclaimed themselves 
American citizens as soon as they learned of 
the good intentions of Clark, and particularly 
after being informed that the French govern- 
ment had entered into a treaty with the 
Americans and was even then aiding them in 
their war for independence against the Eng- 
lish, for whom indeed the French in America 
never had any good will. The surrounding 
villages were soon taken, chiefly through the 
aid of the French citizens of Kaskaskia. 

The principal of these smaller towns on the 
Mississippi was Cahokia, twenty leagues or 
sixty miles north of Kaskaskia, a little below 
and nearly opposite the site of the present 
city of St. Louis. 

It was formerly called Cohos, and is claimed 
to have been the first white settlement on the 
Mississippi. It was probably settled about 
the year 1700.'* This town, hardly of less con- 
sequence than Kaskaskia itself, was captured 
from the British without a struggle by a force 
of Americans and French under Major Bow- 
man, formerly Captain Joseph Bowman. 

Col. Clark took the most discreet measures 
to win the good will of the French people and 
to make the new government popular. He 
tells us in his Memoir that he inquired par- 
ticularly into the manner the people had been 
governed by the English, and much- to his 
satisfaction found that the government had 
generally been as severe as under militia law. 
"I was determined." he says, "to make an 
advantage of it. and took every step in my 
power to cause the people to feel the blessings 
enjoyed by an American citizen, which I soon 
discovered enabled me to support, from their 
own choice, almost a supreme authority over 

a. English, Conquest of the Northwest, Vol. 1, 
p. 197. See also Montague's Hist. Randolph 
County, Illinois. 



them. I caused a court of civil judication 
to be established at Kahokia. elected by the 
people. Major Bowman, to the surprise of the 
people, held a poll for a magistracy, and was 
elected and acted as judge of the court. After 
this similar courts were established in the 
towns of Kaskaskia and St. Vincent [Vincen- 
nes]. There was an appeal to myself in cer- 
tain cases, and I believe that no people ever 
had their business done more to their satisfac- 
tion than they had through the means of these 
regulations for a considerable time. ' ' 

The old court house in Cahokia, w^here 
]\Iajor Bowman sat as judge after his election 
in 1778 was a log building, capable of holding 
not more than one hundred persons. It was 
built by the French in 1716, and was used at 
first as a court house and afterwards also as 
a school house. It was the first building 
erected and used as a court house within 
the limits of the state of Illinois, and perhaps 
of all the northwest. The venerable structure 
of logs has been preserved to this day, and in 
the early part of the year 1906, was pur- 
chased for the Chicago Historical Society and 
moved to Jackson Park in that city. On De- 
cember 1, 1906, the judges of the new munici- 
pal court of Chicago met and took the oath 
of office, and the court was duly organized, 
within the walls of this historic court house. 
The following observations made by Chief 
Justice Olson on that occasion are of historical 
interest in this connection. 

' ' The little settlement of Cahokia in Illinois 
was one of the forest points of France, by 
which that nation attempted to intrench her- 
self in the valley of the Mississippi. One of 
the relics of this lost empire of France is this 
court house, which has been removed from 
the ancient hamlet to this city in the hope that 
it may be an incentive to our youth to pursue 
the absorbing story of the trials, vicissitudes 
and triumphs of the early explorers and set- 
tlers of Illinois. 

"A British commandant took possession of 
the country of Illinois in 1765. and, in the 
examination of the Cahokia court documents. 

it appears that courts of justice with officers 
of record held forth even before the arrival 
of George Rogers Clark and his Virginians. 
In the village where this court stood, Clark 
met the representatives of everj^ tribe between 
the great lakes and the Mississippi. The 
judges who first sat at this old bench were 
electe'd by the people in the first election held 
on the soil of Illinois in the autumn of 1778. 

"We who are about to assume judicial 
office in a court recently established by the 
people are proud to accept our commissions 
in this. building where the first court in the 
^Mississippi valley Avas held as the result of 
the first popular election on Illinois soil." 

Sec. 5. — Father Gibault and Vincennes. 
— ^The posts on the Mississippi being now well 
in hand, Clark turned his attention to the 
capture of the town of Vincennes. "I found 
it to be, ' ' he says, ' ' a place of infinite import- 
ance to us. To gain it was now my object, 
but, sensible that all the forces we had, joined 
by every man in Kentucky, would not be able 
to approach it, I resolved on other measures 
than that of arms." 

Mr. English says that the population of 
Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Vincennes and the other 
towns on the Mississippi and the Wabash 
"were almost entirely of French extraction, 
at the time of Clark's advent, and the uni- 
versal dislike of English rule still existed, and 
greatly facilitated his operations."^ And he 
adds that "Father Gibault was the embodi- 
ment of this sentiment, and the man of all 
others who could make it effective in recon- 
ciling the inhabitants to the change of rul- 
ers. ' '^ 

Clark himself tells us in his Memoir that 
"the priest was inclined to the American 
interest previous to our arrival in the coun- 
try;" and that "he had great influence over 

a. Conquest of the Northwest, Vol. 1, p. 199. 

b. lb. See also Address of the Rev. Pierre 
Gibault, "The Patriot Priest of the Northwest," 
delivered before the Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety by the Hon. Jacob P. Dunn, secretary of the 
Indiana State Historical Society, at Springfield, 
111., Jan. 26, 1905. 



the people at this period, and Post Vincennes 
was under his jurisdiction. I made no doubt 
of his integrity to us. I sent for him and had 
a long conference with him on the subject of 
Post Vincennes. In answer to all my queries 
he informed me that he did not think it worth 
my while to cause any military preparation to 
be made at the Falls of the Ohio for the attack 
of Post Vincennes, although the place was 
strong and a great number of Indians in its 
neighborhood, who, to his knowledge, were 
generally at war ; that Governor Abbott had, 
a few weeks before, left the place on some 
business to Detroit ; that he expected that 
when the inhabitants were fully acquainted 
with what had passed at the Illinois, and the 
present happiness of their friends, and made 
fully acquainted with the nature of the war, 
their sentiments would greatly change ; that 
he knew that his appearance there would have 
great weight, even among the savages; that 
if it was agreeable to me he would take this 
business on himself, and had no doubt of his 
being able to bring that place over to the 
American interest without my being at the 
trouble of marching against it ; that his busi- 
ness being altogether spiritual, he wished that 
another person might be charged with the 
temporal part of the embassy, but that he 
would privately direct the whole, and he 
named Doctor Lafont as his associate." 

Father Gibault's plan was perfectly agree- 
able to what Clark had been secretly aiming 
at. The party set out on July 1-1, 1778, and 
arrived safe at Vincennes, where, after a day 
or two spent in explaining matters, the people 
acceded to the proposal and took the oath of 
allegiance. "An officer," says Clark, "was 
elected, the fort immediately garrisoif|||i^^and 
the American tlag displayed, to the astonish- 
ment of the Indians, and everything settled 
beyond our most sanguine hopes. The people 
began to put on a new face and to talk in a 
different style, and to act as perfect freemen. 
With a garrison of their own, with the United 
States at their elbow, their langiiage to the 
Indians was immediately altered. They began 

as citizens of the state, and informed the 
Indians that their old father the King of 
France, was come to life again, had joined the 
big knife, and was mad at them for fighting 
for the English ; that they would advise them 
to make peace with the Americans as soon as 
they could, otherwise they might expect the 
land to be very bloody, etc. The Indians 
began to think seriously. Throughout the 
country this was now the kind of language 
they generally got from their ancient friends 
of the Wabash and Illinois. Through the 
means of their correspondence spreading 
among the nations, our batteries now began to 
play in a proper channel. Mr. Gibault and 
party, accompanied by several gentlemen of 
Post Vincennes, returned to Kaskaskia about 
the first of August with the joyful news." 

Thus, through the wise management of "The 
Patriot Priest of the Northwest, ' ' and Avithout 
the shedding of one drop of blood, the import- 
ant town of Post Vincennes came under the 
jurisdiction of the United States, — the first 
spot on Indiana soil over which floated the 
American flag. About the middle of August 
Captain Leonard Helm was sent by Clark to 
take command of the town, with instructions 
to maintain the g:ood will of the people and to 
win over the Indian tribes. An Indian chief, 
called the Tobacco's Son, a Peankeshaw. 
resided at this time in an Indian villag'e west 
of the Wabash and not far from Vincennes. 
"This man," says Clark, "was called by the 
Indians 'The Grand Door to the Wabash,' as 
the great Pontiac had been to that of the St. 
Joseph ; and, as nothing of consequence was 
to be undertaken by the league on the Wabash 
without his assent, I discovered that to win 
him was an object of great importance." 
Clark, accordingly, had sent friendly messages 
to the chief by Father Gibault, which were 
returned in the same spirit ; and like compli- 
ments were again sent by Captain Helm. 
"Tobacco's Son," says Clark, "proved a zeal- 
ous friend to the day of his death, which hap- 
pened two years after this, when he desired 
to be buried among the Americans. His body 



was conveyed to the garrison of Cahokia and 
buried with the honors of war. He appeared 
in all his conduct as if he had the American 
interest much at heart." 

"In a short time," continues Clark's Me- 
moir, ' ' almost the whole of the various tribes 
of the different nations on the Wabash, as 
high as the Ouiatanon, came to St. Vincennes 
and followed the example of their grand 
chief ; and as expresses were continually pass- 
ing between Captain Helm and myself the 
whole time of these treaties, the business was 
settled perfectly to my satisfaction, and 
greatly to the advantage of the public. The 
British interest daily lost ground in this 
quarter, and in a short time our influence 
reached the Indians on the river St. Joseph 
and the border of Lake Michigan." And he 
adds that the French gentlemen at the differ- 
ent posts engaged warmly in the American in- 
terests, and in promoting treaties of peace and 
good will with all the Indian tribes ; so that, 
as he tells us, "in a short time from this we 
could send a single soldier through any part 
of the AVabash and Illinois country, for the 
whole of those Indians came to treat, either 
at Cahokia or St. Vincennes, in course of the 

Sec. 6. — Cl.\.rk's Winter Campaign. — This 
pleasant situation was to be rudely disturbed 
as the early winter came on. At first there 
was a vague rumor that there was active 
preparation going on for a British expedition 
from Detroit, intended to retake Vincennes 
and all the other posts in possession of Clark, 
and even to invade and conquer Kentucky. 
Clark could get no definite news from Vin- 
cennes; his messengers being captured by 
English scouting parties, as it afterwards 
turned out. Indeed Clark himself was nearly 
taken by one of these parties. It was not 
until January 29, 1779, that he first learned 
the true state of affairs from Francis Vigo, a 
Spanish merchant who had been at Vincennes. 
This gentleman, whose patriotism was after- 
ward remembered by giving his honored name 
to the county of Vigo, Indiana, informed 


Clark that in the previous December, a British 
force under Governor Hamilton had come 
from Detroit and captured Vincennes; after 
which Hamilton, thinking the season too far 
advanced to take the posts on the Mississippi, 
sent some of his men to watch the Ohio, and 
disbanded others, giving orders that all 
should meet again in the spring to drive 
Clark's forces out of the Illinois and also to 
attack the Kentucky settlements. 

"We now viewed ourselves," says Clark, 
"in a very critical situation — in a manner cut 
off from any intercourse between us and the 
United States. We knew that Governor Ham- 
ilton, in the spring, by a junction of his north- 
ern and southern Indians, which he had pre- 
pared for. would be at the head of such a force 
that nothing in this quarter, could withstand 
his arms ; that Kentucky must immediately 
fall, and well if the desolation would end 
there. If we could immediately make our way 
good to Kentucky, we were convinced that 
before we could raise a force sufficient to save 
that country it would be too late, as all the 
men in it, joined by the troops we had, would 
not be sufficient, and to get timely succor from 
the interior frontiers w^as out of the question. 
We saw but one alternate, which was to attack 
the enemy in their quarters. If we were 
fortunate, it would save the whole ; if other- 
wise, it would be nothing more than what 
would certainly be the consequence if we 
should not make the attempt. Encouraged 
by the idea of the greatness of the consequen- 
ces that would attend our success — the season 
of the year being also favorable — as the 
enemy could not suppose that we should be so 
mad as to attempt to march eighty leagues 
through a drowned country in the depths of 
winter; that they would be off their guard 
and probably would not think it worth while 
to keep out spies; that, probably, if we could 
make our way good, we might surprise them, 
and if we fell through, the country would not 
be in a worse situation than if we had not 
made the attempt. These, and many other 
similar reasons, induced us to resolve to at- 



tempt the enterprise, which met with the 
approbation of every individual belonging 

Orders to begin preparations were immedi- 
ately issued, and all were executed with cheer- 
fulness by the inhabitants. Every man was 
provided with whatever was needed to with- 
stand the coldest weather. On February 5, 
1779, after listening to a patriotic address by 
Father Gibault and receiving his blessing, 
Clark moved forward, with his army of one 
hundred and seventy men, almost exactly the 
number with which he took Kaskaskia on the 
preceding Fourth of July. "Insensibly," he 
says, "and without a murmur, were those 
men led on to the banks of the Little 
Wabash," which we reached on the 13th, 
through incredible difficulties, far surpassing 
anything that any of us had ever experi- 
enced." On February 17th, they reached the 
Embarrass river, but finding they could not 
cross it they moved down the bank of that 
river to its junction with the Wabash proper, 
which they reached on the 18th, at a point 
seven or eight miles below Vincennes. Here 
they expected to find the "Willing," a boat, 
or galley, as Clark called it, sent down the 
Mississippi before they left Kaskaskia, and 
which was to go up the Ohio and the Wabash 
and take them up to the neighborhood of the 
post; but the galley was delayed and did not 
arrive at Vincennes until February 27th, three 
days after the capture of the place. The 
march for five days from the Little Wabash, 
and by the Embarrass, to the banks of the 
main Wabash, almost constantly through 
water and that in the month of February, 
was one of almost incredible hardship. Yet 
those days were as nothing to the five days 
that w^ere to come." 

Clark's original intention seems to have 
been to cross the Embarrass river near the 
site of the present town of Lawrenceville, and, 
with the help of his galley, attack the post 
from the front. He was now compelled to 
adopt a plan similar to that followed by 

a. An Illinois branch of the Wabash. 

another great general nearly a hundred years 
later. As Grant went down the Mississippi 
and crossed the river to the rear of Vicksburg, 
and so captured that stronghold, so now Clark 
by the aid of hastily constructed rafts, crossed 
the Wabash, marched up to the east of Vin- 
cennes and thus took the town from the Brit- 
ish. Both exploits are among the most notable 
in all history. That Clark was able to hold 
his little baud together on this march through 
the cold waters up the east side of the Wabash 
often knee deep or waist deep and even more, 
seems almost past belief. Only men of the 
greatest resolution and inured to hardships of 
frontier life could have held out during the 
terrible ordeal. Indeed some of the volun- 
teers did for a time begin to despair. Clark 
informs us that toward the end some of them 
talked of returning. "But my situation," he 
says, "was now such that I was past all un- 
easiness. I laughed at them, without persuad- 
ing or ordering them to desist from any such 
attempt, but told them that I would be glad if 
they would go out and kill some deer. They 
went, confused with such conduct. My own 
troops I knew had no idea of abandoning an 
enterprise from want of provisions, while 
there were plenty of good horses in their pos- 
session ; and I knew that, w^ithout any vio- 
lence, the volunteers could be detained for a- 
few days, in the course of which time our 
fate would be known. I conducted myself in 
such a manner that caused the whole to believe 
that I had no doubt of success, which kept 
their spirits up." 

In the absence of any news of his galley 
coming up the Wabash, for which he still had 
hopes, Clark had canoes constructed to aid in 
the passage through the waters. Two of these 
water marches, as related by the intrepid 
and resourceful commander, will illustrate 
the extraordinary situations through which 
they passed: 

' ' The last day 's march through the water, ' ' 
says Clark, "was far superior to anything the 
Frenchman had an idea of. They were back- 
ward in speaking, said that the nearest land to 


us was a small league called the sugar camp, imagined by a person who could possess my 
or the bank of the river. A canoe was sent affections for them at that time. I concluded 
off and returned without finding that we by informing them that surmounting the 
could pass. I went in her myself and sounded plain that was then in full view, and reaching 
the w^ter ; found it deep as to my neck. I the opposite woods, would put an end to their 
returned with a design to have the men trans- fatigue ; that in a few hours they would have 
ported on board the canoes to the sugar camp, a sight of their long wished for object, and 
wliieh I knew would spend the whole day and immediately stepped into the water without 
ensuing night, as the vessels would pass but waiting for a reply. A huzza took place. We 
slowly through the bushes. The loss of so generally marched through the water in a 
much time to men half starved was a matter line ; it was much easiest. Before a third 
of consequence. I would have given now a entered, I halted, and, further to prove the 
great deal for a day's provision or for one of men, having some suspicion of three or four, 
our horses. I returned but slowly to the I hallooed to Major Bowman, ordering him to 
troops, giving myself time to think. On our fall in the rear with twenty-five men and put 
arrival all ran to hear what was the report, to death any man who refused to march, as we 
Every eye was fixed on me. I unfortunately wished to have no such person among us. The 
spoke in a serious manner to one of the officers, whole gave a cry of approbation that it was 
The whole were alarmed without knowing what right, and on we went. This was the most 
I said. They ran from one to another, bewail- trying of all the difficulties we had experi- 
ing their situation. I \aewed their confusion enced. I generally kept fifteen or twenty of 
for about one minute, whispered to those near the strongest men next myself, and judged 
me to do as I did, inunediately put some water from my own feelings what must be that of 
in my hand, poured on powder, blackened my others. Getting about the middle of the plain, 
face, gave the war whoop and marched into the water about knee deep, I found myself 
the water, without saying a word. The party sensibly failing, and as there were no trees 
gazed and fell in, one after another, without nor bushes for the men to support themselves 
saying a word, like a flock of sheep. I ordered by, I doubted that many of the most weak 
those near me to begin a favorite song of would be drowned. I ordered the canoes to 
theirs. It soon passed through the line and make the land, discharge their loading, and 
the whole went on cheerfully. I now intended play backward and forward, with all dili- 
to have them transported across the deepest genee, and pick up the men, and to encourage 
part of the water, but when about waist deep the party. . . . The men exerted them- 
one of the men informed me that he thought selves almost beyond their abilities — the weak 
he felt a path — a path is very easily dis- holding by the stronger, and frequently one 
covered under water by the feet. We ex- with two others' help, and this was of infinite 
amined and found it so, and concluded that it advantage to the weak. The water never got 
kept on the highest ground, which it did, and, shallower, but continued deepening — even 
by taking pains to follow it, we got to our when getting to the woods, where the men ex- 
sugar camp without the least difficulty. pected to land. The water was up to my 
' ' This was the coldest night we had. The shoulders, but gaining the woods was of great 
ice, in the morning, was from one-half to consequence. All the low men, and the weakly, 
three-quarters of an inch thick near the shores hung to the trees and floated on the old logs 
and in still waters. The morning was the until they were taken off by the canoes. The 
finest we had on our march. A little after strong and tall got ashore and built fires, 
sunrise I lectured the whole. What I said Many would reach the shore, and fall Avith 
to them, I forget, but it may be easily thoii- bodit^s hnlf in the water, not being able 



to support themselves without it. This was a 
delightful, dry spot of ground, of about ten 
acres. We soon found that the fires answered 
no purpose, but that two strong men taking 
a weaker one by the arms was the only way to 
recover him, and, being a delightful day, it 
soon did. But, fortunately, as if designed by 
Providence, a canoe of Indian squaws and 
children was coming up to town, and took 
through part of this plain as a nighway. It 
was discovered by our canoes as they were out 
after the men. They gave chase and took the 
Indian canoe, on board of which was near 
half a quarter of a buffalo, some corn, tallow, 
kettles, etc. This was a grand prize and was 
invaluable. Broth was immediately made and 
served out to the most weakly with great care ; 
most of the whole got a little, but a great 
many gave their part to the weakly, jocosely 
saying something cheering to their comrades. 
This little refreshment and fine weather, by 
the afternoon, gave new life to the whole." 

The danger from the waters was now past, 
but the danger from the living enemy was at 
hand. Clark's narrative, from which we can 
make only brief extracts, now continues : 
"Crossing a narrow, deep lake in the canoes 
and marching some distance, we came to a 
copse of timber caller the Warrior's Island. 
We were now in full view of the fort and 
town, not a shrub between us, at about two 
miles' distance. Every man now feasted his 
eyes and forgot that he had suffered anything, 
saying that all that had passed was owing to 
good policy and nothing but what a man could 
bear, and that a soldier had no right to think, 
etc., passing from one extreme to another, 
which is common in such cases. It was now 
we had to display our abilities. The plain 
between us and the town was not a perfect 
level. The sunken grounds were covered with 
water full of ducks. We observed several 
men out on horseback, shooting at them, 
within half a mile of us, and sent out as many 
of our active young Frenchmen to decoy and 
take one of these men prisoner in such a man- 
ner as not to alarm the others, which they did. 

The information we got from this person M^as 
similar to that which we got from those we 
took on the river, except that of the British 
having that evening completed the wall of the 
fort, etc., and that there were a good many 
Indians in town. Our situation was now 
truly critical — no possibility of retreating in 
case of defeat — and in full view of a town 
that had, at this time, upwards of six hundred 
men in it, troops, inhabitants and Indians. 
The crew of the galley, though not fifty men, 
would have been now a reinforcement of 
immense magnitude to our little army (if I 
may so call it) ; but w^e would not think of 
them. We were now in the situation that I 
had labored to get ourselves in. The idea of 
being made prisoner was foreign to almost 
eveiy man, as they expected nothing but tor- 
ture from the savages if they fell into their 
hands. Our fate was now to be determined, 
probably in a few hours. We knew that noth- 
ing but the most daring conduct would insure 
success. I knew that a number of the inhab- 
itants wished us well; that many were luke- 
warm in the interest of either; and I also 
learned that the grand chief, the Tobacco's 
Son, had, but a few days before, openly 
declared, in council with the British, that he 
was a brother and friend to the big knives." 
Clark now took a bold course. It was all 
that could save him or bring success to his 
enterprise. He sent a placard to the inhabit- 
ants, by the hand of the prisoner just taken, 
announcing his presence and that he was pre- 
pared to take the fort that night. He called 
upon the people to remain in their homes; 
that those who were friends to the English 
King should at once betake themselves to the 
fort; and any persons found in the streets 
would be treated as enemies, and punished 
accordingly. One object in sending in this 
proclamation was to give out the idea that 
this was an army from Kentucky; for the 
people would not believe it possible that it 
could be Clark or that he should have been 
able to march across the country from Kaskas- 
kia. That w^as the effect, the people believed 



that the message came from some Kentucky 
officer who made use of Clark's name. "A 
little before sunset," says Clark, "we moved 
and displayed ourselves in full view of the 
town, crowds gazing at us. We were flinging 
ourselves into certain destruction — or success ; 
there was no midway thought of. We had 
but little to say to our men, except inculcating 
an idea of the necessity of obedience, etc. We 
knew they did not want encouraging, and that 
anything might be attempted with them that 
was possible for such a number — perfectly 
cool, under proper subordination, pleased with 
the prospect before them, and much attached 
to their officers. They all declared that they 
were convinced that an implicit obedience to 
orders was the only thing that would ensure 
success, and hoped that no mercy would be 
shown the person who should violate them, 
but should be immediately put to death. Such 
language as this from soldiers to persons in 
our station must have been exceedingly agree- 
able. We moved on slowly in full view of the 
town; but, as it was a point of some conse- 
quence to us to make ourselves appear as for- 
midable as possible, we, in leaving the covert 
that we were in, marched and countermarched 
in such a manner that we appeared numer- 
ous. ' ' 

The Virginians directed their march in such 
a manner, in and out from the cover of the 
hills, so that it was dark while they were yet 
a mile from the town. It turned out that, 
partly through fear of Clark's threat, and 
partly through love of the American cause, 
not an inhabitant of the town gave notice to 
the garrison of the presence of the little army 
of patriots. The British garrison felt- abso- 
lutely at their ease and were in total ignorance 
of Clark's presence, until the Americans fired 
upon the fort. Even then it was thought to 
be some wild shooting by drunken Indians. 
The persistence of Clark's attack, however, 
soon brought Governor Hamilton, the British 
commander, to realize that his fort was besieg- 
ed by what he, too, believed to be a formid- 
able army. The fighting continued all the 

night of the 23rd ; and on February 24, 1779, 
after some negotiations, the fort was surren- 
dered. The terms of this surrender, as dic- 
tated by Clark himself, are in these words : 

"1. Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton en- 
gages to deliver up to Colonel Clark Fort 
Sackville, as it is at present, with all the 
stores, etc. 

' ' 2. The garrison are to deliver themselves 
as prisoners of war and march out, with their 
arms and accoutrements, etc. 

' ' 3. The garrison to be delivered up at ten 
o'clock tomorrow. 

"4. Three days' time to be allowed the 
garrison to settle their accounts with the 
inhabitants and traders of this place. 

"5. The officers of the garrison to be 
allowed their necessary baggage, etc. 

"Signed at Post St. Vincent, 24th, Febru- 
ary, 1779. 

' ' Agreed for the following reasons : The 
remoteness from succor; the state and quan- 
tity of provisions, etc. ; unanimity of officers 
and men in its expediency ; the honorable 
terms allowed; and, lastly, the confidence in 
a generous enemy. 


"Lieutenant-Governor and Superintendent." 

So signal a victory, with such slender 
means and in the face of such formidable 
obstacles of nature, and against so strong a 
force and so well fortified a post, places George 
Rogers Clark and his army of Virginians 
and Frenchmen in the foremost ranks of all 

Clark's history from the day of his first 
broaching his plan to Patrick Henry; his re- 
cruiting an army in the wilds of Virginia, 
Pennsylvania and Kentucky ; his march across 
southern Illinois, from the Ohio to the capture 
of Kaskaskia and the other British posts on 
the Mississippi ; his winning the confidence 
and affection of the French inhabitants ; his 
securing the good will of the Indians, and his 
noble conduct in his refusal to allow them to 
participate with him in the war, even when he 
sorely needed help ; his trust in Father Gibault 
in the first taking of Vincennes; but, above 
all. his march in mid-winter, with his Franco- 
Virginian heroes, through leagues and leagues 



of water-covered plains; and the brilliant 
close which resulted in the conquest from the 
power of Britain of the great northwest, now 
the heart of the republic,— reads more like a 
chapter from knight errant romance than 
from sober, modern American history. Strang- 
est of all, however, is the apparent neglect of 
this great episode in our history by Americans 
themselves. It is only recently that we have 
come to realize how great a debt of gratitude 
we owe to this young Virginian, who is worthy 
to stand by the side of the other great men 
of the Revolution from his own great state, — 
George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, 
Patrick Henry and their illustrious compatri- 
ots. Without George Rogers Clark we should 
have no Indiana, no St. Joseph county, to 
write about ; and it is to our credit as a state 
that there has been such a revival of the fame 
of this great man. His statue stands at the 
base of our noble soldier's monument at 
Indianapolis, placed there February 25, 1895, 
as that of our most fitting representative of 
the Revolutionary period ; and, finally, the 
hand and heart and brain of an Indianian, 
our own William H. English, has lovingly 
picked up every thread of Clark's history and 
woven it into an inspiring story of heroes, to 
be read of all time. 

Other great men also have spoken in fitting 
terms of this savior of the west ; and we close 
our reference to him with this fitting eulogy 
taken from President Roosevelt's "The Win- 
ning of the West ' ' : 

"Much credit belongs to Clark's men, but 
most belongs to their leader. The boldness of 
his plan and the resolute skill with which he 
followed it out, his perseverance through the 
intense hardships of the mid-winter march, 
the address with which he kept the French 
and Indians neutral, and the masterful way 
in which he controlled his own troops, together 
with the ability and courage he displayed in 
the actual attack, combined to make his feat 
the most memorable of all the deeds done west 
of the Alleghanies in the revolutionary war. 
It was likewise the most important in its 

results, for, had he been defeated, we would 
not only have lost the Illinois, but in all prob- 
ability Kentucky also." 


gee. 1. — First Measures Taken by Vir- 
ginia. — The victories of George Rogers Clark 
added enormously to the territory subject 
to the control of the old dominion of Virginia. 
Her authority now extended from her own 
Atlantic Coast, by way of Kentucky and the 
northwest, to the extreme western limits of 
Lake Superior and the headwaters of the Miss- 
issippi. That the people of Virginia appre- 
ciated the glory of the achievements of their 
own officei-s and men may weU be believed. 
Soon after the capture of Kaskaskia, Clark 
sent a party with dispatches to Virginia, and 
with them went Mr. Rochblave, the British 
commander of the fort. "The arrival of the 
party in Virginia," says Mr. English," "with 
this prominent representative of the king in 
the Illinois country as a prisoner, and the 
startling news that all the British posts and 
towns on the Mississippi, from Kaskaskia to 
Cahokia, had been captured and were in pos- 
session of the Virginia troops, created the 
most intense excitement everywhere. It was 
indeed a most important event to the whole 
country, and particularly to the Old Domin- 
ion, for these were her troops, led by Colonel 
Clark, one of her favorite sons. As the news 
spread, pride and gratitude took possession of 
every patriotic heart, and words of praise 
were upon every lip. The governor, evidently 
greatly elated at the joyful news, communi- 
cated it to the Virginia delegates in congress 
by letter, dated November 16, 1778." 

"When the legislature met," says Mr. Eng- 
lish, "the popular feeling w^as embodied in 
formal legislation." On November 23, 1778, 
resolutions were adopted giving thanks to 
' ' Colonel Clark and the brave ofdcers and men 
under his command, for their extraordinary 
resolution and perseverance, in so hazardous 

a. Conquest of the Northwest, Vol. 1, p. 245. 



au enterprise, and for their important services 
thereby rendered to their country." 

Mr. English also tells us, in the same con- 
nection, that the legislature of Virginia 
"realized the necessity of extending more 
effective civil government over the conquered 
Illinois country, and promptly passed an act 
organizing it into 'the county of Illinois.' " 
Except in saying that the legislature 
''promptly" passed the act, Mr. English does 
not indicate the date of its passage. Dillon 
says that it was passed "in October, 1778. "« 
In Smith's history of Indiana, the same state- 
ment is made.^ In a history of Randolph 
county, Illinois, in which county Kaskaskia is 
situated, the writer also says that the act 
creating the county of Illinois was passed "in 
October, 1778. "'-■ As however the letter of 
Patrick Henry, governor of Virginia, an- 
nouncing to the delegates in congress from 
that state the news of Clark's success, was 
dated November 16, 1778, and the resolution 
of thanks to Clark and his command by the 
legislature of Virginia was adopted Novem- 
ber 23, 1778, it would seem that Mr. English's 
statement, that the act of the Virginia legis- 
lature organizing the county of Illinois was 
passed "promptly," must be taken to mean 
that it was passed soon after the governor 
had announced the good news to the delegates 
in congress and the legislature had voted its 
thanks to Clark. Plainly, the act for the 
organization into a county of this vast terri- 
tory, now embracing five great states of the 
union, was a more deliberative measure then 
the impulsive and patriotic communication to 
the delegates in congress or the voting by the 
legislature of thanks to the conquerors. The 
document is printed in full, but without date, 
in Mr. English's great work. It is expressly 
stated in the act itself, that it was passed to 
establish "some temporary form of govern- 
ment." and that it was to be in force "for 
and during the term of twelve months, and 

a. Hist. Indiana, p. 136. 
&. Hist. Indiana, Vol. 1, p. 97. 
c. Hist. Randolph County, 111., by B. J. Mon- 
tague, p. 30. 

from thence to the end of the next session of 
assembly, and no longer." The duration of 
the act was however' afterwards extended, 
by the general assembly. 

Sec. 2. — Nature of the County Govern- 
ment. — This "temporary form of govern- 
ment," established by the legislature of Vir- 
ginia for the county of Illinois, is worthy of 
particular attention as being the first govern- 
ment set up under American authority for 
the territory now comprising the five states 
of the northwest. It is probably true that, at 
least for some time, no part of the county of 
St. Joseph, and, indeed, no part of the St. 
Joseph valley, was actually subject to the 
provisions of this government organized under 
Virginia auspices; for, it is to be remembered, 
that, at the time of the passing of that act, 
the British flag still floated over Fort St. 
Joseph ; and it was more than two years later 
when the Spaniards from St. Louis took and 
destroyed the old fort. Yet, as Virginia con- 
tinued to hold and govern the county of 
Illinois for some time after the treaty of peace 
with Great Britain, there was, in fact, an 
interval, following the date when England 
and Spain were forced to yield their shadowy 
claims, and preceding the date of the cession, 
to the United States by Virginia ; and, during 
this period, that is, from the treaty of peace, 
September 3, 1783, to the deed of cession, 
March 1, 1784, St. Joseph county was within 
the -wide limits of the county of Illinois, and, 
as such was a part of the dominion of Vir- 
ginia, and subject to its laws and government, 
made so by the victories of George Rogers 
Clark, and asserted by the act organizing the 
county of Illinois. 

Two paragraphs of the act will be suffi- 
cient to show the general character of this 
first form of free government applicable to 
the soil of St. Joseph county; 'even though 
we know that there were then, almost to a 
certainty, no white inhabitants in St. Joseph 
county, or indeed in this part of the state, 
to whom the law could apply. The act of 
Ihe Virginia assembly provided: 



' ' That all the citizens of this commonwealth 
who are already settled, or shall hereafter 
settle, on the- western side of the Ohio afore- 
said, shall be included in a distinct county, 
which shall be called Illinois county; and 
that the governor of this commonwealth, with. 
the advice of the council, may appoint a 
county lieutenant or commandant-in-chief in 
that county, during pleasure, who shall ap- 
point and commission so many deputy com- 
mandants, militia officers and commissaries, 
as he shall think proper in the different 
districts, during pleasure. aU of whom, before 
they enter into office, shall take the oath of 
fidelity to this commonwealth and the oath 
of office, according to the form of their own 
religion, which the inhabitants shall fully, 
and to all intents and purposes, enjoy to- 
gether with all their civil rights and property. 

And all civil officers to which said inhabit- 
ants have been accustomed, necessary for the 
preservation of peace and the administration 
of justice, shall be chosen by a majority of 
the citizens in their respective districts, to be 
convened for that purpose by the county 
lieutenant or commandant, or his deputy, and 
shall be commissioned by the said county lieu- 
tenant or commandant-in-chief, and be paid 
for their services in the same manner as such 
expenses have been heretofore borne, levied 
and paid in that county; which said civil of- 
ficers, after taking the oaths as above pre- 
scribed, shall exercise their several jurisdic- 
tions and conduct themselves agreeable to 
the laws w^hich the present settlers are now 
accustomed to." 

Colonel John Todd of Kentucky was ap- 
pointed by the governor of Virginia, and re- 
ceived his instructions, December 12. 1778, as 
the first county lieutenant of the county of 
Illinois, but did not arrive at Kaskaskia until 
June 15, 1779, when he proceeded to put in 
operation the civil government established for 
the county by the legislature of Virginia. 
The instructions received from the governor 
by the county lieutenant w^ere, as might be 
expected, coming as they did from the liberty- 

loving Patrick Henry, quite in accord with 
the spirit of the act organizing the county. 
One paragraph from these instructions will 
show the liberal character of the free institu- 
tions under which the government of our 
northwast started into existence : 

"And I know no better general direction to 
give than this, ' ' wrote Governor Henry, ' ' that 
you consider yourself as at the head of the 
civil department, and as such having the com- 
mand of the militia who are not to be under 
the command of the military, until ordered 
out by the civil authority and act in conjunc- 
tion with them. You are on all occasions to 
inculcate on the people the value of liberty 
and the difference between the state of free 
citizens of this commonwealth and that 
slavery to which Illinois was destined. A free 
and equal representation may be expected by 
them in a little time, together with all the im- 
provements in jurisprudence and policy which 
the other parts of the state enjoy. ' ' 

One of the earliest and most important acts 
of the county lieutenant affecting the terri- 
tory now constituting the state of Indiana was 
the establishment at Vincennes, in June, 1779, 
of a court of civil and criminal jurisdiction. 
This court was composed of several magis- 
trates, presided over by Colonel J. M. P. 
Legras, commandant of the post. For three 
years Colonel Todd continued to administer 
the affairs of the county of Illinois, — a terri- 
tory so vast that it is now divided into five 
great states, and these states subdivided into 
no less' than four hundred and thirty-four 
counties. In 1782, he w^ent to Virginia on 
business connected with the county, and on 
his return through Kentucky met with his 
old companion Daniel Boone whom he accom- 
panied in an expedition against the Indians. 
During the course of this expedition Colonel 
Todd was killed at the noted battle of Blue 

As an indication of the equal place to which 
the French inhabitants had attained in the 
new government and the confidence reposed 
in them as American citizens, it is interesting 



to note that the successor of Colonel Todd in 
the high office of county lieutenant was 
Timothy de Montbrun, a Frenchman. This 
was a fitting recognition of the faithful peo- 
ple who had received and stood by Colonel 
Clark so patriotically, and who formed so 
efficient a part of the brave army that im- 
mortalized itself in the capture of Vincennes."^ 
Sec. 3. — Claims M.vde by Other States. — 
Virginia was not the only state that made in- 
dividual claim to large parts of the western 
country. Connecticut, ]\Iassachusetts, New 
York, North Carolina, South Carolina and 
other states also had their claims. Connecti- 
cut claimed the territory west of Pennsyl- 
vania, to the ^Mississippi, from latitude forty- 
• one degrees to latitude forty-two degrees and 
two minutes north; while Massachusetts 
claimed the strip north of the Connecticut 
claim, to latitude forty-three degrees and 
thirty minutes. The claims of Connecticut 
and Massachusetts overlapped and of course 
conflicted with the Virginia claim, which last 
included the whole northwest. It is not easy 
at this day to appreciate the grounds of the 
claims made by the two New England states. 
Those claims seem to have been based upon 
the theory that no western bounds had been 
fixed for those commonwealths in the royal 
charters originally establishing the colonies 
and defining their limits, and consequently, 
that these states, to their full width north 
and south, reached to the west without 
limit, — even to the Pacific ocean, if there 
should be any American territory extending 
so far. We may note, as a matter of local 
interest, that St. Joseph county is included 
wholly within the bounds of the Connecticut 
claim; so that the soil of our county was at 
the same time claimed by Virginia and by 
Connecticut. It is but the simple truth to 
say, in the calm light of history, that it now 
appears very clear that the claim of Virginia 
is the only one that had any substantial foun- 

a. Conquest of the Northwest, Vol. 1, pp. 248- 
252, Vol. 2, p. 1037. Montague, Hist. Randolph 
County, 111., pp. 30-31. 

dation in fact or in right reason. The Old 
Dominion, single-handed, under direction of 
her governor, Patrick Henry, with the sage 
counsel of Thomas Jefferson, George Mason 
and other wise and far-seeing statesmen, com- 
missioned the young Virginian, George Rogers 
Clark, who with his little army of Virginians, 
Pennsylvanians, Kentuekians and Frenchmen, 
won from British power this splendid north- 
west. Had Clark not made that mid-winter 
march through the icy waters of Illinois and 
Indiana, and met and conquered Hamilton at 
Vincennes, it may be doubted whether there 
would now be any northwest for us, and 
whether the western boundaries of the nation 
would not be the Alleghanies, or at most the 
Ohio, rather than the great lakes. Great 
Britain retained Canada at the treaty of 
peace ; but without Clark Canada would have 
extended at least to the Ohio and the Missis- 
sippi. And, afterwards, without our bound- 
ary on the Mississippi; what likelihood is 
there that we should have obtained Louisiana 
from Napoleon? 

Sec. 4. — Cession by Virginia.— The Vir- 
ginia claim, then, was good as against that of 
any other state. But the question became 
broader. Was it good as against all the states, 
against the Union itself? The people of the 
whole republic, and, finally, even the people 
of Virginia themselves, felt that this great 
northwest was too vast to be the property of 
any state ; that while it had been won solely 
by the wisdom and valor of Virginia, yet that 
it was won by her while aiding in waging war 
against the common enemy. In the treaty of 
peace it was the nation that was recognized; 
and when the great lakes were made the 
northern boundary, it was the boundary of 
the American Union, and not that of any 
state, that was recognized. Very early, there- 
fore, Virginia began to feel that, in the in- 
terests of harmon}^ and the general welfare 
of the common county which that great state 
had done so much to establish, she ought to 
yield her undoubted rights to the general 
good; that while her claims were superior to 



those of any other state, yet that they should 
be yielded as her imperial gift to the United 
States itself. 

Accordingly, by an act of the general as- 
sembly of Virginia, passed December 20, 1783, 
but a little over three months after the ack- 
nowledgment of the independence of the 
United States, the delegates of Virginia in 
the congress of the United States were author- 
ized and empowered, for and on behalf of the 
state of Virginia, "to convey, transfer, assign 
and make over to the United States in con- 
gress assembled, for the benefit of the said 
states, all right, title and claim, as well of soil 
as jurisdiction, which this commonwealth hath 
to the territory or tract of country, within 
the limits of the Virginia charter, situate, 
lying and being to the northwest of the river 

One of the conditions of the act of cession 
was: "That the territory so ceded shall be 
laid out and formed into states, containing 
suitable extent of territory, not less than one 
hundred, nor more than one hundred and 
fifty miles square, or as near thereto as cir- 
cumstances will admit ; and that the states so 
formed shall be distinct republican states, and 
admitted members of the federal union, hav- 
ing the same rig-hts of sovereignty, freedom 
and independence as the other states." 

Another condition was : ' ' That the French 
and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers 
of the Kaskaskias, St. Vincents, and the neigh- 
boring villages, who have professed them- 
selves citizens of Virginia, shall have their 
possessions and titles confirmed to them, and 
be protected in the enjoyment of their rights 
and liberties." 

It was further provided that all the lands 
within the territory so ceded to the United 
States, except those disposed of in bounties to 
the officers and soldiers of the American army, 
including Clark and his command, and lands 
reserved for certain other purposes named in 
the act of cession, "shall be considered as a 
common fund for the use and benefit of such 

of the United States as have become, or shall 
become, members of the confederation or 
federal alliance of said states, Virginia inclu- 
sive, according to their usual respective pro- 
portions in the general charge and expendi- 
ture, and shall be faithfully and bona fide 
disposed of for that purpose, and for no other 
use or purpose whatsoever. ' ' 

When we remember that the constitution of 
the United States was not yet written, and 
that the several states, but loosely joined 
under the articles of confederation, were still 
almost independent sovereignties, the gener- 
ous character of the order surrendering this 
great territory to the equal ownership of all 
the states of the Union will be more apparent. 
The Deed of Cession, so authorized by the 
Virginia assembly was duly executed March 
1, 1784, by Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Hardy, 
\rthur Lee and James Monroe, then the dele- 
gates in congress from the commonwealth of 
Virginia. On that day the territory now 
comprising the county of St. Joseph, together 
with all the remainder of the northwest, be- 
came for the first time, in letter and in fact, 
a part of the United States of America. The 
other states having or making any claims to 
any parts of the western territories followed 
the patriotic lead of Virginia, and from time 
to time, executed formal deeds of cession to 
the United States: Massachusetts, April 19, 
1785 ; Connecticut, September 13, 1786 ; South 
Carolina, August 19, 1787 ; North Carolina, in 
1790 ; and Georgia, in 1802. New York had 
at one time a claim of an exceedingly vague 
and indefinite character, which was surren- 
dered to the United States, March 1, 1781. 
Connecticut, in her deed of cession, at first 
reserved her claim to the lands south of Lake 
Erie, long called the Western Reserve ; this 
reservation was finally surrendered. May 30, 
1800. The claims affecting the northwest were 
only those of Virginia, Connecticut and Mas- 
sachusetts, — unless we consider the intangible 
claim of New York. 




Sec. 1. — First Congressional Plan: 
Seventeen States. — The Virginia deed of 
cession was made on March 1, 1784; and, on 
April 23, 1784, congress, by a series of reso- 
lutions, provided for the maintenance of tem- 
porary government in the northwest terri- 

It won Id seem that after the capturu ot 
Vincennes the same wise course with the In- 
dians pursued by Clark after his invasion of 
the Illinois country Avas not followed; cer- 
tainly, very soon after that time, there began 
a deplorable border warfare which continued, 
with interruptions, until the decisive victory 
of General Anthony Wayne over the Indians 
in the battle on the banks of the Maumee river, 
August 20, 1794. There is little doubt the 
Indians were encouraged in this barbarous 
warfare by British agents and officers, to 
whom the success of American army in the 
Revolutionary war was exceedingly unpalat- 

The resolutions and code of government for 
the northwest, adopted by the continental 
congress, April 23, 1784, although intended 
only for temporary purposes and until a more 
satisfactory sj^stem could be devised, were yet 
the result of much deliberation and discus- 
sion. The situation was novel, and the wise 
men of congress were, as it were, groping in 
the dark and feeling their way. One plan 
suggested was to divide the new territory into 
seventeen states. Eight states were to be 
between the Mississippi and a line due north 
from the falls of the Ohio, at Louisville; and 
eight more to be between the Ohio falls line 
and a line parallel to it running north from 
the western side of the mouth of the Great 
Kanawha. On the extreme east was to be 

a. Dillon, Hist. Indiana, p. 182. 

h. In Dillon's History of Indiana, a large part 
of Chapters XVI to XXVIII, inclusive, is de- 
voted to an account of those harassing Indian 
wars, culminating in Governor St. Clair's humil- 
iating defeat, followed by the brilliant and de- 
cisive victory of General Wayne and the historic 
treaty of Greenville, which was signed August 3, 

the seventeenth state. This scheme found lit- 
tle favor; and the subject was referred to a 
special committee of which Thomas Jefferson 
was chairman. 

Sec. 2. — Jefferson's Plan: Ten States. 
—Jefferson, Chase and Howe devised a second 
plan for dividing the territory into ten states. 
The lines of division are now quite forgotten, 
and even the high-sounding names of the pro- 
posed states are seldom heard. Some of the 
names were Latin, some Greek, and some were 
latinized forms of Indian names of rivers in 
the territory. The states were to be about two 
degrees in width, north and south, and 
bounded on the east and west, so far as prac- 
ticable, by the north and south lines of the 
first plan. That part of the territory north 
of the forty-fifth parallel of latitude, cover- 
ing the then heavy woodlands of northern 
Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota, was to 
be called Sylvania. The remainder of the 
southern peninsula of the present state of 
Michigan was to be called Chersonesus, the 
Greek word for peninsula. South of Syl- 
vania, covering a part of the present state 
of Wisconsin, was to be the state of ]\Iichi- 
gania. South of Michigania, as far as the 
forty-first parallel of latitude, was to be the 
state of Assenisipia, a word derived from the 
Indian name for Rock river. East of Asseni- 
sipia, and extending north to the shore of 
Lake Erie, was to be the state of Metropo- 
tamia, mother of rivers. South of Assenisipia, 
to the thirty-ninth parallel, was to be the 
state of lUinoia. To the east of lUinoia was 
to be Saratoga ; and east of Saratoga, bounded 
by the Ohio river, the west line of Pennsyl- 
vania and the eastern part of the south shore 
of Lake Erie, was to be the state of Washing- 
ton. South of Illinoia and Saratoga, and ly- 
ing along the Ohio river, was to be a state 
named Polypotamia, from its many rivers. 
East of Polypotamia was to be the -tenth 
state, called Pelisipi, from a Cherokee name 
sometimes given to the Ohio river. While all state lines have disappeared, and even 
the names given by Jefferson and his commit- 



tee are no longer applied to the territories for 
which they were intended, vet it will be ob- 
served that one of the names, that of the 
father of his country, has since been given 
to the extreme northwest state of the Union, 
lying on the borders of an ocean which even 
the most far-seeing statesmen could not then 
dream of as the western boundary of the 
great republic. Two more of Jefferson's 
names, with slight changes of orthography, 
have also been adopted for commonwealths 
since created. ]\Iichigania, which Jefferson 
applied to territory bordering on the west 
of Lake Michigan, has been given, without the 
Latin termination, to the great state east of 
the same lake ; and Ulinoia, which was applied 
to parts of the present states of Illinois and 
Indiana, has been given, with like change of 
orthography, to the great southwestern state 
of the territory. 

There is some uncertainty in which of two 
of those proposed states the county of St. 
Joseph would have been situated. The state 
of Chersonesus was to be the southern part 
of the peninsula bounded on the west by 
Lake Michigan and on the east by Lake 
Huron, the Straits and Lake Erie; that is, 
the southern part of what is now the lower 
peninsula of ^Michigan. This would seem to 
include the north part of St. Joseph county, 
and, indeed, all that part of Indiana north of 
an east and west line through the southern 
extremity of Lake Michigan. On the other 
hand, the state of Assenisipia was to extend, 
north and south, from the forty-third to the 
forty-first parallel of latitude : and from the 
Mississippi east to the line running north 
from the falls of the Ohio. That would give 
a state bounded on the north by a line of 
latitude a little south of Milwaukee. Wiscon- 
sin ; on the south, by a- line of latitude a little 
south of Fort Wayne, Indiana : on the west, 
by the Mississippi river: and on the east, by 
a line running nearly from Jeffersonville. 
Indiana, or Louisville, Kentucky, to Grand 
Rapids. Michigan. The state of Assenisipia 

would therefore comprise the southern part 
of the present state of Wisconsin, the northern 
part of Illinois, the northwestern part of In- 
diana and the southwestern part of Michigan. 
But as the southern part of the lower Michi- 
gan peninsula was to constitute the state of 
Chersonesus, it is probable that the state of 
Assenisipia would have embraced no territory 
east of Lake ^lichigan. Consequently, the 
north ten miles of St. Joseph county would 
have been in the state of Chersonesus and the 
rest of the county in the state of Assenisipia. 
At the time that the boundaries of the ten 
states were defined, as above set out, a code 
of laws was prepared to serve for the govern- 
ment of each state until it should contain 
twenty thousand free inhabitants. One article 
of the code, as prepared by the committee, 
provided that after the year 1800 there should 
be no slaverj^ in the states so organized. 
This is believed to have been the first national 
attempt to provide for the abolition of 
slavery. Another article of the proposed code 
provided that no person holding a hereditary 
title should ever become a citizen of any of 
the new states. This article was directed 
against the society of the Cincinnati, then 
recently organized by the officers of the late 
Continental army. There was strong oppo- 
sition to a provision of the constitution of this 
society making the sons and other direct 
descendants of those officers, to the latest 
generation, members of the organization 
This looked to the stern republicans of that 
day as savoring too strongly of an order of 
nobility ; and they wished for nothing of that 
nature in the free institutions of America. 
The uncompromising republicanism of Jef- 
ferson is seen in his advocacy of these two 
measures — against slavery and against orders 
of nobility. Both articles, however, were 
stricken out by congress. The paragraphs 
giving names to the ten new states were also 
stricken out. The resolutions as so amended 
were then adopted, April 23, 1784, and re- 
mained the law for the government of the 



northwest until the adoption of the ordinance 
of 1787.« 

See. 3. — Emigration to the West. — Soon 
after the close of the Revolutionary war a 
heavy tide of emigration, chiefly officers and 
soldiers of the war, set in for the lands west 
of the Alleg-hanies. The southern soldiers 
found lands in Kentucky, then in effect a 
part of Virginia ; Tennessee, then western 
North Carolina : and in the western part of 
Georgia, which then extended to the Missis- 
sippi. The soldiers farther north naturally 
looked to the lands in the new territory north- 
west of the Ohio. The long debates of con- 
gress in providing for the organization of this 
territory, and the delay in the enactment of 
laws for the survey and sale of the lands, tired 
the patience of those who were anxious to 
start life anew on those rich lands. On 
March 1, 1786, the Ohio Company was formed 
for the purchase and sale of western lands in 
shares of $1,000 each. The directors of this 
company were General Rufus Putnam, Gen- 
eral Samuel H. Parsons and the Dr. Manasseh 
Cutler. Dr. Cutler was the master spirit of 
the body, and exercised a very decided in- 
fluence on the future of the new country. 
Under the old confederation a treasury board 
acted as commissioners of public lands,_ but 
had no power to make sales without the ap- 
proval of congress. Dr. Cutler, after weary 
waiting for favorable action by congress, 
finally succeeded in obtaining confirmation of 
the sale of the lands desired by the Ohio Com- 
pany; and on October 27, 1787, the contract 
of the treasury board with the company was 
agreed to and the contract executed. In De- 
cember and January following, two com- 
panies, forty-eight persons in all, under the 
general direction of General Putnam, and 
consisting of surveyors, boat-builders, carpen- 
ters, smiths, farmers and laborers, set out for 
the west with their stores and outfit, descended 
the Ohio, and on April 7, 1788, landed at the 
mouth of the Muskingum. At a point oppo- 

a. McMaster, Hist. U. S., Vol. 1, Chapt. 2. Per- 
kins' Annals of the West, p. 312. 

site Fort Harmar, at the junction of the Ohio 
and the Muskingum, they founded their town. 
Before leaving Boston the prospective town 
was called Adelphia ; but at the first meeting 
of the directors, on the ground, July 2, 1788, 
the name of Marietta was selected, in honor 
of ]\Iarie Antoinette, then queen of France." 
The founding of Marietta, the first settlement 
in the limits of the present state of Ohio, was 
a most noteworthy event, and marks the be- 
ginning of a new era in the history of the 
northwest territory. 

Sec. 4. — Development of the Ordinance. 
—After the adoption of the resolutions of 
April 23, 1784, congress continued to discuss 
the future of the northwest, not being satis- 
fied with the form of government established 
by those resolutions. Little progress was 
made, however, until May 10, 1786, when a 
committee appointed on motion of Nathan 
Dane of Massachusetts, reported in favor of 
fixing the number of states at from two to 
five, to be admitted according to the proposi- 
tion of Jefferson, as reported to congress 
previous to the resolutions of April 23, 1784, 
but leaving the question of slavery open. No 
definite action was taken on this report. On 
April 26, 1787, another conuuittee, consisting 
of Johnson of Connecticut, Pinckney of South 
Carolina, Smith of New York, Dane of 
Massachusetts and Henry of Maryland, re- 
ported "An ordinance for the government of 
the western territory." This first draft of 
the ordinance is said to have been prepared 
by Nathan Dane. After many amendments. 
May 10, 1787, was fixed for the third reading 
of the ordinance ; but the bill was postponed 
for further consideration. Congress was evi- 
dently not yet satisfied as to what should be 
done. At this time Dr. Cutler, representing 
the Ohio company, and anxious for the future 
form of government in which that company 
had so much at stake, appeared before con- 
gress and its committees; and it is believed 
that he greatly influenced many important 
amendments which were thereafter made to 

a. King, Hist. Ohio, Ch. 8. 



the ordinance. On July 9, 1787, the bill was 
referred to a new committee, consisting of 
Carrington of Virginia, Dane of Massachu- 
setts, Smith of New York, Richard Henry Lee 
of Virginia, and Kean of South Carolina. It 
was after this that the clauses against slavery, 
and in favor of the liberty of conscience and 
of the press, the right of habeas corpus and 
trial by jury, the equal distribution of estates, 
and the encouragement of education, were 
added. The anti-slavery clause was at first 
rejected by the committee, but on July 11th 
this and other amendments were accepted, 
although a majority of the committee were 
from the southern states. On July 13, 1787, 
the great charter of free institutions became 
a law, with but one member of congress, Yates 
of New York, voting against it.*^ The Or- 
dinance of 1787 was adopted nearly two years 
before the Constitution of the United States 
went into effect. Except the Declaration of 
Independence, it was at the date of its adop- 
tion the most noted declaration of funda- 
mental law ever enacted by a free people. In- 
deed the Constitution of the United States is 
itself but the normal outgrowth of the Declar- 
ation of Independence and the Ordinance of 

The ordinance provides, as already indi- 
cated, for the equal distribution of property 
among kindred of equal degrees, without dis- 
tinction as to whole blood or half blood, ex- 
cept in case of a devise by will. The fathers 
of the republic took every occasion to protect 
the people against the accumulation of estates 
in the hands of elder sons or other favored 
persons, to the exclusion of others equally re- 
lated to the ancestor. Corporations had not 
then become a menace to the fair and equal 
distribution of property, and occasioned the 
enactment of no legislation to guard against 
wrongful accumulations; but primogeniture 
and entail were well known evils, and against 
these they guarded. The rights of the 
French inhabitants of Vincennes, Kaskaskia 

a. Winsor and Channing, Hist. Am., Vol. 7, 

and other settlements were carefully guarded. 
A governor and courts were provided for, and 
were authorized to adopt, at first and until 
the organization of a legislature, such laws 
of the original states as they should find suit- 
able to the needs of the new government. As 
soon as there should be five thousand free 
male inhabitants of full age, a legislature 
should be elected by the people, and should 
have power to enact all laws, subject to the 
approval of the governor. 

Sec. 5. — The Six Articles op the Ordi- 
nance. — ^The important provisions of the ordi- 
nance, and those which give it so high a place 
in the jurisprudence of the world, are set out 
in the following six articles : 

Art. 1st. No person, demeaning himself 
in a peaceable and orderly manner, shall ever 
be molested on account of his mode of wor- 
ship or religious sentiments, in the said terri- 

Art. 2nd. The inhabitants of said territory 
shall always be entitled to the benefits of 
the writ of habeas corpus, and of the trial by 
jury; of a proportionate representation of 
the people in the legislature; and of judicial 
proceedings according to the course of the 
common law. All persons shall be bailable, 
unless for capital offenses, where the proof 
shall be evident or the presumption great. AU 
fines shall be moderate ; and no cruel or un- 
usual punishments shall be inflicted. No man 
shall be deprived of his liberty or property, 
but by judgment -of his peers or the law of 
the land, and, should the public exigencies 
make it necessary, for the common preserva- 
tion, to take any person's property, or to de- 
mand his particular services, full compensa- 
tion shall be made for the same. And, in 
the just preservation of rights and property, 
it is understood and declared, that no law 
ought ever to be made, or have force in the 
said territory, that shall, in any manner what- 
ever, interfere with or affect private contracts 
or engagements, bona fide, and without fraud, 
previously formed. 

Art. 3rd. Religion, morality and knowl- 
edge, being necessary to good government and 
the happiness of mankind, schools and the 
means of. education shall forever be en- 
couraged. The utmost good faith shall al- 
ways be observed towards the Indians ; their 
lands and property shall never be taken from 


them without tluur consent; and, in their 
property, rights and liberty, they shall never 
be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and 
lawful wars authorized by congress ; but laws 
founded in justice and humanity, shall, from 
time to time, be made for preventing wrongs 
being done to them, and for preserving peace 
and friendship with them. 

Art. 4th. The said territory, and the 
states which may be formed therein, shall 
forever remain a part of this confederacy of 
the United States of America, subject to the 
Articles of Confederation, and to such altera- 
tions therein as shall be constitutionally made ; 
and to all the acts and ordinances of the 
United States in congress assembled, conform- 
able thereto. The inhabitants and settlers in 
the said territory shall be subject to pay a 
part of the federal debts contracted or to be 
contracted, and a proportional part of the 
expenses of government, to be apportioned on 
them by congress according to the same com- 
mon rule and measure by which apportion- 
ments thereof shall be made on the other 
states; and the taxes, for paying their pro- 
portion, shall be laid and levied by the 
authority and direction of the legislatures of 
the district or districts, or new states, as in 
the original states, within the time agreed 
upon by the United States in congress assem- 
bled. The legislatures of those districts or 
new states, shall never interfere with the 
primary disposal of the soil by the United 
States in congress assembled, nor with any 
regulations congress may find necessary for 
securing the title in such soil to the bona 
fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on 
lands the property of the United States; and 
in no case, shall non-resident proprietors be 
taxed higher than residents. The navigable 
waters leading into the Mississippi and St. 
Lawrence, and the carrying places between 
the same, shall be common highways, and for- 
ever free, as well to the inhabitants of the said 
territory as to the citizens of the United 
States, and those of any other state that may 
be admitted into the confederacy, without any 
tax, impost or duty, therefor. 

Art. 5th. There shall be formed in the said 
territory not less than three nor more than 
five states; and the boundaries of the states, 
as soon as Virginia shall alter her act of ces- 
sion, and consent to the same,'* shall become 

a. In the Virginia Act of Cession, passed 
December 20, 1783, the cession was made "upon 
condition that the territory so ceded shall be laid 
out and formed into states, containing suitable 

fixed and established as follows, to-wit : The 
western state in the said territory shall be 
bounded by the Mississippi, Ohio and Wabash 
rivers ; a direct line drawn from the Wabash 
and Post St. Vincent's, due north, to the ter- 
ritorial line between the United States and 
Canada, and, by the said territorial line, to 
the Lake of the Woods and Mississippi. The 
middle state shall be bounded by the said 
direct line, the Wabash from Post St. Vin- 
cent's to the Ohio; by. the Ohio, by a direct 
line, drawn due north from the mouth of the 
Great Miami to the said territorial line, and 
by the said territorial line. The eastern state 
shall be bounded by the last mentioned direct 
line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said 
territorial line : Provided, however, and it is 
further understood and declared, that the 
boundaries of these three states shall be sub- 
ject so far to be altered, that, if Congress 
shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall 
have authority to form one or two states in 
that part of the said territory which lies 
north of an east and west line drawn through 
the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michi- 
gan. And whenever any of the said states 
shall have sixty thousand free inhabitants 
therein, such state shall be admitted, by its 
delegates, into the Congress of the United 
States, on an equal footing with the original 
states in all respects whatever, and shall be 
at liberty to form a permanent constitution 
and state government : Provided,' the consti- 
tution and government so to be formed shall 
be republican and in conformity to the prin- 
ciples contained in these articles; and so far 
as it can be, consistent with the general in- 
terest of the confederacy, such admission shall 
be allowed at an earlier period, and when 
there may be a less number of free inhab- 
itants in the state than sixty thousand. 

Art. 6th. There shall be neither slavery 
nor involuntary servitude in the said terri- 
tory, otherwise than in the punishment of 
crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly 
convicted: Provided, always, that any per- 
son escaping into the same, from whom labor 
or service is lawfully claimed in any one of 
the original states, such fugitive may be law- 
extent of territory, not less than one hundred 
nor more than one hundred and fifty miles square, 
or as near thereto as circumstances will permit." 
By an act passed December 30, 1788, the General 
Assembly of Virginia altered her act of cession 
as to the foregoing condition, and consented to 
the boundaries of the new states as fixed by 
Congress, in the ordinance of 1787. 



fully reclaimed and conveyed to the person 
claiming his or her labor or service as afore- 

Sec. 6. — The Constitution of the United 
States. — The Congress that adopted the 
Ordinance of 1787 was the old Continental 
Congress, which, under the Articles of Con- 
federation, had carried the government 
through the Revolutionary war and secured 
the independence of the young republic. As 
soon, however, as the pressure of the common 
enemy was removed it was perceived that the 
loose Articles of Confederation were insuffi- 
cient to hold the former independent colo- 
nies together in one government ; and steps 
were taken by the people of all the states, 
"to form a more perfect union, establish jus- 
tice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for 
the common defense, promote the general wel- 
fare, and secure the blessings of liberty." At 
the very time that the Ordinance of 1787 was 
under discission, and when it was adopted, 
the convention for the adoption of a constitu- 
tion which should "form a more perfect 
union" was in session. In the ordinance we 
find the same patriotic provisions that are 
permanently established in the constitution; 
and both great documents were the product 
of practically the same wise Fathers who laid 
the foundations of the republic. 

The famous statement of Mr. Gladstone, 
that the constitution of the United States "is 
the greatest work ever struck off at any one 
time by the mind and purpose of man, ' ' while 
a most noble and deserved encomium upon the 
excellence of our constitution and of the form 
of government created by it, is nevertheless 
misleading in so far as it carries the idea 
that the provisions of that great document 
were original with the men who framed our 
fundamental law. Our constitution, like that 
of every other free state, was a growth rather 
than a creation. The Fathers of the republic 
put into complete, well rounded form the 
principles of free and stable government 
which had developed, year by year, in the 
several colonies since the time of their first 

settlement. Something was drawn from the 
experience of each of them. Indeed we may 
go further, and say that American institu- 
tions, as established in the Declaration of 
Independence, in the Ordinance of 1787 and 
in the Constitution of the United States, and 
as since developed in our history, are but the 
culmination of the preceding centuries of 
Christian civilization. 

A profound student of our system of 
government has said that, the real source of 
the constitution is the experience of the Amer- 
ican people. They had previously established 
and developed admirable little commonwealths 
in the colonies. Since the beginning of the 
Revolution they had become experienced in 
state governments, organized on a different 
basis from the colonial. Finally, they had 
carried on two successive national govern- 
ments, with both of which they had been pro- 
foundly discontented. The general outline of 
the constitution has been looked upon as Brit- 
ish; it was really colonial. The president's 
powers of military command, of appointment 
and of veto were similar to those of the co- 
lonial govei-nor. National courts were created 
on the model of colonial courts. A legislature 
of two houses was accepted because such legis- 
latures had been common in colonial times. 
In the English parliamentary system as it 
existed before 1760 the Americans had no 
share; the later English system of parlia- 
mentary responsibility was not yet developed, 
and had never been established in colonial 
governments; and our fathers expressly ex- 
cluded it from the constitution. Nor were 
they more affected by the experience of other 
European nations. The chief source of the 
details of the new constitution was the state 
constitutions and the laws then in force. In- 
deed, the principal experiment in the consti- 
tution, for which there was no precedent, was 
the establishment of an electoral college for 
the election of president and vice-president; 
and of all parts of the system this has worked . 
least as the framers expected. The constitu- 
tion, therefore, represents the accumulated ex- 



perience of the time. Its real boldness is the 
novelty of the federal system. The framing 
of a constitution in detail by a body of un- 
instructed delegates, expressly chosen for that 
purpose, was familiar experience in the sev- 
eral states ; even though it was unexampled 
elsewhere in the world. That the instrument 
of federal government should provide for 
proportional representation in one house, and 
for a federal court, were steps in federal or- 
ganization which mark a new federal prin- 
ciple. The great merit of the members of 
the constitutional convention is their under- 
standing of the temper of their own country- 
men. They selected out of British, colonial 
or state usages such practices and forms as 
experience had shown to be acceptable to 
the people. The members of the convention 
had further the wisdom to express their work 
in general though carefully stated principles. 
All previous federal governments had been 
fettered either by an imperfect and inade- 
quate statement, or by an unwritten consti- 
tution with an accumulation of special prece- 
dents. The phrases of the Constitution of 
1787 were broad enough to cover cases un- 
foreseen. A third distinction of the conven- 
tion is the skill with which it framed ac- 
ceptable compromises upon the most difficult 
questions before it. The two houses of con- 
gress satisfied both large and small states. 
The convention had profited by the experience 
of the Confederation; on every page of the 
constitution may be found clauses which 
would not have stood there had it been framed 
in 1781. An adequate revenue was provided ; 
foreign and interetate commerce was put un- 
der the control of congress; the charge of 
foreign affairs was given entirely to the cen- 
tral authority; the powers of government 
were distributed among the three depart- 
ments, legislative, executive and judicial." 

Sec. 7. — Ratification of the Constitu- 
tion. — Yet, wise as seems to us this funda- 
mental law of our country, after our experi- 

a. A. B. Hart, Formation of the Union, Sec. 
62; Study of Fed. Gov'nt, Ch. 4. 

ence of more than a hundred years, it was 
only with the greatest difficulty that the spirit 
of compromise prevailed in the convention, 
and afterwards with the people themselves. 
It was finally accepted only through the 
extraordinary and persistent influence of 
some of the wisest statesmen that ever lived, 
— Washington, Franklin, Madison, Hamilton, 
James Wilson, John Marshall and others. The 
opposition in Massachusetts, New York, Vir- 
ginia and the Carolinas was pronounced! 
Hancock and Adams were lukewarm. Patrick 
Henry, Richard Henry Lee and James iNIonroe 
were in opposition. Massachusetts and South 
Carolina, the former under the lead of Han- 
cock, finally came to the support of the con- 
stitution, with recommendations in favor of 
amendments which were afterwards adopted. 

Rhode Island refused to send delegates to 
the convention, but the remaining twelve 
states finally agreed so far that delegates 
from each signed the constitution, September 
17, 1787. The seventh, and last, article of 
the constitution provided that : 

"The ratification of the conventions of nine 
states, shall be sufficient for the establishment 
of this constitution between the states so rati- 
fying the same." 

And then again began the great struggle. 
Would the requisite number of states ratify 
the work of the convention? The fate of the 
proposed constitution remained in doubt for 
over nine months after the adjournment of 
the convention. The state of Delaware was 
the first to ratify, December 7, 1787; Penn- 
sylvania followed, December 12, 1787, but 
by the ominous vote of forty-six to twenty- 
three, so strong was the opposition, notwith- 
standing the powerful advocacy of Franklin 
and Wilson ; New Jersey came next, Decem- 
ber 18, 1787; Georgia ratified, January 2, 
1788 ; Connecticut, January 9, 1788, by a vote 
of one hundred and twenty-eight to forty; 
Massachusetts, with the suggested amend- 
ments, February 6, 1788, by the excessively 
close vote of one hundred and eighty-seven to 
one hundred and sixty-eight; Maryland, 



April 28, 1788 ; South Carolina, with its 
amendments, May 23, 1788 ; and New Hamp- 
shire, the ninth state, June 21, 1788. The 
union was formed. The remaining: states came 
in afterwards, as follows: Virginia, June 26, 
1788 (but before the ratification of the ninth 
state was known, so slow were the means of 
communication in those days) ; New York, 
July 26, 1788 (by a vote of thirty to twenty- 
eight) ; North Carolina, November 21, 1789; 
and, finally, Rhode Island, May 29, 1790. 

A powerful influence in turning the minds 
of the people towards what may perhaps be 
termed a reluctant ratification of the consti- 
tution, and without which at least New York, 
even with the powerful advocacy of Hamilton, 
would probably have remained out of the 
union, for years if not forever, was the pub- 
lication of a series of essays in exposition of 
the true character of the constitution, written 
by Hamilton, Madison and Jay, over the com- 
mon signature of "Publius. " These essays 
were published in a newspaper, between Oc- 
tober, 1787. and June, 1788. They were sub- 
sequently collected and published in a vol- 
ume, named ' ' The Federalist. ' ' The influence 
of this series of essays was very great, and 
deservedly so. From its publication to this 
day, "The Federalist" has held its rank as 
the very highest authority upon the proper 
construction of the constitution. "Madison's 
Debates," taken down by the "Father of the 
Constitution" during the sessions of the con- 
vention, and this series of essays, known as 
"The Federalist," must always remain in- 
valuable to the student of American govern- 

Sec. 8. — Government Under the Ordi- 
nance. — The northwest territory was gov- 
erned by the old continental congress, under 
the provisions of the ordinance of 1787, from 
the passage of the ordinance, July 13, 1787, 
until the new constitution went into effect. 
As soon as the ratification of the constitution 
by nine states was certified to congress, that 

a. Landon, Const. Hist, and Gov'nt of the U. S., 
Lecture 4. 

body, by a resolution adopted September 13, 
1788, provided "that the first Wednesday in 
March next (1789) be the time, and the pres- 
ent seat of Congress (New York city) the 
place, for commencing proceedings under the 
said constitution." The first Wednesday of 
March, 1789, was March 4th of that year, and 
from that day, or, at least, from the inaugura- 
tion of Washington as first president, which 
did not take place until April 30, 1789, the 
ordinance, though still remaining in eftect. 
was modified by the supreme control of the 

One provision of the ordinance was "that 
there shall be appointed, from time to time, 
by congress, a governor, whose commission 
shall continue in force for a term of three 
years, unless sooner revoked by congress." 
Provision was also made for the appointment 
by congress of a secretary for the territory ; 
as also a court, to consist of three judges. As 
soon as the constitution was adopted this ap- 
pointing power and other executive functions 
passed to the president. A formal declara- 
tion to this effect was made by act of the new 
congress, approved August 7, 1789. It was 
not until October 5, 1787, that the old con- 
gress had proceeded to the election of a gov- 
ernor for the territory, and then selected Gen- 
eral Arthur St. Clair, the president of that 
congress, for the office of governor. Winthrop 
Sargent was appointed secretary. The ap- 
pointees of the congress were continued in of- 
fice by Washington after his election as presi- 

The ordinance provided for the election of 
a legislature by the people of the territory. 
"so soon as there shall be five thousand free 
male inhabitants, of full age, in the district," 
— a name frequently applied in the ordinance 
,to the northwest territory. But, until tha^ 
time, it was provided that, "The governor 
and judges, or a majority of them, shall adopt 
and publish in the district such laws of the 
original states, criminal and civil, as may be 
necessary, and best suited to the' circum- 
stances of the district, and report them to 



L'ougress, from time to time; which hiws shall 
be in force in the district until the organiza- 
tion of the general assembly therein, unless 
disapproved of by congress ; but afterwards 
the legislature shall have authority to alter 
them as they shall see fit. ' ' So fast did those ' 
old republicans 'stand to the principles of 
free representative government that, although 
the people of the territory were as yet too few 
and too scattered to make it practicable to 
oi'ganize a legislature, still congress would not 
suffer even its own appointees to make laws 
for the territory. The most that would be 
allowed, and that from sheer necessity, was 
the adoption of "such laws of the original 
states" as might be "best suited to the cir- 
cumstances of the district," and not even 
then if "disapproved bj" congress." The 
laws from which the governor and judges 
were given power to make selections were 
strictly confined to those of "the original 
states," that is, to those laws which the emi- 
grants themselves had helped to enact in the 
states from which they had come. In this 
way the principle of self government was 
maintained as far as possible. 

Sec. 9. — Governor St. Clair. — Before set- 
ting out for the west Governor St. Clair re- 
ceived private instructions from congress re- 
quiring him to acquaint himself with the real 
temper of the Indians, to regulate trade with 
them and remove, if possible, all causes of 
controversy. He was also to neglect no op- 
portunity that might offer to extinguish In- 
dian titles to lands west to the Mississippi and 
north as far as the forty-first parallel of lati- 
tude. He was further charged to do w^hat he 
could to conciliate the w^hites and induce them 
to live on friendly ' terms with the Indians. 
In July, 1788, the governor and other officers 
arrived at the new^ town of Marietta, at the 
junction of the Muskingum and the Ohio, and 
proceeded to organize the new government, 
under the provisions of the ordinance of 1787. 
On July 15, 1788, Governor St. Clair and the 
three judges met for the first time as a 
legislative body, and adopted a code of laws. 

The first session of court for the trial of causes 
was convened at Marietta, September 2, 1788, 
and w^as opened with impressive ceremonies. 
The court was a tribunal of last resort, with 
power to review the decisions of inferior 
courts, and had supreme jurisdiction through- 
out the northwest territory. Successive terms 
of court were held at Cincinnati, Vincennes 
and Kaskaskia, and later at Detroit. The 
judges traveled this wide circuit on horse- 
back. Those first judges to be commissioned 
under authority of the United States, and 
given the two-fold power, to adopt laws for 
this immense territory, and, at the same time, 
to hold courts and hear and decide causes, 
were Samuel Holden Parsons, James Mitchell 
Varnum and John Cleves S>Tnmes. They 
were at the same time our first lawgivers and 
our first judges; and were all most eminent 
men. and worthy to lay the foundations of 
great states. 

On October 6, 1789, President Washington 
issued instructions to Governor St. Clair, 
chiefly having reference to the preservation 
of peace with the Indians, but providing for 
hostilities if they should break out, and add- 
ing: "You will also proceed, as soon as you 
can, with safety, to execute the orders of the 
late congress, respecting the inhabitants at 
Post Vincennes, and at the Kaskaskias and 
other villages on the Mississippi. It is a cir- 
cumstance of some importance, that the said 
inhabitants should as soon as possible possess 
the lands to which they are entitled, by some • 
known and fixed principles. ' ' 

Early in January, 1790, the governor, with 
the secretary and judges of the territory, 
descended the Ohio, from INIarietta to Fort 
Washington, which was located at a town then 
know^n as Losantiville. St. Clair persuaded 
the proprietors of the town to change this 
name to Cincinnati, in honor of the Society 
of the Cincinnati, recently formed by the of- 
ficers of the Revolutionary tii-iny. At this 
place, he also laid out the county of Hamil- 
ton, and appointed officers for the administra- 
tion of the affairs of the county. On January 


8, 1790, the governor, with the secretary, ar- owed so much, was denied the gift of a small 
rived at Clarksville, from which point he sent plat of ground for which he had petitioned, 
dispatches to Major Hamtramck, then com- and he, like Clark and Vigo, ended his life in 
mander of Post Vincennes, enquiring into the poverty. It has been frequently said, re- 
reports as to great destitution among the in- marks Mr. Cauthorn, in his history of Vin- 
habitants for want of food, and suggesting ' cennes, that republics are ungrateful. The 
plans of relief. From Clarksville the officials truth of this trite saying is forcibly illus- 
proceeded to the Illinois country, to continue trated by the treatment of these men, who, 
the work of organizing the government of the above all others, were the main instruments 
territory, and to carry into effect the resolu- in wresting from England the territory north- 
tions of congress in relation to the lands of west of the river Ohio, and thereby paving 
the settlers near Kaskaskia and Vincennes. the way for the ultimate acquisition of that 
Upon the arrival of the governor at Kas- vast and fertile country out of which the 
kaskia the county of St. Clair was organized, five rich and populous states of Ohio, Indiana, 
embracing the present territory of the state Illinois, Michigan and "Wisconsin have been 
of Illinois south of the Illinois river. The carved, and added to the sisterhood of states. 
county was divided into three common pleas The three men are Pierre Gibault, George 
court districts, and judges and other officers Rogers Clark and Francis Vigo. They all 
were appointed. Two of the three judges went to their graves in a very similar con- 
were of French descent. The governor spent dition, and all present a parallel of govern- 
some time straightening out the land titles, ment neglect of consideration for patriotic 
which were discovered to be in great con- and valuable services rendered, without a 
fusion. He found the reports as to the suf- counterpart in the annals of history.^* 
fering of the inhabitants to be true. The Major Hamtramck, early in June, 1790, 
supplies furnished by the people to Clark's sent dispatches from Vincennes to the gov- 
army were never paid for. Troubles with ernor, at Kaskaskia, from which it was ap- 
the Indians and consequent failure of trade parent that no treaty could be made with 
relations, as well as loss of crops by inunda- the Miamis and their confederates. Governor 
tions and other causes, completed the mis- St. Clair therefore prepared to go to Fort 
fortunes of the unhappy settlers. In a me- Washington, at Cincinnati, and consult with 
morial, dated at St. Clair county, June 9, General Harmar upon the means of sending 
1790, and signed by the patriot priest. Father an expedition against the hostile Indians. He 
Gibault. and eighty-seven others, the misera- left Kaskaskia on the eleventh of June, plac- 
ble condition of the inhabitants was most ing the affairs of the government in the hands 
pathetically set forth for the ir^formation of of the secretary, Winthrop Sargent. This of- 
the governor. It is a sad commentary on the ficer proceeded at once to Vincennes, where 
distressed condition to which these generous he laid out the county of Knox, appointed 
hearted people were reduced, to reflect that the necessary civil and military officers and 
so large a part of their suft'ering was due organized the militia. He then proceeded to 
to the failure of both the government of Vir- settle the old land titles which were in the 
ginia and that of the United States to make same cojifusion as those near Kaskaskia. 
adequate return for the sacrifices which these The result of the conference of Governor 
far western patriots had so freely made in St. Clair with General Harmar, at Fort AVash- 
the service of their country. It is neglect of ington, was the sending of an expedition, 
this nature that has given currency to the chiefly of militia, commanded by General Har- 
adage that republics are ungrateful. Even mar, against the Miamis under Little Turtle. 
Father Gibault. the friend to whom Clark a. History of Vincennes, p. 105. 



The Indians were met near the site of the 
present city of Fort Wayne, where sang-uinary 
fighting took place, rather to the advantage of 
the Indians, so that Harmar's forces returned 
to Fort Washington. All the frontier settle- 
ments in Ohio and Indiana, and even those in 
Kentucky, were alarmed at the outcome of this 
expedition ; and preparations were at once 
made to raise an army sufficiently powerful 
to repel the Indians. Two other expeditions, 
one under General Scott, and one under Gen- 
eral Wilkinson, were in turn sent from Fort 
Washington against Indian villages, situated 
near Ouiatanon, below the site of the present 
city of La Fayette, and near the site of Lo- 
gansport. Those villages were referred to. 
generally, as the Wea towns on the Wabash. 
The net results of those three expeditions was 
to rouse the Indians to the utmost pitch of 
resentment, with the consequent effect of 
striking terror into all the white settlements 
in the northwest, and also Kentucky, western 
Virginia and Pennsylvania. 

Little Turtle and Governor St. Clair has- 
tened preparations for the conflict which 
all persons, Indian and white, knew was im- 
pending. Although it was stipulated in the 
treaty of peace by which the independence 
of the United States was acknowledged, sign- 
ed at Paris, September 3, 1783, that Great 
Britain should, with all convenient dispatch, 
withdraw her forces from the forts and other 
places within United States territory; yet, 
under claim that our government had failed 
to take measures to make payment of claims 
of British creditors, as also provided by that 
treaty, the government of Great Britain con- 
tinued, from 1783 to 1796, to hold possession 
of various forts within American territory, 
including those at Sandusky, Detroit and 
Michilimackinac. These last named posts were 
within the northwest territory, and from all 
of them the Indians received encouragement 
and support. The English did not like to 
give up the fur trade with the Indians, which 
they had so long monopolized; and the Brit- 
ish government therefore looked with an un- 

friendly eye upon the efforts of the American 
people to subdue the northwestern Indians 
and establish states of the Union in their 
stead. There is no question but that this 
moral, and often active, support given by 
the presence of British garrisons within the 
confines of the northwestern territory had 
very much to do with the building up by 
Little Turtle of the strong Indian organiza- 
tion which must now be encountered by 
Governor St. Clair and his hastily gathered 
forces. The Indian feared that the American 
was to deprive him of his rich lands, while 
the Briton claimed that the American was 
depriving British creditors of moneys due 
them. These were the ostensible motives; 
but, while the Indian's fear may have been 
well grounded, the real British motive was 
hatred of the people who had wrested from 
the control of Great Britain these vast Ameri- 
can states and territories, and threatened to 
build upon the soil a republic which should 
forever be a rival to the British monarchy. 

In the spring of 1791, Governor St. Clair 
began the formation at Fort Washington 
(Cincinnati), of an army of invasion against 
the Indians under Little Turtle. There 
seemed little enthusiasm among the militia. 
Troops and supplies had to be procured from 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Vir- 
ginia and Kentucky; and it was not until 
September that General Butler, second in 
command, led. the first detachment from Fort 
Washington. On November 3, 1791, the army, 
on its march, reached a point about fifteen 
miles from the Miami village, near the spot 
where Fort Recovery was afterwards built. 
Here, on the morning of November 4, 1791, 
the Americans under St. Clair and Butler 
were unexpectedly attacked by the Indians 
under Little Turtle, and most disastrously de- 
feated, losing many men and all their muni- 
tions and supplies. 

St. Clair's defeat wrought consternation 
throughout the northwest. The commander- 
in-chief was blamed universally, and that 
blame has not ceased to this day; and yet 



this severe judgment seems not altogether 
just. The failure of the expedition was due 
to causes which the governor may have been, 
and probably was, unable to control, — the 
character of his forces, made up as they were 
of bodies of backwoodsmen who had hereto- 
fore been accustomed to make desultory 
excursions in small parties along the borders, 
and who were therefore unfamiliar with dis- 
cipline and movements necessary to an army; 
the inefficiency of the quartermaster's depart- 
ment, due, undoubtedly, to the same causes; 
and finally to the lateness of the season, which 
rendered exceedingly difficult the marching of 
troops, and the hauling of artillery and stores, 
through the forests, across swollen streams 
and over rain soaked grounds, with the win- 
ter snows already falling. But the governor, 
stung by the universal criticism, resigned his 
military command, and Anthony Wayne, one 
of the most distinguished of the Revolution- 
ary generals, was appointed in his place. St. 
Clair, however, retained his office of civil 
governor of the territory ; though the duties 
of that office, were frequently performed by 
the secretary, Winthrop Sargent. 

Sec. 10. — General Anthony Wayne. — 
The transfer of command from St. Clair to 
Wayne, after St. Clair's defeat, was followed 
by action on the part of the government 
which calls to mind similar action taken after 
the transfer of command from Rosecrans to 
Grant, subsequent to the battle of Chicka- 
mauga. Measures were at once taken to put 
the army on a better footing; men and muni- 
tions of war were gathered and preparations 
were made to meet the formidable forces 
which Little Turtle and his British allies 
were massing in the wilderness. The govern- 
ment and the people, instead of waiting 
apathetically for an ill supplied army to win 
victories over the thoroughly roused Indian 
tribes, now made every effort to send an army, 
worthy the name, against their exultant foes, 
red and white. 

Additional causes of trouble resulted from 
the condition of affairs in France. In 1793, 

the French revolution was at its height ; Louis 
XVI and Marie Antoinette had been put to 
death ; the monarchy was overthrown ; and 
the republic had armed nearly a million men 
in war with all Europe. The sympathy of 
the American people was to a great extent in 
favor of the French republic ; and it was 
perhaps only through the wise counsels of 
Washington that we were preserved from 
being drawn into the terrific storm which 
then raged between France and the armies 
of the world. The French minister to the 
United States, Mr. Genet, artfully playing 
upon the people's sentiments of gratitude for 
aid received from France during our revolu- 
tion, tried to secure American enlistments and 
to form an army to attack the Spanish posses- 
sions in Florida and Louisiana, and also to 
induce Americans to man privateers to prey 
upon British commerce. Even George Rogers 
Clark accepted a Major-General's commission 
from Genet, with authority to wrest from 
Spain her dominions beyond the Mississippi. 
Both England and Spain expected war with 
the United States; and both English and 
Spanish emissaries were constantly engaged 
in stirring up the Indians to continue hostili- 
ties with the Americans. Early in 1794, 
Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe, of the Canadian 
government, was ordered to establish a Brit- 
ish military post at .the foot of the rapids of 
the Maumee, near the present site of Fort 
Wayne; and, on April, 1794, he marched 
three companies of British troops from De- 
troit to that point, while about the same time 
a Spanish messenger from St. Louis came to 
encourage the Indians assembled at that 
point, promising Spanish assistance from the 
settlements beyond the Mississippi. It needed 
the coolness and wisdom of Washington and 
the military genius of General Anthony 
Wayne to carry the country safely through 
this crisis. On the representations of our 
government. Genet was recalled, and a new 
minister sent from France who did very much 
to undo the mischief which Genet had caused. 
During the same time , the United States 



government took every measure possible to 
secure the good will of the Indians, and to 
enter into treaties of peace with them. The 
commissioners and agents of the government 
were instructed to assure the Indians, in the 
"most explicit terms, that the United States 
renounced all claim to any Indian land which 
had not been ceded, by fair treaties, made 
with the Indian nations." All was apparently 
to no purpose. The Indians, partly through 
fear of losing their hunting grounds, and 
partly through unfriendly representations 
made by British and Spanish emissaries, re- 
fused to make any treaties w^liich the Ameri- 
cans could agree to. 

Meanwhile General Wayne went ahead with 
his preparations for the conflict that finally 
became inevitable. Having collected at Fort 
Washington a force sufficiently strong and 
well disciplined for the purpose, and all hope 
of the making of any treaties of peace having 
finally vanished, General Wayne with his 
army, upon which so much depended, began 
his eventful expedition October 7, 1798. pro- 
ceeding by way of Forts Hamilton, St. Clair 
and Jefferson, following the line taken by St. 
Clair two years previous, and arriving at a 
point half way between Fort Jefferson and St. 
Clair's battle ground on October 13th. where 
he was compelled to await his supplies. After 
garrisoning the several forts and leaving the 
sick to be cared for, there remained an army 
of twenty-six hundred men in the advance. 
Having in mind the fate of St. Clair, General 
Wajme concluded that the winter season was 
unsuited for a further campaign, and w^ent 
into winter quarters at a place which he 
named Fort Greenville, near the site of the 
present city of Greenville. On October 23rd, 
he sent forward a detachment to take posses- 
sion of the ground where St. Clair was de- 
feated, and there erected a fort to which he 
gave the appropriate name of Fort Recovery. 
During the winter some attempt was made 
by the 'Indians to renew peace negotiations 
with General AVayne. but nothing came of it. 
On June 30, 179-4, a large body of Indians, 

aided by British agents and Canadian volun- 
teers, made an attack on an American detach- 
ment in the neighborhood of Fort Recovery. 
On July 26, 1794, a force of sixteen hundred 
mounted Kentucky volunteers were added to 
Wayne's army; and with these fresh troops 
he felt strong enough to take up the line of 
march for the Maumee towns. On the 8th 
of August the army arrived at the confluence 
of the Maumee and Auglaize rivers, where a 
fort named Fort Defiance was erected. Here 
peace was again offered to the Indians, but 
was again declined. On August 15th, Wayne 
marched out from Fort Defiance, and on the 
20th met and defeated the Indians in a deci- 
sive battle, almost under the guns of the new 
British fort. With Little Turtle's army were 
no less than seventy white men. including a 
corps of volunteers from Detroit under com- 
mand of a British officer. On September 17, 

1794, the American army reached the deserted 
Miami village at the junction of the Little St. 
Joseph's and the St. Mary's rivers; and on 
October 22nd, a fort was completed at that 
point and named Fort Wayne. In 1814, a 
new fort was built on the site of this old fort ; 
and from this has grown the splendid city of 
Fort Wayne. 

Sec. 11. — The Treaty of Greenville. — 
General Wayne returned with his army to 
Greenville, and sent invitations to all Ihe 
tribes to send representatives to him at that 
place to renew negotiations for peace. On 
November 19, 1794, the United States antl 
Great Britain concluded "a treaty of amity, 
commerce and navigation"; so that the 
Indians no longer could hope for British aid 
against the Americans. They therefore began 
to listen to Wayne's renewed invitations; and 
in June, 1795, strong deputations from vari- 
ous tribes arrived at Greenville. After long 
continued deliberations, and many eloquent 
speeches, according to the Indian custom, 
peace was finally concluded, and the famous 
treaty of Greenville was signed August 3, 

1795, giving peace and security again to the 



See. 12. — Indian Land Titles. — By the 
treaty of Greenville the Indians for the first 
time formally relinquished title to parts of 
lands in the northwest theretofore in dispute 
between them and the whites. Before that 
treaty the Indians had never acknowledged 
the right of the whites to any lands, even 
those claimed by the latter from their first 
occupancy of the county, such as the lands of 
Clark's Grant and the lands in and around 
Vincennes. Including the treaty of Green- 
ville, August 3, 1795, there were no less than 
forty-six separate treaties with various tribes 
of Indians, covering all the lands within the 
present state of Indiana, the last of those 
treaties being made with the Miamis, Novem- 
ber 28, 1840. "It will thus be seen," says 
Mr. W. H. Smith, in his history of Indiana, 
"that the process of extinguishing the Indian 
titles was a slow one, and that the Indians 
were not finally dispossessed until after Indi- 
ana had been a member of the Union for 
nearly a quarter of a century. In most of 
these final treaties certain tracts were reserved 
by the Indians for favorite members of the 
tribes, and are yet known as 'reservations,' 
although about all the lands have passed to 
other persons than the descendants of the 
original beneficiaries. A few descendants of 
the Miamis still live in Wabash and Miami 
counties. [A few persons of Pottawatomie 
descent are also found in St. Joseph county.] 
In its various purchases from the Indians, the 
United States frequently had to accept from 
two, sometimes three, different tribes separate 
relinquishments of their respective rights, 
titles, and claims to the same section of coun- 
try. "« 

Sec. 13. — Lew^is Cass and the Indian 
Treaties.^ — Most readers of Indiana history 
know that Cass county, Indiana, was named 
after Lewis Cass, the Michigan general and 
governor of that name, who afterwards came 
very near being president of the United 

a. William Henry Smith, Hist. Indiana, Vol. 
1, pp. 228-239. 

b. From the Indianapolis News of May 25, 

States ; but many do not know how much he 
had to do with extinguishing the Indian titles 
to land in this state and opening the lands to 
white settlement. 

Of the treaties by which the Indians at dif- 
ferent times made cessions of land in Indiana, 
General Cass assisted in negotiating nine. 
These were with several different tribes and 
covered a period of about ten years, from 
1818 to 1828. One of them was negotiated 
and signed at Maiunee Rapids, 0., in 1817; 
four at St. Mary's, 0., in 1818; one at Chi- 
cago, in 1821 ; two near the mouth of the 
Mississinewa, in 1826, and one at Mission, on 
the St. Joseph, in the same year. 

The process of extinguishing the Indian 
titles to lands in Indiana occupied nearly 
fifty years, beginning with the treaty at Green- 
ville, negotiated by General Wayne, in 1795, 
and ending with that of Forks of the Wabash, 
negotiated by Samuel Milroy and Allen Ham- 
ilton, in 1840. 

The policy of making treaties with the In- 
dians as independent tribes for the possession 
of their lands began immediately after the 
adoption of the constitution and continued tiU 
1871. To this extent, therefore, the Govern- 
ment recognized the Indian tribes as foreign 
nations, making treaties with them which were 
ratified by the Senate, the same as treaties 
with foreign governments. No doubt this was 
better than seizing the lands by force and 
appropriating them without any pretense of 
negotiation, though the whole proceeding was 
really one of force. 

As the Indians were practically subjugated 
from the beginning and destined to extermi- 
nation or removal to reservations, making 
treaties with them was rather a farcical pro- 
cedure, yet no doubt, it was the best method 
of extinguishing their title to lands. As the 
tribes, north and south, were numerous, it 
required a great many treaties to complete 
the process of extinguishing title. 

From the foundation of the Government 
to 1837, the Government concluded 349 trea- 
ties with fifty-four different tribes, and many 


after that. Of the Indians who origiually and bows and arrows with which to kill it. 

occupied portions of Indiana eleven diiferent After some time it became difficult to kill the 

treaties were negotiated at different times game, and the Great Spirit sent the white 

with the Kickapoos, eight with the Weas, six- men here, who supplied you with powder and 

teen Avith the Delawares, ten with the Miamis ball and with blankets and clothes. We were 

and thirty-eight with the Pottawatomies. then a very small people, but we have greatly 

Most of these treaties included a cession increased and we are now over the whole face 

of more or less land, so it will be seen the pro- of the country. You have decreased and your 

cess of extinguishing Indian titles was a kind numbers are now much reduced. You have 

of paring off and whittling down process. On but little game, and it is difficult for you to 

the whole, however, it was accomplished, as support your women and children by hunting, 

far as Indiana is concerned with very little Your Great Father, whose eyes survey the 

bloodshed, compared with what might have whole country, sees that you have a large 

been in a struggle for the possession of so vast tract of land here which is of no service to 

and valuable a territory had the Indians been you ; you do not cultivate it, and there is but 

united and determined. little game upon it. The buffalo has long 

The treaties by which they relinquished since left it, and the deer are going. There 
their rights and ceded their lands usually con- are no beaver and there will soon be no other 
tained provisions for the payment of a lump animals worth hunting upon it. 
sum of money to the tribe, for the payment "There are a great many of the white 
of annuities to the chiefs and the promise of children of your Great Father who would be 
various articles, such as rifles, hoes, kettles, glad to live on this land. They would build 
blankets and tobacco to each Indian who houses and raise corn and cattle and hogs, 
should move to the new reservation. Provi- You know when a family grows up and be- 
sion was also generally made for their trans- comes large, they must leave their father's 
portation. The consideration named in some house and look for a place for themselves. So 
of the treaties for their cessions of land, what it is with your white brethren ; their family 
might be called the purchase money, was is increasing and they must find some new 
ridiculously small compared with its real place to move to. Your Great Father is will- 
value, ing to give for this land much more than it 

The treaties were generally preceded by is worth to you. He is willing to give more 

smooth and specious talks by the white com- than all the game upon it would sell for. 

missioners representing the urgent needs of You know well that all he promises he will 

the whites, the advantages to the Indians of perform." 

a change, etc. General Cass's address to the The speaker then pointed out how much 

JNIiami and Pottawatomie Indians at Missis- happier the Indians would be far away from 

sinewa is preserved and is a sample. This the whites, where there would be no danger 

treaty was made October 16, 1826, the other of collisions, and especially where it would 

two commissioners besides Cass being James not be so easy for their young men to obtain 

B. Ray and John Tipton. whisky. He continued: "Your Great Father 

General Cass began by thanking the Great owns a large country west of the Mississippi 

Spirit for having granted them good weather river. He is anxious that all his red children 

and brought them all to the council-house in should remove there and settle down in peace 

safety. He continued: "When the Great together; then they can hunt and provide 

Spirit placed you upon this island [the In- well for their women and children and 

dians called this continent an island], he once more become a happy people. We are 

gave you plenty of game for food and clothing authorized to offer you a residence there. 



equal in extent to your lands here, and to 
pay you an annuity which will make you com- 
fortable, and to provide the means of your re- 
moval. You will then have a country abound- 
ing with game, and you will also have the 
value of the country you leave, and you will 
be beyond the reach of whisky, for it can not 
reach you there. Your Great Father will not 
suffer his white children to reside there, for 
it is reserved for the red people; it will be 
yours as long as the sun shines and the rain 
falls. You must go before long ; you can not 
remain here, you must remove or perish. 

"Now is tho time to make a good bargain 
for yourselvas which will make you rich and 
comfortable. Come forward, then, like wise 
men and accept the terms we offer." The 
Indians were not fools and they must have 
been rather disgusted by the pretended anx- 
iety of their Great Father at Washington for 
their welfare. However, they signed the 
treaty. Under it they were removed first to 
a reservation in Kansas which General Cass 
had assured them "will be yours as long as 
the sun shines and the rain falls. ' ' But their 
Great Father changed his mind, and later 
they were removed to the Indian Territory. 

Between 1817 and 1831, General Cass had 
assisted in concluding treaties with different 
tribes of Indians by which cessions of land 
were acquired in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin, to an amount equal 
to nearly one-fourth of the entire area of 
those states. There is a Cass county in Michi- 
gan, Illinois, Minnesota, Nebraska and North 
Dakota, besides that in our own state. Gen- 
eral Cass's public services as superintendent 
of Indian Affairs, United States Senator. 
Secretary of War, Secretary of State, and 
other important offices made him very popu- 
lar, and in 1844 he came very near being- 
nominated for President. On the first day of 
the convention he ran up from eighty-three 
on the first ballot to 114 on the eighth, and if 
another ballot had been taken on that day he 
would have been nominated. The next morn- 
ing James K. Polk was sprung as a "dark 

horse" candidate and nominated on the first 
ballot. In 1848, General Cass was nominated, 
but was defeated by General Taylor. The 
Democracy of Indiana were for him from the 
beginning and in 1848 he received the elec- 
toral vote of the state. 

Sec. 14. — Indian Titles to St. Joseph 
County Lands. — The Indian title to the lands 
of St. Joseph county was extinguished in 
four of the forty-six treaties above referred 
to, as follows: 

1. The lands in the northeastern section of 
the county, embracing Harris and Clay town- 
ships, the north part of Penn, the east part 
of German, the east part of Portage and the 
north part of Center, are included in the lands 
ceded to the United States by the treaty made 
at Chicago with the Ottawas, Chippewas and 
Pottawatomies, August 29, 1821. The sites 
of our two cities, South Bend and Mishawaka, 
as well as those of the village of Osceola, the 
University of Notre Dame and St. Mary's 
Academy, are all within this cession. Only a 
small part of the lands ceded by this treaty 
are within the bounds of the state of Indiana, 
the greater part being in Michigan. Indeed, 
it would seem as if the lands were looked upon 
as all in Michigan. The Ottawas and Chippe- 
was were Michigan Indians, as were, in part, 
the Pottawatomies also ; and it is to be noted 
that the southern boundary of the lands ceded 
])y this treaty is the old Michigan boundary 
line, the line recognized by the Ordinance of 
1787, running east and west through rlie 
southerly bend of Lake Michigan. Indeed 
this old Michigan boundary line is frequently 
referred to as the old Indian boundary line. 

2. The lands in the northwestern .section 
of the county, embracing W^arren township, 
the north part of Olive, the west part of Ger- 
man, the west part of Portage and the north 
part of Greene, are included in the lands 
ceded to the United States by the treaty made 
with the Pottawatomies, October 16, 1826. 
The southern boundary of the lands ceded by 
this treaty is also the old Michigan boundary 
line, the line recognized in the Ordinance of 



1787. The site of the town of New Carlisle, 
and also the beautiful Terre Coupee prairie 
as well as the villages of Lindley and Crum's 
Point, are within this cession. 

3. The lands in the southeastern section 
of the county, embracing- the township of 
Madison, the south part of Penn, the south 
part of Center and the east part of Union, 
are included in the lands ceded to the United 
States by the treaty made with the Potta- 
watomies, September 20, 1828. The lands so 
ceded reach north to the old INIichigan bound- 
ary line. Woodland and Lakeville are within 
the limits of this cession. 

4. The lands in the southwestern section 
of the county, embracing the townships of 
Liberty and Lincoln^ the south part of 
Greene and the west part of Union, are in- 
cluded in the lands ceded to the United States 
by the treaty made with the Pottawatomies, 
October 26, 1832. The lands here ceded also 
reach north to the old Michigan boundary 
line. Walkerton and North Liberty are with- 
in this territory. 

It appears, then, that all the lands of St. 
Joseph county were claimed and ceded by the 
Pottawatomies ; except those in the northeast- 
em section, which were ceded jointly by the 
Ottawas, Chippewas and Pottawatomies. 
This former home of the Miamis had become 
essentially a Pottawatomie country. And, 
although, when the first treaty of cession of 
the lands of this county was made, Augast 29, 
1821, the state of Indiana had already been 
five years in the Union, with its northern 
boundary ten miles north of the line fixed by 
the Ordinance of 1787 ; yet, in the four 
treaties by which the lands of this county were 
ceded by the Indians to the United States, 
the old Michigan boundary line was recog- 
nized. It is remarkable, too, that as this 
county of St. Joseph had been the center of 
geological forces, resulting in the present con- 
figuration of the St. Joseph and Kankakee val- 
leys and the adjacent hills and prairies; and 
as the portage between the two rivers formed 
the central road of commerce for untold ages 

between the lakes and the Mississippi ; so now, 
when the Indian came to yield, reluctantly, 
stubbornly, these fair lands of his forefathers, 
he stood, as it were, with his foot on the cen- 
ter of the county, and, by treaty after treaty, 
ceded one fourth of the county at a time, from 
1821 until 1832, when all was gone. It was, 
indeed, a land to hold fast to, and to be finally 
yielded to the white man only when the 
superior race could be resisted no longer. 

Sec. 15. — The First Legislature of the 
Northwest Territory. — The free male in- 
habitants of the territory northwest of the 
river Ohio having reached the number of five 
thousand, Governor St. Clair, on October 29, 

1798, as required by the provisions of the 
Ordinance of 1787, issued his proclamation 
for an election to be held on the third Monday 
of December following, for the election of 
members of the first general assembly ; which 
was called to convene at Cincinnati, January 
22, 1799. The legislature met accordingly, 
and nominated ten persons from whom the 
president should select a legislative council 
of five, to constitute an upper house, or ter- 
ritorial senate, as provided in the ordinance 
of 1787. After making their nominations to 
the president for the appointment of a legis- 
lative council, the legislature was adjourned 
by the governor to meet again. September 16, 

1799. The two houses were not properly or- 
ganized until the 21:th of that month. The 
members of the legislative council, as selected 
by President Adams, were Jacob Burnet, 
James Findlay, Henry Vanderburgh, Robert 
Oliver and David Vance. This was the first 
senate 'of the northwest territory. Henry Van- 
derburgh was elected president ; William C. 
Schenk, secretary; George Howard, door- 
keeper; and Abner Cary,"sergeaii1-at-;irms. 
Seven counties were represented; and the 
house of representatives consisted of nineteen 
members. The counties were mostly in the 
territorj' constituting the present state of 
Ohio, showing that the emigration was chiefly 
to that section. Knox county, of which Vin- 
cennes was the county seat, was the only 


county in what is now the state of Indiana; 1787, the governor and judges of the general 

and it was represented in the general assem- court had adopted many laws for the govem- 

bly by Shadrach Bond. The house organized ment of the northwest territory, which were 

by electing Edward Tiffin, speaker; John to remain valid until altered by the general 

Reilly, clerk; Joshua Rowland, doorkeeper; assembly. The territory was therefore sup- 

and Abraham Gary, sergeant-at-arms. On plied with a code of laws before the 'convening 

October 3, 1799, the legislature elected Wil- of the first general assembly. Among the 

liam Henry Harrison, afterwards president of laws so adopted was one, published August 30, 

the United States, as the first delegate of the 1788, providing that the general, or supreme, 

territory in congress. On the 26tli of the pre- court should hold one session at the county 

vious June, Harrison had been appointed by seat in each county during each year. One 

the president as secretary of the territory, in session of this high court was therefore held 

the place of Winthrop Sargent, who was ap- at Vincennes, Knox county, in what is now 

pointed first governor of the new territory of the state of Indiana, every year. Another 

Mississippi. act, published September 6, 1788, provided 

This first general assembly of the territory that treason, murder and house burning 
northwest of the Ohio river continued in ses- (where death resulted) were punishable by 
sion until December 19, 1799 ; during which death ; burglary and robbery, by whipping, 
time forty-eight acts were passed, thirty-seven not exceeding thirty-nine stripes, fine and im- 
of which were approved by Governor St. prisonment, not exceeding forty years ; per- 
Glair and became laws. These first laws jury, by a fine not exceeding sixty dollars, 
enacted by the representatives of the people or by whipping, not exceeding thirty-nine 
were, in general, such as were necessary for lashes, and disfranchisement, and standing on 
the administration of justice and the conduct the pillory, not exceeding two hours ; larceny, 
of public affairs. Many of them, however, by fine or whipping, at the discretion of the 
were peculiar to the time and to the condi- court. If the convict could not pay the fine, 
tions of the people. One was for the regula- it was lawful for the sheriff, under direction 
tion of ferries, made necessary by the absence of the court, to bind him for a term of serv- 
of bridges over the large rivers. Another was ice, not exceeding seven years to any one 
designed to prevent Sabbath breaking, pro- who would pay the fine. Forgery was punisli- 
fane swearing, drunkenness, duelling, cock- able by fine, disfranchisement and standing 
fighting, running horses on public highways, on the pillory, not exceeding three hours, 
gambling at billiards, cards, dice, etc. An act Drunkenness, for the firet offense, was pun- 
f or the taxation of land provided that every ishable by a fine of five dimes ; and for every 
hundred acres of first raite land should be succeeding offense, by a fine of one dollar. In 
taxed eighty-five cents; every hundred acres either case, if the fine were not paid, the 
of second rate land, sixty cents; every hun- drunkard was placed in the stocks for one 
dred acres of third rate, twenty-five cents ; hour. Persons intending to marry were re- 
larger or smaller tracts to be assessed in pro- quired to give fifteen days ' notice, by publica- 
portion. An act for the compensation of tion in church, or by a writing, under the 
members of the legislative council and mem- hand and seal of a judge or a justice of the 
bers of the house of representatives, provided peace, posted in some conspicuous place ; or, 
that each member should receive three dollars in lieu of such publication, a license might be 
for each day's attendance, and also three dol- obtained from the governor. By an act pub- 
lars at the beginning and end of each session lished November 6, 1790, the governor was 
for each fifteen miles traveled. authorized to appoint not less than three nor 

Under the provisions of the Ordinance of more than seven judges of common pleas, and 



not to exceed nine justices of the peace, iu 
each county ; and the number of terms of com- 
mon pleas court was increased from two to 
four in each year. It is to be remembered 
that there was then but one county for all 
Indiana. On July 2, 1791, an act was passed 
requiring that whenever persons enrolled in 
the militia should assemble at any place of 
public worship, they should arm and equip 
themselves as if marching to engage the 
enemy. By an act published August 1, 1792, 
a licensed tavern keeper or retailer of liquors 
was required to affix a sig-n on the front of his 
building, with the words, iu large letters, ' ' By 
authority, a tavern"; or "By authority, a 
retailer." On August 1, 1792, laws were 
enacted for opening and regulating highways ; 
and also for building court houses, jails, pil- 
lories, whipping posts and stocks, in every 

An act, published on the same day, required 
attorneys on being admitted to practice law 
to take the following oath: "I swear that I 
will do no falsehood, nor consent to the doing 
of any, in the courts of justice ; and if I know 
of any intention to connnit any, I will give 
k^iowledge thereof to the justices of said 
courts, or some of them, that it may be pre- 
vented. I will not wittingly or willingly pro- 
mote or sue any false, groundless or unlaw- 
ful suit, nor give aid or counsel to the same; 
and I will conduct myself in the office of an 
attorney within the said courts according to 
the best of my knowledge and discretion, and 
with all good fidelity as well to the courts as 
my client. So help me God." 

By an act adopted in the summer of 1795, , 
the common law was formally adopted, and 
the laws for the decision of causes in the 
courts of the northwest territory declared, in 
the following words: "The common law of 
England, all statutes or acts of the British 
parliament made in aid of the common law, 
prior to the fourth year of the reign of King 
James the First, (and which are of a general 
nature, not local to that Kingdom,) and also 
the several laws in force in this territory, 

shall be the rule of decision, and shall be con- 
sidered as of full force, until repealed by leg- 
islative authority, or disapproved of by con- 




Sec. 1. — Extent op the Territory. — By an 
act approved May 7, 1800, congress provided, 
' ' That from and after the fourth day of July 
next, all that part of the territory of the 
United States northwest of the Ohio river, 
which lies westward of the line beginning at 
the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of Kentucky 
river, and running thence to Fort Recovery, 
and thence north, until it shall intersect the 
territorial line between the United States and 
Canada, shall, for the purpose of temporary 
government, constitute a separate territory, 
and be called the Indiana Territory." The 
act provided further, "That there shall be 
established within the said territory a gov- 
ernment in all respects similar to that pro- 
vided by the ordinance of congress, passed on 
the thirteenth day of July, 1787, for the gov- 
ernment of the territory of the United States 
northwest of the river Ohio ; and the inhabit- 
ants thereof shall be entitled to, and enjoy, 
all and singular, the rights, privileges and 
advantages granted and secured to the people 
by the said ordinance." A further provision 
of the act creating the Indiana territory was, 
"That so much of the ordinance for the gov- 
ernment of the territory of the United States 
northwest of the Ohio river, as relates to the 
organization of a general assembly therein, 
and prescribes the powers thereof, shall be in 
force and operate in the Indiana territory, 
whenever satisfactory evidence shall be given 
to the governor thereof, that such is the wish 
of a majority of the freeholders, notwith- 
standing there may not be therein five thous- 
and free male inhabitants of the age of twen- 
ty-one years and upwards." But until there 
should be such five thousand inhabitants the 
representatives in the general assembly, if one 
should be organized, should be not less than 
seven nor more than nine; to be apportioned 



by the governor among the several counties, 
agreeably to the number of free male inhab- 
itants of the age of twenty-one years and up- 
wards, in each. As to the eastern boundary 
line, as fixed in the act, it was further pro- 
vided, "That whenever that part of the terri- 
tory of the United States which lies to the 
eastward of a line beginning at the mouth of 
the Great Miami river, running thence due 
north to the territorial line between the 
United States and Canada, shall be erected 
into an independent state, and admitted into 
the union on an equal footing with the 
original states, thenceforth said line shall be- 
come and remain permanently the boundary 
line between such state and the Indiana ter- 
ritory. ' ' A final provision was that, until the 
general assembly should determine otherwise. 
' ' Saint Vincennes, on the Wabash river, shall 
be the seat of government for the Indiana 
territory. ' ' 

The Harrison mansion is the name given 
to the venerable building in which the legis- 
lature of the territory held its sessions and in 
which the governor resided and where the 
general court was held. The building is- still 
in a good state of preservation ; a^nd efforts 
have often been made to have the state secure 
it as a historical museimi. 

The house, from an architectural point of 
view, as well as from its massiveness, seems 
remarkable. At the time it was erected its 
situation was a wilderness, far from civiliza- 
tion, and to get the materials for its con- 
struction, the glass, iron, etc.. meant a yeai- 
or more of time before they could be delivered 
at Vincennes. Historical societies have en- 
deavored to have it kept as a lasting monu- 
ment 40 the memory of those who built so 
well and as a reminder that this was the birth- 
place of government, religion and education 
in the west. The building is two stories high. 
Avith a large attic, and a basement under the 
entire place. It was completed in 1805. The 
ceilings are thirteen and one-half feet high 
and the rooms are spacious. The walls are of 
brick and inside and out are eighteen inches 

thick. The glass in the windows came from 
England, and it took two years to have it de- 
livered. The wood was sawed with the old- 
fashioned whip-saw, and all the nails Avere 
hand-forged on the grounds. The woodwork 
is hard-paneled, finished with beading and 
is of solid, clear black walnut. It is said that 
the walnut in the house today is worth a small 

So came Indiana into existence, with a capi- 
tal of her own, and with even a freer form of 
government than that of the northwest ter- 
ritory, prior to its legislative stage. The area 
of this new Indiana territory included all of 
the present state of Indiana, except a small 
wedge-shaped section in the southeast part of 
the state, east of a line running from a point 
on the Ohio opposite the mouth of the Ken- 
tucky river, northeasterly to Fort Recovery, 
in the state of Ohio, this line being the old 
Indian boundary line, between those points 
named in the treaty of Greenville. The new 
territory included also a norrow strip less 
than three miles in width on the west side of 
the state of Ohio, north of Fort Recovery, and 
lying between the north and south line 
through Fort Recovery and the present 
boundary of the two states.'' The territory 
included besides, all of the .state of Michigan 
lying west of the north and south line through 
Fort Recovery ; also the whole of Illinois and 
Wis<^onsin ; and so much of ^Minnesota as lies 
east of the Mississippi river. The limits of 
the Indiana territory, for a time, extended even 
west of the Mississippi. By an act approved 
^ilareh 26. 1804, congress attached to Indiana 
all that part of Louisiana west of the Missis- 
sippi and north of the thirty-third degree of 
north latitude, under the name of the District 
of Louisiana. At a session of the governor 
and judges of Indiana territory, held at Vin- 
cennes, beginning October 1, 1804, a number 
of laws were adopted for the District of Louis- 
iana. During the following year, however, 
by an act of congress approved March 3, 1805. 
this district was organized into a separate ter- 

a. Drake's Hist. American Indians, Chap. XIV. 



ritory." This was truly an imperial domain. 
Detroit, Sault Ste. Marie, St. Ignace, with 
eastern Michigan and all Ohio, remained in 
the northwest territory, until the admission 
of Ohio as a state of the Union, November 
29, 1802, when the northwest territory, as a 
political division, ceased to exist. At that 
date also, congress attached to Indiana the 
remainder of ]\Iichigan, or Wayne county, 
as it was then called; and. in 1803. William 
Henry Harrison, as governor of the Indiana 
territory, assumed jurisdiction over all of 
^Michigan, and extended the limits of Wayne 
county to Lake Michigan. Thereafter, until 
the formation of the territory of Michigan, 
June 30, 1805, Detroit, Sault Ste. Marie, and 
St. Ignace, as well as the sites of Ann Arbor, 
(xrand Rapids, Kalamazoo and Niles, with all 
the valley of the St. Joseph, were in Indiana. 
So much of the ruins of old Fort St. Joseph's, 
if any, as remained after the Spanish invasion 
of our valley, in 1781, w-ere in the territory. 
Chicago and St. Louis were then in Indiana; 
and so were the sites of ^Milwaukee, St. Paul, 
:Minneapolis and Duluth. Our inland sea, 
Lake Michigan, was wholly within the Indiana 
territory. The ambition of Napoleon is said 
to have been to make the Mediterranean a 
French lake: and he came near succeeding. 
La Salle made Lake Michigan a French lake ; 
it was afterwards a British lake; and now 
it is the only one of the great lakes that is 
wholly American: in the first years of the 
nineteenth century, it was an Indiana lake, 
surrounded on every side by Indiana ter- 

Sec. 2. — Organization of the Territorial 
Go\t:rnment.— On May 13, 1800, the appoint- 
ment by the president of William Henry 
Harrison, of Virginia, as first governor of the 
Indiana territory was confirmed by the senate. 
Harrison had been secretary of the northwest 
territory, and also delegate in congress from 
that territory. On the next day, John Gibson, 
of Pennsylvania, a pioneer of distinction, 
was appointed first secretary of the territory. 

a. Smith, Hist. Indiana, Vol. 1, p. 199. 

It was to Secretary Gibson that the great 
chief Logan, in 1774, delivered his celebrated 
speech, known to every school boy.« William 
Clark, Henry Vanderburg and John Griffin 
were appointed the first judges of the terri- 
tory. Harrison did not come to assume his 
office until January, 1801. John Gibson, the 
secretary, arrived at Vincennes early in July, 
1800, and, as acting governor, proceeded to 
make appointments of territorial officers and 
to provide for the administration of the 
affairs of the new government, which was 
formally organized July 4, 1800. The first 
entry on the executive journal, dated at Saint 
Vincennes, July 4, 1800, reads as follows: 
"This day the government of the Indiana 
Territory commenced. William Henry Har- 
rison having been appointed governor; John 
Gibson, secretary; William Clark, Henry 
Vander Burgh and John Griffin, judges in 
and over said Territory. ' ' This was the second 
time in the history of our commonwealth that 
July 4th, proved to be a notable day. It was 
on July 4, 1778, that George Rogers Clark 
surprised and captured Kaskaskia, then the 
capital of the British possessions northwest 
of the Ohio, thus opening up the first page 
of our history, as a part of the American 
Union; and now again, on July 4, 1800. was 
organized the government of Indiana, as an 
incipient commonw^ealth of -the republic. 

On January 12, 1801, Governor Harrison 
having arrived at Vincennes and issued proc- 
lamation therefor, the governor and judges 
convened in legislative session and adopted 
laws for the government of the territory. 
This was the first body ever convened within 
the present limits of Indiana to make laws 
for our commonwealth. The ordinance of 
1787 continued in force, so far as applicable, 
as also the laws already adopted for the gov- 
ernment of the northwest tei-ritory before the 

gee. 3. — The First Indiana Courts. — The 
new court, called the General Court of the 

a. Dillon, Hist. Indiana, p. 40S; Smith, Hist. 
Indiana, p. 198. 



Indiana territory, organized and held its first 
session at Vincennes, March 3, 1801. The 
court record opens as follows: "At a General 
Court of the Indiana Territory, called and 
held at Saint Vincennes the third day of 
March, in the year one thousand eight hun- 
dred and one. The commissions of the judges 
being read in open court, they took their 
seats, and present: William Clark, Henry 
Vander Burgh and John Griffin, Judges. 
Henry Hurst, Clerk of the General Court, 
having produced his commission from the 
governor and a certificate of his having taken 
the oath of allegiance and oath of office, took 
his place. John Eice Jones, Attorney-Gen- 
eral, produced his commission, and a certifi- 
cate of his having taken the oath of allegiance 
and oath of office. ' ' One of the ordere made 
on this first day of court is of much signifi- 
cance. It was for the examination of certain 
persons "for counsellor's degree, agreeable to 
a law of the Territory. ' ' Among the persons 
so ordered to be examined as to his proficiency 
in the law was the Attorney-General himself, 
John Rice Jones. After obtaining their degree 
as counsellors, those distinguished gentlemen 
were required to appear at subsequent terms 
of court, t-o be examined for their second 
degree, for admission to practice as attorneys- 
at-law. Now-a-days it is the constitutional 
privilege of "every person of good moral 
character, being a voter," to be admitted "to 
practice law in all courts of justice." Which 
is the better system in "a government of the 
people, for the people, and by the people," 
may perhaps be a subject of debate. One 
may become a good lawyer, though admitted 
to practice without examination ; and he may 
be a poor lawyer, though admitted after the 
most severe examination. "The fault, dear 
Brutus, is not in our stars, but in ourselves 
that we are underlings." 

The business of this early supreme court 
was very light, as compared with the business 
of the courts of our day. From the organiza- 
tion of the court, March 3, 1801, until the 
close of its last term, September 16, 1816, 

just before the territorial form of government 
gave way to the establislunent of a permanent 
state government, two manuscript dockets, or 
order books, one of 457 and the other of 120 
pages were found sufficient to contain all the 
orders of the court. The court sat at Vincennes 
from its organization until 1813, when the 
seat of government was removed to Cory don. 
in Harrison county. 

The general court, unlike the supreme court 
of our day, had original as well as appellate 
jurisdiction. The business, however, was 
usually appellate, the appeals being taken 
from the several county courts. Yet the most 
important case that came before the court 
was an original action for slander, brought 
by the governor, William Henry Harrison, 
against one William Mcintosh, a wealthy 
Scotch resident of Vincennes, and said to be 
a relative of the distinguished Sir James Mc- 
intosh. The case was tried by a jury selected 
as follows : Forty-eight men were summoned 
by elisors, appointed by the court; of these, 
the plaintiff struck out twelve names, after 
which the defendant struck out twelve. From 
the remaining twenty-four a jury of twelve 
men was drawn by lot. The jury gave the 
governor a verdict for four thousand dollars, 
a part of which was remitted and the rest 
given to charity. The judges of the general 
court, like the judges of our supreme court 
in their respective circuits, had power to pre- 
side in the circuit courts ; and we learn that 
Benjamin Parke, after whom Parke county 
was named, while judge of the general court, 
rode on horseback from Vincennes to Wayne 
county, to try a case of larceny. It is said 
that his judicial bench on that occasion was a 
log of wood. The case w^as one of petit lar- 
ceny,- — exceedingly petty, indeed, — the theft 
of a pocket knife. The people of those days 
sought the just enforcement of the law upon 
the statute books, according to its true intent 
and meaning, rather than the making of many 
new laws. A speedy hearing, a fair trial, a 
prompt acquittal of the innocent, a certain 
conviction of the guilty, the taking of no 


man's property without right and the delay his death until its re-establislmient by the 
of no man in the recovery of what belonged legislature, under the new constitution, in 
to him,— these things seemed to our simple 1855. To Benjamin Parke, and to General 
forefathers the true ends of the administra- Washington Johnston, another distinguished 
tion of justice. They deemed the enforcement lawyer, our supreme court is indebted for the 
of the old laws of more consequence than the nucleus of its present library,— one of the 
making of new ones. To remedy miscarriage finest west of New York City. The books of 
of justice, they looked to the courts and to Parke and Johnston upon the shelves of this 
the officers appointed to administer the laws, library are made the more precious by the 
rather than to the enactment of new laws. autographs of those eminent men. The sal- 
The first judges of the general court were aries of the judges of the general court were 
succeeded by Thomas Terry Davis, Waller seven hundred dollars a year each; that of 
Taylor, Benjamin Parke and James Scott, the attorney-general, at first sixty and after- 
The last three occupied the bench until the wards one hundred dollars a year, 
territorial form of government came to a close. The questions brought for decision before 
in 1816. The most distinguished of the the general court of the Indiana territory 
judges, and one of the ablest public men in were in many cases quite diff'erent from those 
the history of Indiana, was Benjamin Parke, that have since engaged the attention of our 
Soon after the close of his services as judge courts. Legislation itself was diff'erent. 
of the general court, he was appointed first Many acts now deemed criminal were then 
j udge of the United States district court for either sanctioned by the law, or at least looked 
Indiana, serving from 1817 until his death, upon with indifference or even indulgence, 
in 1835. Waller Taylor was also a man of On the other hand, some offenses were then 
distinction. While judge of the general court punished more severely than at present. Not 
he served as major with Harrison at the battle only treason and murder, but also arson, 
of Tippecanoe. On the organization of the horse-stealing upon a second conviction, and 
state government, in 1816, he was chosen as rape were punishable by death. Burglary, 
one of the first United States senators from hog stealing and bigamy, in addition to other 
Indiana, and served for two terms. James penalties, rendered the offender liable to be 
Scott, the third member of the general court punished by whipping. But duelling was 
at the time of its dissolution, was appointed punishable only by a fine; although all offl- 
one of the first judges of the state supreme cers, whether legislative, executive or judicial, 
court, and served for fourteen years. The as well as attorneys-at-law, were required to 
attorneys-general for the territorial period take an oath that they had not given or ac- 
were three in number, — James Rice Jones, cepted a challenge to a duel. In their legisla- 
Benjamin Parke and Thomas Randolph, tion against corruption in elections, the men 
Jones was one of the compilers of the Indiana of those days seem to have been wiser than 
code of 1807. Disappointed in his political some of our modern legislators. They pun- 
aspirations, he went to Illinois, and after- ished the briber, the bribe-giver; while more 
wards to Missouri. He was a member of the recent laws, in many cases, have punished 
first constitutional convention of Missouri, only the bribe-taker. Liquor laws also differed 
and afterwards member of the supreme court widely from our own. Tavern keepers might 
o'f . that state. Thomas Randolph, the last have their licenses revoked, not only for fail- 
attorney-general of the territory, was a cousin ing to do their duty towards their guests, as 
of John Randolph of Roanoke. He was killed to giving proper attention and providing 
at the battle of Tippecanoe, in 1811. The wholesome food for man and beast, but also 
office of attorney-general ceased to exist from for failure to keep on hand "ordinary liquors 



of good and salutary quality. ' ' Provisions of 
this kind, in favor of pure food and against 
adulteration, again seem to be receiving some 
attention from legislators, both in congress 
and in the general assembly. 

As we have already seen, provision was 
made for the erection of pillories and whip- 
ping posts in every county for the punishment 
of criminals. And not only men, but even 
women, were publicly whipped for violations 
of law. Imprisonment for debt was also 
authorized by the laws of the territory, as it 
was then generally throughout the United 
States. Lotteries, on the contrary, now re- 
garded as not only illegal but even as im- 
moral, were in those days, rather favored 
by the law. 

Sec. 4. — Lotteries and Slavery in Indi- 
ana. — By an act of the legislature, approved 
September 17, 1807, the Vincennes university 
was chartered by the legislature. It is the old- 
est educational institution of that rank in the 
state, if not in the west. Among the provi- 
sions of the charter was one for the raising 
of twenty thousand dollars "for the purpose 
of procuring a library and the necessary 
philosophical and experimental apparatus" 
for such university. The trustees of the uni- 
versity were required to "appoint five dis- 
creet persons" as managers of the lottery, 
who were to have power "to adopt such 
schemes as they may deem proper, to sell the 
said tickets, and to superintend the drawing 
of the same, and the payment of the prizes. ' ' 
It was further provided that "said managei^ 
and trustees shall render an account of their 
proceedings therein at the next session of the 
legislature after the drawing of said lottery." 
It is clear that our worthy forefathers thought 
pillories and whipping posts suitable and 
proper means for the punishment of wrong- 
doers ; and that they were also of opinion that 
money for the promotion of the higher educa- 
tion of the people, might properly be secured 
by the establishment of a lottery. It was not 
until February 3, 1832, that an act was 
passed by the legislature making the conduct- 

ing of a lottery a misdemeanor; but even in 
that act, for the purpose no doubt of protect- 
ing the Vincennes lottery, there was a saving 
claiLse in favor of lotteries "authorized by 
law. ""■ In the constitution of 1851. however, 
the prohibition wa.s made absolute, — that "no 
lottery shall be authorized; nor shall the sale 
of lottery tickets be allowed." But, notwith- 
standing this distinct declaration in the con- 
stitution, added to the previous statutory 
enactment, the trustees of the university still 
persisted in keeping up their lottery; and in 
this practice they were long sustained by the 
courts. As late as the May term, 1879, 
of the supreme court, the lottery pro- 
vision of the Vincennes university char- 
ter was held to be an inviolable con- 
tract, which neither the legislature nor 
even the people, in the framing of their con- 
stitution, could abrogate; and the Dartmouth 
college case and other high authority was 
cited in support of the decision. "We hold," 
said the court, in Kellum v. State, 66 Ind. 588, 
"that the lottery established by the board of 
trustees for the Vincennes university, under 
the fifteenth section of the territorial law for 
the incorporation of said university was and 
is a lottery ' authorized by law. ' " It was not 
until the May term, 1883, of the court, in the 
case of State v. Woodward, 89 Ind. 110, that 
the Vincennes lottery was finally declared 
illegal. The opinion in the case was the last 
written by the eminent jurist, James L. Wor- 
den ; and followed a then recent ruling of the 
supreme court of the United States.* 

Another illustration of the persistence of 
customs which have long prevailed in a com- 
munity, is exhibited iii the history of slavery 
in Indiana. To many persons the statement 
may be a surprise that human slavery ever 
existed within the borders of this state. We 
must remember, however, that, on the eon- 
quest of the northwest by George Rogers 
Clark, all this country became a part of Vir- 
ginia, under the name of the county of Uli- 

o. Acts 1831, p. 269. 

6. Stone v. Mississippi, 101 U. S. 814. 



nois. Our territory thus becoming- a part of 
the state of Virginia, slavery had a legal foot- 
hold here, as it had there. Besides, the French, 
and also the Indians, held slaves in the ter- 
ritory previous to the Virginia conquest; the 
slaves so held being not only negroes, but also 
captive Indians.'* After the deed of cession by 
Virginia to the United States,, it was uncertain 
for a time whether slavery should be recog- 
nized or not ; but, in the ordinance of 1787, 
for the government of the territory northwest 
of the Ohio, it was finally provided, in terms, 
that "There shall be neither slavery nor in- 
voluntary servitude in said territory, other- 
wise than in the punishment of crimes, 
whereof the party shall have been duly con- 
victed. ' ' The same prohibition was carried 
into both our state constitutions. Yet, under 
the plea that, before the passage of the ordi- 
nance, slave property had been lawfully ac- 
quired within the limits of the territory, it 
was argued that the holders of such property 
could not be legally deprived of it. The argu- 
ment was even made tliat a mother being a 
slave, her children could be born only as 
slaves, and that the owner of the mother be- 
came the owner of the children so born. 

The property interests of the country were 
enlisted in behalf of retaining the institution 
of slavery, and even of introducing more 
slaves into the country. A large part of the 
population was from Virginia and Kentucky, 
and this element constituted a powerful party 
in favor of perpetuating some form of Afri- 
can slavery. At the head of the slaveholding 
interest was the governor of the territory, 
William Henry Harrison. The governor was 
a Virginian, and seemed to be sincerely of 
opinion that the prosperity of the country 
depended upon the establishment of slavery. 
A strong effort was made to have the piuvi- 
sion in the ordinance of 1787 prohibiting slav- 
ery suspended, at least for ten years. The 
contest before congress was long and earnest, 
but the petition from Indiana was finally 
denied by that body. Yet the effort was still 

a. Dillon, Hist. Ind., p. 409. 

persisted in to retain in slavery, by some form 
of indenture or otherwise, those who had been 
slaves or who were the children of slave 
mothers. As late as the year 1813, the act 
concerning taxation passed by the legislature 
provided, as a part of the schedule of assess- 
ments and taxation, for a tax -'for every 
slave or servant of color, above twelve years 
of age, two dollars." Two cases came to the 
supreme court, in which tlie questions so 
raised were finally settled against the right 
to hold slaves in" Indiana. In the first of these 
cases. State v. Lasselle, 1 Blackf. 60, the trial 
court had decided that a colored woman, 
Polly, was the property of Lasselle. The 
supreme court, without deciding whether 
Virginia, by consenting to the ordinance of 
1787, intended to emancipate the slaves in the 
northwest or not, held that, in any event, 
slavery was effectually abolished by the Con- 
stitution of 1816. In the other case, that of 
Mary Clark, also a colored woman, decided 
in 1 Blackf. 122, Mary Clark had attempted 
to bind herself as a servant for a term of 
twenty years. She afterwards repented of 
her bargain ; but the trial court held that she 
must comply with her contract. The supreme 
court, however, decided that such an inden- 
ture, though voluntarily made, was a species 
of slavery, and that the contract could not be 
enforced. Thus was wiped out the last ves- 
tige of legal bondage in Indiana. It is true 
that long after these decisions, many persons 
continued voluntarily to live out their lives 
as slaves within the limits of the state. 
Even as late as 1840, as shown by the United 
States census for that year, there were still 
three slaves in Indiana, — a man and a woman 
in Rush county and a woman in Putnam 
county. But slavery, as sanctioned by the 
law, was at an end ; and it came to an end, in 
fact, with the death of the last of such volun- 
tary slaves. 

The desire on the part of many of the in- 
habitants to establish slavery in the Indiana 
territory resulted in a proclamation by the 
governor calling for the election by the peo- 

A r r 1 •■*> 4 



pie of delegates to meet in convention at Vin- 
cennes, December 20, 1802. This convention 
petitioned congress for a suspension of the 
sixth article of the ordinance of 1787, which 
prohibited slavery in the territory. The peti- 
tion, as we have seen, was rejected by con- 
gress. The report of the committee to which 
the petition was referred was prepared by 
John Randolph, the distinguished orator and 
statesman, then senator from Virginia, and 
was an unanswerable argument against the 
establishment of slavery in the territory. The 
Vincennes convention which prepared the 
petition in favor of slavery is also noteworthy 
as being the first deliberative body elected to 
represent the people of Indiana. The conven- 
tion consisted of twelve delegates. From the 
county of Knox, four; from the county of 
Randolph, three; from the county of St. 
Clair, three; and from the county of Clark, 
two. The counties of St. Clair and Randolph 
were in that part of the territory which is now 
the state of Illinois; Knox and Clark were 
in what is now Indiana. So small was the 
population, in 1802, of the territory now com- 
prising these two great states. Wayne county, 
now the state of Michigan, does not seem to 
have been represented in this early conven- 

Sec. 5. — The First Indiana Legislature; 
THE Territory op Michigan Formed. — -The 
act of congress for the organization of the 
Indiana territory, approved May 7, 1800, pro- 
vided that whenever the governor became sat- 
isfied that a majority of the freeholders of the 
territory were in favor of the organization of 
a general assembly, an election for that pur- 
pose should be called, even though there might 
not then be in the territory five thousand free 
male inhabitants of the age of twenty-one 
years ; thus providing an earlier period than 
was provided in the ordinance of 1787, for 
the establishment of a representative govern- 
ment. By a vote of the people taken Septem- 
ber 11, 1804, it appeared that a majority of 
one hundred and thirty-eight were in favor 
of organizing a general assembly; and ac- 

cordingly Governor Harrison issued his pro- 
clamation declaring that Indiana had passed 
into the second stage of territorial govern- 
ment, and called an election for January 3, 
1805, at which members of the first house of 
representatives were chosen in the several 
counties. This body met at Vincennes, 
February 1, 1805, and selected names for the 
organization of a legislative council, or senate, 
as provided in the ordinance of 1787. The 
counties then represented were Knox, Clark 
and Dearborn, in what is now Indiana ; St. 
Clair, in Illinois ; and Wayne, in Michigan. 
This was the last official connection of 
Michigan with the Indiana territory. By an 
act of congress, approved January 11, 1805, 
it was provided that from and after June 
30, 1805, that part of the Indiana territory 
lying north of an east and west line drawn 
through "the southerly bend or extreme of 
Lake Michigan, until it shall intersect Lake 
Erie, and east of a line drawn from the said 
southerly bend" through the middle of Lake 
Michigan to its northern extremity, and 
thence north to the northern boundary of 
the United States, should be erected into a 
separate territory, to be known as Michigan. 
It will be noticed that this left the greater 
part of the present upper peninsula of Michi- 
gan in the Indiana territory. But, of more 
importance to St. Joseph county, as well as 
to all the other northern tier of Indiana 
counties, it will be seen that the southern 
boundary of Michigan, as required also by 
the terms of the ordinance of 1787, was placed 
ten miles south of the present boundary be- 
tween Indiana and Michigan, leaving the sites 
of South Bend, New Carlisle, Mishawaka and 
Osceola, as well as all the St. Joseph valley 
and the north ten miles of the county, within 
the bounds of the new Michigan territory. 

The legislative council having been selected, 
the first general assembly of Indiana, em- 
bracing then the greater part of the old north- 
west territory, except Ohio and Michigan, as- 
sembled at Vincennes, July 29, 1805. The 
council, or senate, consisted of five members; 



jiiid the house of representatives, of seven 
members. Michigan having become a terri- 
tory, Wayne county was not represented. 
The counties having representation in the 
assembly were Knox, Clark and Dearborn, 
in what is now Indiana, and kSt. Clair and 
Randolph in Illinois. The business of this 
firet general assembly was chiefly routine. 
Benjamin Parke was elected the first delegate 
of the territory in congress. The second 
general assembly began its session at Vincen- 
nes, August 16, 1807. The laws passed at 
those two sessions, together with all other laws 
in force in the territory were collected and 
published in one volume, called the code of 
1807. This was the first Indiana code of 

Sec. 6. — Tecumseh and the Battle of 
Tippecanoe. — After the signing of the treaty 
of Greenville between General Anthony 
Wayne and Little Turtle and the other chiefs, 
August 3, 1795, it was believed that perma- 
nent peace had been established between the 
whites and Indians. But the emigration to 
the rich lands of the northwest grew to such 
proportions that the Indians were pressed 
farther and farther into the interior. Numer- 
ous treaties, as we have seen, were made, from 
time to time, throwing open to white settle- 
ment the several reservations of territory 
made at Greenville to secure to the Indians 
their hunting grounds. Often, too, where 
two or more tribes owned certain lands in 
common, as they often did, the whites secured 
by treaty the title of one tribe and then 
failed to respect the claim of the others to 
the same lands. The French had respected 
this community ownership of lands, and never 
denied the title of the Indians, even to the 
territory occupied by themselves. Moreover, 
as to their own holdings, the French accepted 
the community idea, which was universal. 
Several hundred acres were set aside at Viu- 
cennes, which the inhabitants of the post used 
in common for pasture and other uses. They 
"fenced in" their stock as is now the law in 
Indiana; and the crops planted outside this 

community property by each householder 
were without enclosure. The community idea, 
however, was antagonistic to the ideas of the 
emigrants from the east. Each settler wanted 
his own lands for himself exclusively, and 
was particularly unwilling that any Indian 
should have any part or parcel in his holding. 
But, besides securing additional Indian lands 
by new treaties, many white emigrants, with- 
out any such authority, pushed in upon the 
lands yet reserved to the Indians by the treaty 
of Greenville and other treaties. This land 
greed, as the Indians called it, was exasperat- 
ing to the natives, who loved their old hunt- 
ing grounds; and the feeling of resentment 
against the encroachment of the whites be- 
came more acute from year to year. After- 
wards, when white men fell in battle with the 
Indians, it was not uncommon for the latter 
to stuff earth into the mouth, nose and ears 
of the fallen pale face, as if in mockery of 
this greed for land. 

In a message to the legislature of Indiana, 
in 1806, Governor Harrison referred to the 
growing dissatisfaction of the Indians, in 
this and other respects. The Indians, he said, 
"will never have recourse to arms — I speak 
of those in our immediate neighborhood — 
unless driven to it by a series of injustice and 
oppression. Of this they already begin to 
complain; and I am sorry to say that their 
complaints are far from being groundless. 
It is true that the general government has 
passed laws for fulfilling, not only the stipu- 
lations contained in our treaty, but also 
those sublimer duties which a just sense of our 
prosperity and their wretchedness seem to im- 
pose. The laws of the territory provide, also, 
the same punishment for offenses committed 
against Indians as against white men. Ex- 
perience, however, shows that there is a wide 
difference in the execution of those laws. 
The Indian always suffers, and the white men 
never. ' ' 

In the state to which the minds of the In- 
dians were wrought up. by both their real and 
their fancied wrongs, they needed but a leader, 



to break out into hostilities against their 
oppressors. The leader was forthcoming, a 
greater perhaps than either Pontiac or Little 
Turtle. In 1805, Teciunseh, a Shawnee chief, 
and his l^rother Law-le-was-i-kaw — the loud 
voice — resided in a village on the White river 
in what is now Delaware county. Law-le- 
was-i-kaw took upon himself the character 
of a prophet, and is iLsually known under that 
title. He began to preach to the Indians, 
calling upon them to reject witchcraft, the 
use of intoxicating liquors, intermarriag'e with 
the whites and the practice of selling their 
lands to the United States. He acquired great 
influence among the tribes, not only the tribes 
in Indiana, but those of the whole west. 
Prophet's Town was established on the banks 
of the Wabash river, near the mouth of the 
Tippecanoe, as a center to which all the 
Indians were invited to gather. While the 
prophet was arousing the religious enthusiasm 
of the Indians Tecumseh was visiting all the 
tribes of the west and the south, forming a 
confederacy which might be strong enough to 
resist further encroachments on the part of 
the white settlers. The poison of British in- 
fluence was again manifested; and when the 
war of 1812 broke out between England and 
the United States, the Indians were found in 
full and active sympathy with the British. 
Interviews took place from time to time be- 
tween Grovernor Harrison and the Shawnee 
chiefs, but the estrangement continued to in- 
crease from year to year. In the early part 
of 1811 the people of the territory became 
thoroughly alarmed at the growing strength 
of the Indians at Prophet's Town; and Gover- 
nor Harrison, under direction of the president 
and the secretary of war, began preparations 
for a military expedition against the prophet. 
Harrison's army consisting of about seven 
hundred etfective men, of whom two hundred 
and fifty were regular troops, arrived near 
Prophet's Town November 6, 1811. On the 
morning of the seventh, before daylight, the 
Americans were fiercely attacked by the In- 
dians, and many killed. Harrison quickly 

rallied his forces and charged upon the In- 
dians, who were completely routed. Harri- 
son's loss, in kiUed and mortally wounded, 
were sixty-two, with one hundred and twenty- 
six other wounded men. The enemy's forces 
are believed to have been greater, and their 
losses quite as severe ; but there is a lack of 
definite information on these points. The 
battle of Tippecanoe is the most important 
that ever took place within the confines of 
Indiana. The spirit of the Indians was com- 
pletely broken, and the confederacy which 
Tecumseh was building up was completely 
destroyed. This great warrior was himself 
absent at the time, visiting the tribes of the 
south. It is said that he was angry with 
his brother for bringing on the engagement. 
Tecumseh was not then ready for his conflict 
with the whites, and his plans were therefore 
frustrated. He soon joined the British army 
with his Indians and was killed at the battle 
of the Thames, in Canada, not far from De- 
troit, ■October 5, 1813. He was undoubtedly 
the greatest warrior and statesman ever pro- 
duced by the Indian race. 

After the battle of Tippecanoe there was 
occasional minor trouble with the Indians ; 
but with the death of Tecumseh their courage 
and ambition as a united people was gone 
forever. The remnants of the red race were 
by degrees removed to the far west ; and their 
place was rapidly taken by the hardy pio- 
neers who poured in from the eastern states 
and from Europe. The triumph for the sec- 
ond time, of American arms over those of 
Great Britain, soon after followed; and the 
future of the great northwest was assured. 
Up to that date there was not a white in- 
habitant in St. Joseph county; nor indeed 
anywhere in northern Indiana. 

Sec. 7. — Aaron Burr. — Another interesting 
episode in early Indiana history ought to re- 
ceive at least a passing mention. In 1805. 
1806 and 1807, Aaron Burr, once vice-presi- 
dent of the United States, was engaged in 
dift'erent places along the Ohio valley in or- 
ganizing a mysterious enterprise, now believed 



to have been intended for the founding of 
an independent southwestern republic, to 
embrace Mexican and American territory. 
Some are of the opinion that Burr's ambition 
looked to the uniting of all the states and 
territories of the ^Mississippi valle3^ with 
Mexico, into one great central state of which 
he should be chief. Amongst other places 
Burr visited Jeffersonville, Vincennes and 
Kaskaskia. He was arrested early in 1807, 
and his vast project, whatever may have been 
its nature, suddenly collapsed. 

Sec. 8. — Formation op Illinois Territory. 
— As the population of the Indiana territory 
increased the need of a division into two 
territories became greater. Congress yielded 
to the wishes of the people in the matter, and. 
by an act approved February 3, 1809, de- 
clared that from and after ]March 1, 1809, all 
that part of the Indiana territory lying West 
of the Wabash river, and a direct line north 
from Post Vincennes to the British posses- 
sions, should form a separate territory, to 
be called the Illinois territory. The popula- 
tion of the whole of the Indiana territory at 
that time was about twenty-eight thousand; 
eleven thousand being in the Illinois division, 
and seventeen thousand in Indiana proper. 
The cutting off of the territory of Illinois left 
the capital of Indiana on the extreme west 
of the territory; and an agitation soon de- 
veloped for its removal from Vincennes to 
some more central point. By an act of the 
general assembly, approved ]March 11, 1813, 
the capital of the territory was fixed at Cory- 
don, Harrison county, from and after May 1, 
1813. The capital remained at Corydon until 
it was removed to Indianapolis, in 1825, as 
provided in Sec. 11, article XI of the consti- 
tution of 1816. By reason of the absence of 
Governor Harrison in the wars with the In- 
dians and with Great Britain, the active duties 
of the office of governor devolved for the time 
upon the secretary. General John Gibson. It 
was by his call as governor that this last meet- 
ing of the general assembly was held at Vin- 
cennes. On February 27, 1813, President 

Madison appointed Thomas Posey, then a 
senator of the United States from Tennessee, 
as governor of the new Indiana territory, then 
reduced very nearly to the territorial limits 
of the present state of Indiana. 

vn. organization op the state. 

Sec. 1. — Periods op Growtpi. — During the 
thirty-one years from the close of the Revo- 
lutionary war, and the signing of the treaty 
of Paris, September 3. 1783, to the close of 
the second war with Great Britain, and the 
signing of the treaty of Ghent, December 24, 
1814, Indiana passed through the several 
stages of development, until vshe reached the 
full maturity of her growth as a common- 
wealth. The time during which she was a 
part of the county of Illinois, nursed and 
cared for by the mother state of Virginia, 
may be considered the period of her infancy : 
the time during which she was a part of the 
northwest territoiy, trained and guided by the 
national authority, and governed by the ordi- 
nance of 1787 and other laws adopted for 
her protection, may be considered as the 
period of her childhood ; the time during 
which she was a part of the vast Indiana terri- 
tory and entrusted with the forms if not the 
reality of self government, may be considered 
as the period of her immature youth ; the time 
during which she was regarded as a separate 
and distinct territory, allowed to legislate in 
a limited manner for her own particular 
needs, and called upon to defend her integrity 
by the shedding of her blood at Tipi)ecanoe 
and in battle with the British oppressor, may 
be considered as tlic period of her adolescence. 
It was then recognized that tlic time of her 
full maturity was at hand, and that slie was 
entitled t<» take lici- place as one of the sister 
states of llie I'nioii. 

gee. 2. — Admission Into the IInion. — On 
December 14, 1815, a memorial to congress, 
praying for the admission of Indiana as a 
state, was adopted by the general assembly of 
the territory: and. on the 28th of the same 
inotitli. was laid l)efore congress by Jonathan 



Jennings, the territorial delegate. The 
memorial recited the provision of the ordi- 
nance of 1787, that when the free popula- 
tion of the territory should be sixty thousand 
or over, the territory should be admitted into 
the Union on an equal footing with the origi- 
nal states, and stating that a census taken by 
legislative authority showed that Indiana had 
more than the requisite population. In com- 
pliance with this recpiest of the legislature, 
congress passed an enabling act, approved 
April 19, 1816, providing for an election to 
be held in the several counties of the territory. 
May 13, 1816, to select delegates to a conven- 
tion to frame a state constitution. 

The convention consisted of forty-three 
members, elected from thirteen counties, as 
follows: Wayne, 4; Franklin, 5; Dearborn, 
3 ; Switzerland, 1 ; Jefferson, 3 ; Clark, 5 ; 
Harrison, 5 ; Washington, 5 ; Knox, 5 ; Gibson, 
4 ; Warrick, 1 ; Perry, 1 ; and Posey, 1. It 
will be noticed that these counties were almost 
altogether on the Ohio and Wabash rivers. 
Indiana's first settlements were along the 
rivers on the southern borders ; and the settlers 
were almost all from the states and territories 
south and southeast of the Ohio. The popula- 
tion of the thirteen counties sending delegates 
to the constitutional convention of 1816, was 
sixty-three thousand, eight hundred and 
ninety-seven. Two additional counties, Or- 
ange and Jackson, also in the extreme south, 
were organized in 1816, under authority of 
the territorial legislature ; but not in time to 
send delegates to the constitutional conven- 

The convention began its deliberations at 
Corydon, on June 10, 1816, and completed the 
framing of the constitution, on June 29, 1816. 
Jonathan Jennings presided over the conven- 
tion, and William Hendricks was chosen secre- 
tary. On the completion of their work, presi- 
dent Jennings, as required by the constitution 
issued to the sheriffs of the several counties 
writs of election, fixing the first Monday of 
August, 1816, for the election of a governor 
and other state officers. Jonathan Jennings 

was elected fii*st governor, receiving 5.211 
votes, to 3,934 cast for Thomas Posey, then 
governor of the territory'. William Hendricks 
was elected first representative of Indiana in 
the house of representatives of the United 

The first general assembly, chosen at the 
same election, began its session at Corydon 
on jNIonday, November 4, 1816. Christopher 
Harrison, elected lieutenant governor, pre- 
sided over the senate; and Isaac Blackford, 
the famous jurist, was elected speaker of the 
house of representatives. The governor and 
lieutenant governor were inaugurated Novem- 
ber 7, 1816 ; John Paul having been previously 
chosen president pro tempore of the senate. 
Thereupon the territorial government came to 
a close. By a joint resolution of congress, 
approved December 11, 1816, Indiana was 
formally admitted as a sovereign state of the 
Union. On November 8, 1816, the general 
assembly elected James Noble and Waller 
Taylor as the first senators to represent the 
state in the United States senate. The ses- 
sion closed on January 3, 1817. 

Sec. 3. — Population and Revenues. — The 
population of Indiana when admitted into the 
Union, in 1816, was less than seventy thou- 
sand; but such an impetus was given to 
emigration by the organization of the state 
government that the census of 1820 showed 
that the state then contained 147,178 inhabit- 
ants. The revenues of the state continued for 
many years to be derived from a tax upon 
lands, as had been the practice during the 
territorial government. This tax was not, as 
at present, a percentage of the valuation, but 
a fixed sum per hundred acres according to 
the ciuality of the land. For this purpose, all 
lands w^ere deemed to be of first rate, second 
rate and third rate. In the beginning, first 
rate lands were assessed at one dollar per 
hundred acres; second rate, eighty-seven and 
a half cents: and third rate fifty to sixty-two 
and a half cents. In 1821, the assessment on 
first rate lands had increased to one dollar 
and fiftv cents on each hundred acres, and on 



other lands accordingly. In 1831, the assess- 
ment on first rate lands fell to eighty cents a 
hundred; second rate, to sixty cents; and 
third rate to forty cents. By an act approved 
February 1, 1835, the method of assessment 
was changed to our present ad valorem sys- 
tem; and the assessor was directed to assess 
land for taxation at its true value, or, as 
th3 act expressed it, "as he would appraise 
the same in the pa^Tnent of a just debt due 
from a solvent debtor." County revenues 
were raised principally from poll taxes and 
license fees, until the adoption of the ad 
valorem system. 

Sec. 4. — Boundaries. — The boundaries of 
the state of Indiana, as fixed by the enabling 
act of congress, approved April 19, 1816, and 
as agreed to hj an ordinance passed by the 
constitutional convention, at Corydon, June 
29, 1816, are as follows: On the east, "the 
meridian line which forms the western bound- 
ary of the state of Ohio ; " on the south, ' ' the 
river Ohio, from the mouth of the great 
Miami river to the mouth of the river Wa- 
bash;" on the west, "a line drawn along the 
middle of the Wabash, from its mouth to a 
point where a due north line drawn from 
the town of Vincennes would last touch the 
northwestern shore of the said river; and 
from thence, by a due north line, until the 
same shall intersect an east and west line 
drawn through a point ten miles north of the 
southern extreme of Lake Michigan : ' ' and on 
the north, "the said east and west line, until 
the same shall intersect the first mentioned 
meridian line, which forms the western bound- 
ary of the state of Ohio." It was provided 
in the enabling act of congress that if the 
constitutional convention of Indiana should 
fail to ratify these boundaries, then the 
boundaries of the state should be as fixed in 
the ordinance of 1787. 

It would seem that the boundaries as fixed 
by the enabling act of congress, and as agreed 
to by the constitutional convention of the 
state, were so definite that no dispute could 
arise concerning them ; yet each of the bound- 

aries, except that between Indiana and Illinois 
has been the subject of contention. The west- 
ern boundary is exactly that fixed in the ordi- 
nance of 1787 ; and also that fixed by the act 
of congress, approved February 3, 1809, sett- 
ing off the territory of Illinois from that of 
Indiana; except that the ordinance of 1787 
fixes simply the "Wabash river," from its 
mouth to Vincennes, as part of the boundary ; 
and the act setting off Illinois territory de- 
fines that territory to be "all that part of 
the Indiana territory which lies west of the 
Wabash river," and the direct line north from 
Vincennes. The wording of the ordinance of 
1787, "the Wabash river," would doubtless 
be interpreted to mean the middle line of that 
river ; and the line is so defined in the enabling 
act providing for the admission of Indiana as 
a state. In the act setting off the territory of 
Illinois, however, it might be contended that 
as Illinois "lies west of the Wabash river," 
the boundary must be the west margin of 
that river. No such contention has ever been 
made by the state of Indiana. Yet such a 
conclusion has been reached as to the southern 
boundaiy of the state. The enabling act 
provided, as we have seen, that the state 
should be bounded on the south "by the river 
Ohio;" and this would seem to mean the mid- 
dle line of the river. The ordinance of 1787 
also provided that "the middle state," that 
is, Indiana, should be bounded on the south 
"by the Ohio." The plain interpretation 
here also would seem to be that the middle 
line, or thread of the stream, should form the 
southern boundary of the state. But the 
words have not been so interpreted. In the 
act of cession by the legislature of Virginia, 
passed December 20, 1783, and in the deed of 
cession, made March 1, 178-1, the territory 
ceded to the United States is described as 
"being to the northwest' of the river Ohio." 
The territory on both sides of the Ohio, and 
the river itself, were at the time a part of 
Virginia ; and the contention was early made 
by Kentucky, as succeeding to the rights of 
Virginia, that no part of the i-iver was in- 



eluded in the northwest territory, and conse- 
quently that no part of it could pass by the 
deed of cession. The ordinance of 1787 itself 
was "for the government of the territory of 
the United States northwest of the river 
Ohio. ' ' The claim of Kentucky has been sus- 
tained by the courts ; and the southern bound- 
ary of Indiana is the low water mark on the 
northwest bank of the Ohio river, as the same 
existed when the boundary was fixed. As the 
river has since receded to the south in some 
places, we have the anomaly that parts of the 
state of Kentucky are at present located on 
the Indiana side of the river. 

The rights of Indiana, however, as to the 
use and navigation of the Ohio, and also as 
to civil and criminal jurisdiction on the river, 
have been made secure. By section seven of 
an act concerning the erection of the district 
of Kentucky into an independent state, 
passed by the commonwealth of Virginia, De- 
cember 18, 1789, it was provided, "that the 
use and navigation of the river Ohio, so far 
as the territoiy of the proposed state of 
[Kentucky], or the territory which shall re- 
main within the limits of this commonwealth 
lies therein, shall be free and common to the 
citizens of the United States ; and the respec- 
tive jurisdictions of this commonwealth, and 
of the proposed state, on the river as afore- 
said, shall be concurrent only with the states 
which may possess the opposite shores of the 
said river. "« The framers of the constitu- 
tion of 1816 seemed satisfied simply to declare 
the boundaries of the state; but the framers 
of the constitution of 1851, while repeating 
this declaration, took pains to add, in accord- 
ance with the act of the commonwealth of 
Virginia, that "the state of Indiana shall 
possess jurisdiction and sovereignty co-exten- 
sive with the boundaries declared in the pre- 
ceding section ; and shall have concurrent 
jurisdiction, in civil and criminal cases, with 
the state of Kentucky, on the Ohio river, and 
with the state of Illinois, on the Wabash river, 
so far as said rivers form the common bound- 

a. Vol. 1, Revised Laws of Virginia, p. 59. 

ary between this state and said states respec- 
tively. ' '« 

The enabling act defines the eastern boun- 
dary of Indiana to be "the meridian line 
which forms the western boundary of the 
state of Ohio." The ordinance of 1787 pro- 
vided that "the eastern state," that is, Ohio, 
should be bounded on the west by "a direct 
line drawn due north from the mouth of the 
Great ]\Iiami" to the British possessions. In 
the enabling act of congress for the admis- 
sion of Ohio, approved April 30, 1802, the 
same western boundary was fixed for that 
state. But in the act approved May 7, 1800, 
separating Indiana from the northwestern 
territory, the eastern boundary of Indiana, 
as we have already seen, was declared to be 
"the line beginning at the Ohio, opposite 
to the mouth of Kentucky river, and run- 
ning thence to Fort Recovery, and thence 
north, until it shall intersect the territorial 
line between the United States and Canada." 
Yet, in the same act, it was also provided, 
"That whenever that part of the territory of 
the United States which lies to the eastward 
of a line beginning at the mouth of the Great 
]\liami river, running thence due north to 
the territorial line between the United States 
and Canada, shall be erected into an inde- 
pendent state, and admitted into the Union on 
an equal footing with the original states, 
thenceforth said line shall become and re- 
main permanently the boundary line between 
such state and the Indiana territory; any- 
thing in this act contained to the contrary 
notwithstanding." As Ohio was admitted 
. with the Great Miami meridian as her west- 
ern boundary, it would seem that she could 
have no claim to this irregular line by way 
of Fort Recovery; and, indeed, such imagi- 
nary claim, as a practical question, has long 
since been relinquished. Indiana has never 
stood out for the three mile strip west of 
Fort Recovery, now a part of the state of 

a. See Sec. 17, Art. XI, constitution of 1816; 
Sees. 1 and 2, Art. XIV, constitution of 1851; 
Welsli V. State, 126 Ind. 71; 5 Wheaton (U. S.) 
374; and 163 U. S. 520. 



Oliio; and Ohio has abandoned any fancied 
claim to the wedge-shaped territory south of 
Fort Recovery, now a part of the state of 
Indiana. The old Indian boundary line, de- 
scribed in the treaty of Greenville, and ex- 
tending southwesterly from Fort Recovery to 
a point on the Ohio opposite the mouth of the 
Kentucky river, is, however, yet found on 
many Indiana maps, as a historic reminder 
of the contention once entertained between 
the two states. 

But it was as to the northern boundary 
of the state that there was chief contention. 
The ordinance of 1787, after providing for 
the boundaries of the minimum number of 
three states into which the northwest ter- 
ritory should be divided, provided further 
that, if deemed expedient, congress should 
have authority "to form one or two states 
in that part of said territory which lies 
north of an east and west line drawn through 
the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michi- 
gan." The enabling act, however, provided 
that the northern boundary of Indiana 
slionld be "an east and west line drawn 
through a point ten miles north of the south- 
ern extreme of Lake IMichigan." The state 
of Indiana, therefore, extends ten milas north 
of the line provided in the ordinance of 1787 
as the boundary between Ohio, Indiana and 
Illinois, on the south, and Michigan and Wis- 
consin on the north. This east and west line 
through the southern bend of Lake IMichigan 
is sometimes called the ordinance boundary 
line and sometimes the old Michigan or In- 
diana boundary line. In St. Joseph county 
this old ordinance line runs through the town- 
ships of Penn, Center, Greene, Warren and 
Olive; leaving Osceola, Mishawaka, South 
Bend, New Carlisle, and the larger part of 
the county in what would have been the state 
of Michigan, according to the ordinance of 
1787. The ordinance boundary line is often 
referred to in the old records. As late as 
the May term, 1835, of the board of county 
commissioners of St. Joseph county, viewers 
were appointed "to view and lay out a road 

leading from the Michigan road east as near 
as practicable on the old Indiana boundary 
line, between sections thirty-five, township 
thirty-seven, range two east, and section two, 
township thirty-six east, to the county line 
of Elkhart." On the first day of the Sep- 
tember term, being September 7, 1835, the 
viewers reported that they had laid out the 
road, "Begining at the Michigan road, at 
the intersection of the Indiana old boundary 
line; running thence east on and as near on 
the said old boundary line as practicable, 
to the county line of Elkhart county." This 
report was approved and the road located 
and ordered opened to the wndth of forty 

The people of Michigan cDUtended ear- 
nestly for the ordinance boundary line, claim- 
ing that any other boundary would be ille- 
gal and unconstitutional, for the reason that 
the provisions of the ordinance of 1787 in 
this regard were irrevocable, as defining the 
boundaries of the five states to be created out 
of the northwest territory. It appears that 
when the ordinace of 1787 was passed the 
true latitude of the southern extremes of 
Lake Michigan and Lake Erie was not known. 
At any rate, the people of Ohio at that timi- 
seem to have been of the opinion that a.n 
east and west line through the southern liend 
of Lake Michigan would strike Lake Erie 
north of Maumee bay. As if to force such 
an interpretation of the ordinance, a line 
was actually surveyed from the southerly 
bend of Lake Michigan to the northerly cape 
of Maumee bay. The order for this survey 
was made by act of congress: and the in- 
tention of congress was to mai'k' the old 
ordinance boundary. The survey was, how- 
ever, made under direction of the Ohio sur- 
veyor general, and he had the survey mad*' 
according to the views of tlic Oliio authoi-- 
ities. This line is called the Ohio line, and 
also the "Harris line," from the name of the 
surveyor. In the final settlement of the dis- 
pute, Ohio succeeded in making, oi' i-etain- 
ing, the Hari'is line as llic northern I)nundary 



of that state. Michigan was reluctantly per- 
suaded to receive in exchange for the terri- 
tory taken from her the upper peninsula 
of that state: and a most valuable exchange 
it has turned out to be. The Harris line 
was never accepted as the northern boundary 
of Indiana ; neither did this state accept the 
ordinance boundary, but took an indepen- 
dent, or perhaps, we might say, an arbitrary, 
position, insisting upon a ten mile strip north 
of the ordinance line, and giving as a rea- 
son for such insistence that otherwise she 
would be cut off from the navigation of Lake 
Michigan and the other great lakes. The 
Harris, or Ohio, line would not satisfy In- 
diana anj' better than the ordinance line; 
for both would prevent her from having a 
harbor on the great lakes. Michigan did 
not at first make a very strong contention 
against Indiana's claim. ^ There Avere then 
no settlements in northern Indiana or south- 
western Michigan ; whereas the territory in 
dispute between Ohio and Michiga.n included 
the town of Toledo and a rapidly growing 
district in the vicinity. The northern boun- 
dary of Indiana is an east and west line, but 
the northern boundary of Ohio, the Harris 
line, runs a little north of east, beginning 
on the east line of Indiana, at a point about 
four miles and a half south of the northern 
boundarj^ of Indiana and running east by 
north to include the city of Toledo and 
Maumee bay. Neither did the ordinance line 
mark the boundary between Illinois and 
Wisconsin. Had it done so, Chicago would 
have been in Wisconsin, as it was at one 
time supposed to be. The northern boundary 
provided for in the ordinance of 1787, "an 
east and west line drawn through the south- 
erly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan,'' 
has therefore been Avholly obliterated. For 
a very full and interesting treatment of the 
subject of our northern boundary line, see 

a. For a controversy that arose later in Michi- 
gan, see Northwestern Pioneer, published at South 
Bend, May 2 and June 6, 1832. 

chapter sixth of Daniel's History of Laporte 
County, Indiana.* 

Sec. 5. — The Name of the State. — The 
name of our state, "Indiana," does not ap- 
pear in our history until the passage of the 
act of congress, approved May 7, 1800, pro- 
viding that all the northwest territory, west 
of a line through Fort Recovery, should 
"constitute a separate territory, and be 
called Indiana Territory." The name thus 
given is very dear to the people of this state, 
not only from the beauty of the word itself, 
but even more from its association with our 
history, as a territory and as a state, now 
for over a hundred years. Indiana terri- 
tory included at first not only the territory 
now forming our state, but also a part of 
that of Ohio and Michigan, all of Illinois and 
Wisconsin, and even part of Minnesota. As 
the successive territories were set off, how- 
ever, and the territories themselves were 
erected into states, the beloved name re- 
mained with us. Other names were found for 
our sister commonwealths: Ohio, Illinois, 
Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota; all in- 
deed beautiful, with their melodious French 
and Indian suggestions, but none of them 
comparable to our own Indiana. 

There has been comparatively little dis- 
cussion as to the origin of the name. It 
would seem indeed that the origin should be 
evident. When the territorial government 
was set up in the year 1800. the country was 
almost wholly occupied by the Indians. So 
far as occupancy was concerned, it was the 
Indian land. In ancient and modern times, 
in Europe as well as America, the suffix a. 
when added to a word, has been understood 
to mean land, country or place. Greece was 
known as Grecia ; Italy, as Italia ; Germany, 
as Germania. So we have Russia, Prussia, 
Austria, Australia. Pennsylvania, Virginia, 
Louisiana and many others. Indiana means 
nothing therefore but Indian land or In- 
dian country. 

a. Daniels' Hist. La Porte County, Indiana, 
pp. 44-62. The Lewis Publishing Company, Chi- 



It appears, however, that our state was not 
the first to bear the pleasant sounding name. 
In an interesting paper read before the 
Wayne County Historical Society, Mr. Cyrus 
W. Hodgin tells the story of an older In- 

At the close of the French and Indian 
war, in 1763, says Mr. Hodgin, a Philadelphia 
trading company was formed to engage in the 
fur trade on the Ohio. The company sent 
its agents into the Ohio valley with large 
quantities of goods to exchange for furs and 
other products which the Indians were accus- 
tomed to bring to the trading posts. In the 
fall of that year, certain bands of Indians 
who were tributary to the Iroquois confed- 
eracy, attacked the agenta of the Philadelphia 
company at a point a little below the site 
of the present city of Wlieeling, and seized 
upon the goods of the company, which they 
appropriated to their own use. In compen- 
sation for this loss, the Iroquois transferred 
to the company a tract of nearly five thou- 
sand square miles of land lying south of 
the Ohio and east of the Great Kanawha, — a 
tract equal in extent to the state of Con- 
necticut. To this princely domain the com- 
pany gave the name of Indiana, — Indian 
land. In 1776 the tract was conveyed to a 
new company, known as the Indiana Land 
Company. 'Virginia, however, refused to ac- 
knowledge the Indian title held by the com- 
pany. A resort to the courts was equally 
unavailing. The eleventh amendment to the 
constitution of the United States, denying to 
citizens of one state the right to bring any ac- 
tion or suit against another sovereign state 
of the Union, was declared adopted, by proc- 
lamation of the president, issued January 8, 
1798 ; and so the long contested case was 
stricken from the docket of the supreme court 
of the United States. The Indiana Land 
Company having lost its claim, the company 
itself passed out of existence; and the name 
"Indiana" was but a memory, until, in 1800, 

a. The Naming of Indiana, by Cyrus W. Hod- 
gin, Richmond, Ind., 1903. 

it was bestowed upon this commonwealth, 
now the great central state of the Union. It is 
not at all probable that the naming of our 
state had any connection with the name of 
the eastern Indiana. Accidentally the name 
is the same; but in each case, undoubtedly, 
the name given had direct reference to the 
Indians who occupied the country. 

Sec. 6.— The Title of Hoosier. — But we 
have another name, a loving, pet name, the 
"Hoosier State." While comparatively little 
has been said or written as to the origin of the 
name "Indiana," very much has been said 
and written as to the origin of this good- 
natured name, "Hoosier." 

In the paper already referred to, "The 
Naming of Indiana," Mr. Hodgin has 
brought together various anecdotes and sug- 
gestions that have been advanced in explana- 
tion of the origin of the name. Since about 
the year 1830, he says, Indiana has been fa- 
miliarly known as the Hoosier State, and the 
inhabitants have been called Hoosiers. A 
number of explanations of the origin of the 
term have been given. Meredith Nicholson, 
in his admirable little volume, "The Hoo- 
siers," has collected these explanations. 
They are as follows : 

1. An Irishman employed in excavating 
the canal around the falls at Louisville de- 
clared, after a fight in which he had van- 
quished several fellow workmen, that he was 
a "husher. " This was given by Berrj^ R. 
Sulgrove as a possible origin of the word. 

2. Bartlett, in his "Dictionary of Ameri- 
canisms," says that the men of superior 
strength, the heroes of log-rollings and house- 
raisings, were called "hushers" because of 
their ability to hush or quiet their antag- 
onists; and that "husher" was a common 
term for a bully. The Ohio river boatmen 
carried the word to New Orleans, where a 
foreigner among them, in attempting to ap- 
l)ly the word to himself, pronounced it 
' ' hoosier. ' ' 

3. A Louisville baker, named Hoosier, 
made a variety of sweet bread which was 



so much enjoyed by Indiana people that they 
were called ''Hoosier's customei*s, " "Hoo- 
sier's men," "Hoosier's people," etc. The 
Rev. T. A. Goodwin says he first heard the 
word at Cincinnati, in 1830, where it was 
used to describe a species of gingerbread, 
but without reference to Indiana. 

4. The Rev. Aaron Wood, a pioneer Meth- 
odist minister, says the word is a corruption 
of Hussar; the corruption originating as 
follows : When the young men of the In- 
diana side of the Ohio eros.sed over to Louis- 
ville, the Kentuckians made sport of them, 
calling them "New Purchase greenies, " and 
boasted of their own superiority. Fighting 
grew out of these boasts, and an Indiania.n 
who had a great admiration for the prowess 
of the soldiers called Hussars, after whip- 
ping one of the Kentuckians, bent over him 
and cried. "I'm a Hoosier, " meaning "I'm 
a Hussar." 

5. But, concludes Mr. Ilodgin. the most 
probable explanation is that the word is a 
corruption of "WTio's here?" In my child- 
hood, in the backwoods of Randolph county, 
I often heard the response, "Who's here?" 
to the rap at the door late at night, after 
the latch string had been drawn in. The 
word "here," however, was pronounced as 
if. in speaking the worcl "her," the sound 
of y were inserted between the h and e, mak- 
ing it "hyer." "Who's hyer," or "Who's 
yer," as it was generally abridged, was a 
common response to the rap of the visitor 
late at night: and "Who's yer" easily took 
the form of "Hoosier." 

Some of the foregoing explanations seem 
fanciful. From the meaning which has al- 
ways been attached to the name Hoosier, we 
are inclined to the opinion that it may more 
likely be derived from "husher, " meaning a 
strong, resolute fellow who could "hush" a 
boasting antagonist in short order; or, per- 
haps, from "HiLssar," a daring soldier. It 
may be that both words contributed to give 
form and meaning to the term. But see 
"Hoozer" in Mr. Dunn's paper, following; 

we are inclined to agree with Mr. Dunn's 

In the number of the Northwestern Pio- 
neer and St. Joseph's Intelligencer, pub- 
lished at South Bend, under date of April 
4, 1832, we find a humorous paragraph show- 
ing that the word hoosier was used at that 
early date to refer to great size and strength, 
and, as such, was applied to the big sturgeons 
of Lake Michigan, then our regular spring- 
time visitors. The paragraph reads : 

"A Real Hoosier. — A sturgeon, who no 
doubt left Lake Michigan on a trip of pleas- 
ure, and with a view of spending a few days 
in the pure waters of the St. Joseph, had his 
.joyous anticipations unexpectedly marred by 
ranning foul of a fisherman's spear, near 
this place. Being brought on terra firma and 
cast into a balance, he was found to weigh 
eighty-three pounds." It will be noticed that 
the word hoosier, in this paragraph, has no 
reference to an Indianian, as such; "a real 
hoosier, ' ' as here used, simply means a strong, fellow. 

As applied to the human being, the word 
seems to have originally conveyed the ideas of 
vigorous manhood, hearty good feeling, 
shrewdness and good common sense. A 
Hoosier was a man to be depended upon, 
but not to be trifled with. He was one who 
could do things and was not afraid or ashamed 
to do them, in manly fashion. The word 
has gi'OWTi somewhat refined in meaning with 
the advancement of the state; but it still 
signifies a person of manly bearing, shrewd- 
ness, ability and kindliness. Such are the 
men who have made Indiana great. It is a 
noble word, as now used; and every genuine 
Indianian is proud to be known as a Hoosier. 

The suggestion has also been made that the 
good word may have come to us from the 
French "huissier," meaning "usher"; that 
is, one appointed to seat people attending a 
public meeting and to aid in maintaining or- 
der. On such occasions the ushei's are some- 
times disposed to display unnecessary authoi'- 
itv, and so themselves cause more disturb- 

history" of ST. JOSEPH COUNTY. 


ance tliau the very audience they are sup- 
posed to watch over. In a little French clas- 
sic published in the early part of the seven- 
teenth century, such over-officious ushers are 
referred to, the author saying: The ushers 
(les huissiere) make more noise than those 
they are appointed to keep quiet.^*^ The word 
"huissier, " judging- by the spelling, might 
by one not acquainted with French, be pro- 
nounced almost the same as "hoosier, " and 
we can fancy in a backwoods meeting at an 
early day hearing the good natured ushers 
reproved by some one who remembered the 
passage in the little French book, and who 
knew how to read French better than he did 
how to pronounce the words. 

The following paper recently prepared by 
Mr. Jacob Piatt Dunn, secretary of the In- 
diana Historical Society, and published in 
the transactions of that society, is the most 
complete review of this interesting topic. We 
give the paper substantially as written by 
Mr. Dunn. 

The discussion is admirable and most sat- 
isfactory, and we believe the distinguished 
author has actually found the original of our 
Hoosier in the Cumberland "hoozer": 

During the period of about three-quarters 
of a century in which the state of Indiana 
and its people have been designated by the 
word "Hoosier," there has been a large 
amount of discussion of the origin and mean- 
ing of the term, but with a notable lack of 
any satisfactory result. Some of these dis- 
cussions have been almost wholly conjectural 
in character, but others have been more meth- 
odical, and of the latter the latest and most 
exhaustive — that of Mr. Meredith Nicholson^ 
— sums up the results in the statement "The 
origin of the term 'Hoosier' is not known 
with certainty." Indeed the statement might 
properly have been made much broader, for 
a consideration of the various theories offered 
leaves the unprejudiced investigator with the 
feeling that the real solution of the problem 
has not even been suggested. This lack of 
satisfactory conclusions, however, may be of 

a. "Les huissiers font plus de bruit que ceux 
qu' ils veulent faire taire." Philothea, St. Fran- 
cis de Sales, Part III.. Chapter VIII. 

h. "The Hoosiers," pp. 20-30. 

some value, for it strongly suggests the prob- 
ability that the various theorists have made 
some false as.sumption of fact, and have thus 
been thrown on a false scent, at the very 
beginning of their investigations. 

As is natural in such a case, there has 
been much of assertion of what was merely 
conjectural, often accompanied by the pion- 
eer's effort to make evidence of his theory 
by the statement that he was "in Indiana 
at the time and knows the facts." The ac- 
ceptance of all such testimony would neces- 
sarily lead to the adoption of several con- 
flicting conclusions. In addition to this 
cause of error, there have crept into the dis- 
cussion several misstatements of fact that 
have been commonly adopted, and it is evi- 
dent that in order to reach any reliable con- 
clusion now, it will be necessary to examine 
the facts critically and ascertain what are 

The traditional belief in Indiana is that 
the word was first put in print by John 
Finley, in his poem "The Hoosier 's Nest," 
and this is noted by Berry Sulgrove, who 
was certainly as well acquainted with In- 
diana tradition as any man of his time.'* 
This belief is at least probably well founded, 
for up to the present time no prior use of 
the word in print has been discovered. This 
poem attracted much attention at the time, 
and was unquestionably the chief cause of 
the widespread adoption of the word in its 
application to Indiana, for which reasons it 
becomes a natural starting-point in the in- 

It is stated by Oliver H. Smith that this 
poem originally appeared as a New Year's 
"carriers' address" of the Indianapolis 
Journal in 1830,'^ and this statement has 
commonly been followed by other writers, 
but this is clearly erroneous, as any one may 
see by inspection of the files of the Journal, 
for it printed its address in the body of the 
paper in 1830, and it is a totally different 
production. After that year it discontinued 
this practice and issued its addresses on sep- 
arate sheets, as is commonly done at present. 
No printed copy of the original publication 
is in existence, so far as known, but Mr. 
Finley 's daughter — Mi-s. Sarah Wrigley, 
former librarian of the Morrison Library, at 
Richmond, Indiana — has a manuscript copy, 

a. History of Indianapolis and Marion County, 

p. 72. 

6. "Early Indiana Trials and Sketches," p. 211. 



in the author's handwriting, which fixes the 
date of publication as Jan. 1, 1833. There 
is no reason to question this date, although 
Mr. Finley states in his little volume of poems 
printed in 1860, that this poem was written 
in 1830. The poem as it originallj^ appeared 
was never reprinted in full, so far as is 
known, and in that form it is entirely un- 
known to the present generation, although 
it has been reproduced in several forms, and 
in two of them by direct authority of the 
author.'^ The author used his privilege of 
revising his work, and wiiile he may have 
improved his poetry, he seriously marred its 
historical value. 

As the manuscript copy is presumably a 
literal transcript of the original publication, 
with possibly the exception that the title may 
have been added at a later date, I repro- 
duce it here in full : 




January 1, 1833. 


Oompelled to seek the Muse's aid, 
Your carrier feels almost dismay'd 
When he attempts in nothing less 
Than verse his patrons to address, 
Aware how very few excel 
In the fair art he loves so well, 
And that the wight who would pursue it 
Must give his whole attention to it; 
But, ever as his mind delights 
To follow fancy's airy flights 
Some object of terrestrial mien 
Uncourteously obtrudes between 
And rudely scatters to the winds 
The tangled threads of thought he spins; 
His wayward, wild imagination 
Seeks objects of its own creation 
Where Joy and Pleasure, hand in hand. 
Escort him over "Fairyland," 
Till some imperious earth-born care 
Will give the order, "As you were!" 
From this the captious may infer 
That I am but a groveling cur 
Who would essay to pass for more 
Than other people take me for, 
So, lest my friends be led to doubt it, 
I think I'll say no more about it, 
But hope that on this noted day 
My annual tribute of a lay 
In dogg'rel numbers will suffice 
For such as are not over nice. 

a. Coggeshall's "The Poets and Poetry of the 
West," and Finley's "The Hoosier's Nest and Other 
Poems" published in 1860. 

The great events which have occur'd 
(And all have seen, or read or heard) 
Within a year, are quite too many 
For me to tarry long on any — 
Then let not retrospection roam 
But be confined to things at home. 
A four years' wordy war just o'er 
Has left us where we were before 
Old Hick'ry triumphs, — we submit 
(Although we thought another fit) 
For all of Jeffersonian school 
Wish the majority to rule — 
Elected for another term 
We hope his measures will be firm 
But peaceful, as the case requires 
To nullify the nullifiers — 
And if executive constructions 
By inf'rence prove the sage deductions 
That Uncle Sam's "old Mother Bank" 
Is managed by a foreign crank 
And constituted by adoption 
The "heir apparent" of corruption — 
No matter if the facts will show 
That such assertions are not so. 
His Veto vengeance must pursue her 
And all that are appended to her — 
But tho' hard times may sorely press us. 
And want, and debts, and duns distress us, 
We'll share a part of Mammon's manna 
By chart'ring Banks in Indiana. 

Blest Indiana! In whose soil 
Men seek the sure rewards of toil, 
And honest poverty and worth 
Find here the best retreat on earth, 
While hosts of Preachers, Doctors, Lawyers, 
All independent as wood-sawyers. 
With men of every hue and fashion, 
Flock to this rising "Hoosher" nation. 
Men who can legislate or plow. 
Wage politics or milk a cow — 
So plastic are their various parts, 
Within the circle of their arts. 
With equal tact the "Hoosher" looms. 
Hunt offices or hunt raccoons. 
A captain, colonel, or a 'squire. 
Who would ascend a little higher. 
Must court the people, honest souls, 
He bows, caresses and cajoles, 
Till they conceive he has more merit 
Than nature willed he should inherit. 
And, running counter to his nature, 
He runs into the Legislature; 
Where if he pass for wise and mute. 
Or chance to steer the proper chute, 
In half a dozen years or more 
He's qualified for Congress fioor. 

I would not have the world suppose 
Our public men are all like those, 
For even in this infant State 
Some may be wise, and good, and great. 
But, having gone so far, 'twould seem 
(Since "Hoosher" manners is the theme) 
That I, lest strangers take exception. 
Should give a more minute description. 
And if my strains be not seraphic 
I trust you'll find them somewhat graphic. 



Suppose in riding somewhere West 
A stranger found a "Hoosher's" neat, 
In other words, a buckeye cabin 
Just big enough to hold Queen Mab in, 
Its situation low but airy 
Was on the borders of a prairie, 
And fearing he might be benighted 
He hailed the house and then alighted. 
The "Hoosher" met him at the door. 
Their salutations soon were o'er; 
He took the stranger's horse aside 
And to a sturdy sapling tied; 
Then, having stripped the saddle off. 
He fed him in a sugar trough. 
The stranger stooped to enter in. 
The entrance closing with a pin, 
And manifested strong desire 
To seat him by the log heap fire, 
Where half a dozen Hoosheroons, 
With mush and milk, tincups and spoons. 
White heads, bare feet and dirty faces. 
Seemed much inclined to keep their places, 
But Madam, anxious to display 
Her rough and undisputed sway, 
Her offspring to the ladder led 
And cuffed the youngsters up to bed. 
Invited shortly to partake 
Of venison, milk and johnny-cake 
The stranger made a hearty meal 
And glances round the room would steal; 
One side was lined with skins of "varments" 
The other spread with divers garments. 
Dried pumpkins overhead were strung 
Where venison hams in plenty hung. 
Two rifles placed above the door. 
Three dogs lay stretched upon the floor, 
In short, the domicile was rife. 
With specimens of "Hoosher" life. 

The host who centered his affections 
On game and range, and quarter sections 
Discoursed his weary guest for hours. 
Till Somnus' ever potent powers 
Of sublunary cares bereft them 
And then I came away and left them. 
No matter how the story ended 
The application I intended 
Is from the famous Scottish poet 
Who seemed to feel as well as know it 
"That buirdly chiels and clever hizzies 
Are bred in sic a way as this is." 
One more subject I'll barely mention 
To which I ask your kind attention 
My pockets are so shrunk of late 
I can not nibble "Hoosher bait." 

It will be noted that thronshont the manu- 
script the word is spelled "Hoosher" and is 
always put in quotation marks. Mrs. Wrig- 
ley informs me that her father had no knowl- 
edge of the origin of the word, but found it 
in verbal use when he wrote. She is conti- 
dent, however, that he coined the word 
"hoosheroon," and the proba.bility of this 
is increased by the fact that he did not quote 
it in his manuscript. In later editions of 
the poem he used the form "Hoosier. " His 

original spelling shows that the word was not 
common in print, and several years passed 
before the spelling became fixed in its present 

Although the word "Hoosier" has not 
been found in print earlier than Januaiy 
1, 1833, it became common enough immedi- 
ately afterwards." In fact the term seems 
to have met general approval, and to have 
been accepted by everybody. On January 
8, 1833, at the Jackson dinner at Indian- 
apolis, John W. Davis gave the toast, "The 
Hooshier State of Indiana."^ On Augiist 3, 
1833, the Indiana Democrat published the 
following prospectus of a new paper to be 
established by ex-Gov. Ray and partner: 

Prospectus for Publishing 


At Greencastle, Indiana 

By J. B. Ray & W. M. Tannehill. 

"We intend publishing a real Newspaper. 
To this promise (though comprehensive 
enough) we would add, that it is intended to 
make the moral and political world con- 
tribute their full share, in enriching its 

"The arts and sciences, and agriculture 
and commerce, and literature shall all re- 
ceive a due portion of our care. 

"Left to our choice Ave might refrain from 
remark on presidential matters; but suppos- 
ing, that you may require an intimation, 
suffice it to say, that our past preference 
has been for General Jackson and his ad- 
ministration ; and we deem it premature to 
decide as to the future without knowing who 
are to be the candidates. Those men who 
shall sustain Western measures, shall be our 
men. Believing that there is but one interest 
in the West, and but little occasion for 
partyism beyond the investigation of princi- 
ples and the conduct of functionaries, we 
would ra.ther encourage union than excite 
divisio)!. We shall con.stantly keep in view 
the happiness, interest and prosperity of all. 
To the goofh this paper will be as a shield : 
to the harl. a terror. 

"The Hoosier will be published weekly, at 
$2 in advance and 25 cents for every tliree 

a. For modification of this statement see ex- 
tract from the N. W. Pioneer of April 4, 1832, 
printed, supra, in this subdivision. 

6. Indiana Democrat, Jan. 12, 1833. 



mouths delay of pajonent, per annum, on 
a good sheet of paper of superroyal size, 
to be enlarged to an imperial as the subscrip- 
tion will justify it. 

"This paper shall do honor to the people 
of Putnam county; and we expect to see 
them patronize us. The press is now at 
Greencastle. Let subscription papers be re- 
turned by the 1st of Sept. when the first 
number will appear." 

On Oct. 26, 1833, the Indiana Democrat 
republished from the Cincinnati Republican 
a discussion of the origin and making of the 
word "Hoosier," which will be quoted in 
full hereafter, which shows that the term had 
then obtained general adoption. C. F. Hoff- 
man, a traveler who passed through the 
northern part of the state, says, under date 
of Dec. 29, 1833: 

"I am now ir the land of the Hooshiers, 
and find that long-haired race much more 
civilized than some of their Western neigh- 
bors are willing to represent them. The term 
'Hooshier,' like that of Yankee, or Buck- 
eye, first applied contemptuously, has now be- 
come a soubriquet that bears nothing in- 
vidious with it to the ear of an Indianian.''« 

On Jan. 4, 1834, the Indiana Democrat 
quoted from the ^Nlaysville. Ky.. ^ilonitor, 
"The Hoosier State like true democrats have 
taken the lead in appointing delegates to a 
National Convention, etc." On ^May 10. 
1834, the Indianapolis Journal printed the 
following editorial paragraph: 

"The Hooshier, started some time ago by 
Messrs. Ray and Tannehill, at Greencastle, 
has sunk into repose; and a new paper en- 
titled the ' G-reeneastle Advertiser,' published 
by James M. Grooms, has taken its place." 

It is quite possible that this statement was 
made with the mischievous intent of stirring 
up Gov. Ray, for he was rather sensitive, 
and the "Whigs seemed to delight in starting 
stories that called forth indignant deniaL'> 
from him. If this was the purpose it was 
successful, for on May 31 the Journal said: 

"We understand that another No. of the 
Hooshier has been recently received in town, 
and that it contains quite a bitter complaint 
about our remark a week or two ago. that it 
had 'sunk into repose.' We assure the 
Editor that we made the remark as a mere 
matter of news, without any intention to re- 
joice at the suspension of the paper. Several 
weeks had passed over without any paper 

a. "A Winter in the West," p. 226. 

being received, and it was currently reported 
that it had 'blowed out' and therefore, as a 
mere passing remark, we stated that it had 
'sunk into repose.' We have no objection 
that it should live a thousand years." 

The new paper, however, clid not last as 
long as that. It was sold in the fall of 1834 
to J. AY. Osborn who continued the publica- 
tion, but changed the name, in the following 
spring, to the "Western Plough Boy." On 
Sept. 19, 1834. the Indiana Democrat had the 
following reference to ]Mr. Finley : 

"The poet laureate of Hoosierland and 
editor of the Richmond Palladium has 
threatened to 'cut acquaintance with B. of 
the Democrat!!' The gentleman alluded to. 
is the same individual that was unceremon- 
iously robbed, by the Cincinnati Chronick, 
of the credit of immortalizing our State in 
verse, bv that justly celebrated epic of the 
' Hoosier 's Nest.' " ^ 

On Nov. 29, 1834, the Vincennes Sun used 
the caption. "Hoosier and ]\Iammoth Pump- 
kins," over an article reprinted from the 
Cincinnati Alirror concerning a load of big 
pumpkins from Indiana. 

These extracts sufficiently demonstrate the 
general acceptation of the name in the two 
years following the publication of Finley 's 
poem. The diversified spelling of the word 
at this period shows that it was new in print, 
and indeed some years elapsed before the 
now accepted spelling became universal. On 
Jan. 6, 1838, the Ft. Wayne Sentinel re- 
published the portion of the poem beginning 
with the words, "Blest Indiana, in her soil." 
It was very probable that this publication 
Avas made directly from an original copy of 
the carrier's address, for Thomas Tigar, one 
of the founders and editors of the Ft. Wayne 
Sentinel, had been connected with the In- 
dianapolis Press in January', 1833, and the 
old-fashioned newspaperman was accustomed 
to preserve articles that struck his fancv, 
and reproduce them. Jn this publication the 
poem is given as in the Finley manuscript, 
except that the first two times the word 
occurs it is spelled "hoosier" and once after- 
ward "hoosheer." the latter evidently a typo- 
graphical error. At the other points it is 
spelled "hoosher. " This original form of 
the word also indicates tha.t there had been 
some change in the pronunciation, and this 
is confirmed from another source. For many 
years there had been neriodical discussions 
of the origin of the wor:l in the newspapers of 



the State, and in one of these, which occurred 
in the Indianapolis Journal, in 1860, when 
numerous contemporaries of Finley were still 
living, Hon. Jere Smith, a prominent citizen 
of Winchester, made this statement: 

"My recollection is that the word began 
to be used in this country in the fall of 
1824, but it might have been as late as 1826 
or 1827, when the Louisville & Portland 
canal was being made. I first heard it at a 
corn-husking. It was used in the sense of 
'rip-roaring,' 'half horse' and 'half alli- 
gator,' and such like backwoods coinages. It 
was then, and for some years afterwards, 
spoken as if spelled 'huslier, ' the 'u' hav- 
ing the sound it has in 'bush,' 'push,' etc. 
In 1829, 1830 and 1831 its sound glided into 
'hoosher,' till finally Mr. Finley 's 'Hoosier's 
Nest' made the present orthography and 
pronunciation classical, and it has remained 
so since."* 

Of course, this is not conclusive evidence 
that there was a change in pronunciation, 
for iNIr. Smith's observation may have ex- 
tended to one neighborhood only, and it may 
have taken on a variant pronunciation at the 
start, but his testimony, in connection with 
the changed spelling, is certainly very 

There have been offered a number of ex- 
planations of the origin of the word, and 
naturally those most commonly heard are 
those that have been most extensively pre- 
sented in print. Of the "authorities" on 
the subject perhaps the best known is Bart- 
lett's "Dictionary of Americanisms" which 
was originally published in 1838 and was 
widely circulated in that and the subsequent 
edition, besides being frequently quoted. Its 
statement is as follows : 

"Hoosier. A nickname given at the West, 
to nativ&s of Indiana. 

"A correspondent of the Providence 
Journal, writing from Indiana, gives the fol- 
lowing account of the origin of this term : 
'Throughout all the early Western settle- 
ments were men who rejoiced in their physi- • 
eal strength, and on numerous occasions, at 
log-rollings and house-raisings, demonstrated 
this to their entire satisfaction. They were 
styled by their fellow-citizens, hushers, from 
their primary capacity to still their op- 
ponents. It was a common term for a bully 
throughout the West. The boatmen of In- 
diana were formerly as rude a.nd primitive 

a. Indianapolis Journal, January 20, 1860. 

a set as could well belong to a civilized 
country, and they were often in the habit 
of displaying their pugilistic accomplish- 
ments upon the levee at New Orleans. Upon 
a certain occasion there one of these rustic 
professors of the "noble art" very adroitly 
and successfully practiced the "fancy" upon 
several individuals at one time. Being him- 
self not a native of the Western world, in 
the exuberance of his exultation he sprang 
up, exclaiming, in a foreign accent, "I'm a 
hoosier, I'm a hoosier." Some of the New 
Orleans papers reported the case, and after- 
wards transferred the corruption of the 
word "husher" (hoosier) to aU the boatmen 
from Indiana, and from thence to all her 
citizens. The Kentuckians, on the contrary, 
maintained that the nickname expresses the 
gruff' exclamation of their neighbors, when 
one knocks at a door, etc., "Who's yere?" ' " 
Both of these theories have had adherents, 
and especially the latter, though nobody has 
ever found any basis for their historical fea- 
tures beyond the assertion of this newspaper 
correspondent. Nobody has ever produced 
any evidence of the use of the word 
"husher" as here indicated. It is not found 
in any dictionary of any kind — not even in 
Bartlett's. I have never found any indica- 
tion of its former use or its present survival. 
And there is no greater evidence of the use 
of the expression, "Who's yere?" when ap- 
proaching a house. As a matter of fact, the 
common custom when coming to a house and 
desiring communication with the residents 
was to call, "Hallo the house!" And this 
custom is referred to in Finley 's line: 
' ' He hailed the house, and then alighted. ' ' 
Furthermore, if a pereon who came to a 
house called "Wlio's yere?" what cause 
would there be for calling the people who 
live in the house "who's yeres?" There is 
neither evidence nor reason to support it. 
But there is still a stronger reason for dis- 
carding these theories, and most others. To 
produce the change of a word or term liy 
corruption, there must be practical identity 
of sound and accent. It was natural enough 
for the Indiana pioneers to convert "au 
poste" into "Opost. " It was natural 
enough for the Ne\\* INFexiean settlers to 
change "Jicarilla" to "TTickoiy." It was 
natural enough for the Coloi-ado cowboys to 
transform "Purgatoire river" to "Picket- 
wire river." But there is scant possibility 
of changing "husher," or "who's yere" — 



as it would probably be spoken — into 
"hoosh-er. " This consideration has led to 
the suggestion that the expression from 
which the word came was "who is yer?" but 
there is nothing to support this. The early 
settlers did not use "is" for "are" but 

iLsually pronounced the latter "air." 


they did not say 


"yer" for "you, 
they often used it for "your." 

Another theory, almost as popular as 
these, derives the word from "hussar," and 
this theory, in its various forms, harks back 
to a Col. John Jacob Lehmanowsky, who 
served under Napoleon, and afterwards 
settled in Indiana, where he becama widely 
known as a lecturer on the Napoleonic wars. 
The tradition preserved in his family is that 
once while in Kentucky he became engaged 
in a dispute with some natives, and sought 
to settle the matter by announcing that he 
was a hussar. They understood him to say 
that he was a "hoosier, " and thereafter ap- 
plied that name to everybody from Indiana. 
This theory has several shapes, one being 
presented by the Rev. Aaron Wood, the pio- 
neer preacher, thus : 

"The name 'hoosier' originated as fol- 
lows : When the young men of the Indiana 
side of the Ohio river went to Louisville, 
the Kentucky men boasted over them, call- 
ing them 'New Purchase Greenies, ' claiming 
to be a superior race, composed of half horse, 
half alligator, and tipped off with snapping 
turtle. These taunts produced fights in the 
market house and streets of Louisville. On 
one occasion a stout bully from Indiana was 
victor in a fist fight, and having heard 
Colonel Lehmanowsky lecture on the 'Wars 
of Europe,' who always gave martial 
prowess to the German Hussars in a fight, 
pronouncing hussars 'hoosiers' the Indian- 
ian, when the Kentuckian cried 'enough,' 
jumped up and said: 'I am a Hoosier,' and 
hence the Indianians were called by that 
name. This was its true origin. I was in 
the State when it occurred."'* 

Unfortunately, others are equally positive 
as to their "true origins." The chief Ob- 
jection that has been urged to this theory is 
that Lehmanowsky was not in the State 
when the term began to be used, and the 
evidence on this point is not very satisfactory. 
His son, M. L. Lehmanowsky, of DePauw, 
Ind., informs me that his father came to this 
country in 1815, but he is unable to fix the 

a. Sketches, p. 45. 

date of his removal to Indiana. Published 
sketches of his life" state that he was with 
Napoleon at Waterloo; that he was after- 
wards imprisoned at Paris; that he escaped 
and made his way to New York; that he 
remained for several years at New York and 
Philadelphia where he taught school; that he 
came to Rush county, Indiana, and there 
married and bought a farm ; that after bear- 
ing him seven children his wife died; that 
he then removed to Harrison county, arriv- 
ing there in 1837. These data would indi- 
cate that he came to Indiana sometime before 
1830. The date of the deed to his farm, 
as shown by the Rush county records, is 
April 30, 1835. Aside from the question of 
date, it ls not credible that a Polish officer 
pronounced "hussar" "hoosier," or that 
from the use of that word by a known for- 
eigner a new term could spring into exist- 
ence, and so quickly be applied to the natives 
of the state where he chanced to live. 

To these theories of the origin of the word 
may be added one communicated to me by 
James Whitcoml) Riley, whose acquaintance 
with dialect makes him an authority on the 
subject. It is evidently of later origin than 
the others, and not so well known to the 
public. A casual conversation happening to 
turn to this subject, he said: "These stories 
commonly told about the origin of the word 
'Hoosier' are all nonsense. The real origin 
is found in the pugnacious habits of the 
early settlers. They were very vicious 
fighters, and not only gouged and scratched, 
but frequently bit off noses and ears. This 
was so ordinary an affair that a. settler com- 
ing into a bar room on a morning after a 
fight, and seeing an ear on the floor, would 
merely push it aside with his foot and care- 
lessly ask, 'Who's year?' " I feel safe in 
venturing the opinion that this theory is 
quite as plausible, and almost as well sus- 
tained by historical evidence, as any of the 

In this connection it is of interest to note 
the earliest known discussion of the mean- 
ing of the word, which has been referred to 
as republished in the Indiana Democrat of 
Oct. 26, 1833. It is as follows : 


"The appellation of Hooshier has been 
used in many of the Western States, for 

a. Salem Democrat, October 25, 1899; March 
28, 1900. 



several years, to designate, in a good-natured 
way, an inhabitant of our sister state of In- 
diana. Ex-Governor Ray has lately started 
a newspaper in Indiana, which he names 
'The Hoshier' (sic). Many of our ingenious 
native philologists have attempted, though 
very unsatisfactorily, to explain this some- 
what singular term. Mordecai M. Noah, in 
the late number of his Evening Star, under- 
takes to account for it upon the faith of a 
rather apocryphal story of a recruiting of- 
ficer, who was engaged during the last war, 
in enlisting a company of HUSSARS, whom 
by mistake he unfortunately denominated 
Hooshiers. Another etymologist tells us that 
when the state of Indiana was being sur- 
veyed, the surveyors, on finding the resi- 
dence of a squatter, would exclaim 'WJio's 
here,' — that this exclamation, abbreviated to 
Hooshier was, in process of time, lapplied as 
a distinctive appellation to the original set- 
tlers of that state, and, finally to its inhabi- 
tants generally. Neither of these hypotheses 
is deserving any attention. The word 
Hooshier is indebted for its existence to that 
once numerous and unique, but now extinct 
class of mortals called the Ohio Boatmen. 
— In its original acceptation it was equiva- 
lent to 'Ripstaver,' 'Scrouger,' 'Screamer,' 
'Bulger,' 'Ring-tailroarer,' and a hundred 
others, equally expressive, but which have 
never attained' to such a respectable standing 
as itself. By some caprice which can never 
be explained, the appellation Hooshier be- 
came confined solely to such boatmen as had 
their homes upon the Indiana shore, and 
from them it was gradually applied to all 
the Indianians, who acknowledge it as good 
naturedly as the appellation of Yankee — 
Whatever may have been the original accep- 
tation of Hooshier this we know, that the 
people to whom it is now applied, are 
amongst the bravest, most intelligent, most 
enterprising, most magnanimous, and most 
democratic of the Great West, and should we 
ever feel disposed to quit the state in whicli 
we are now sojourning, our own noble Ohio, 
it will be to enroll oureelves as adopted citi- 
zens in the land of the 'HOOSHIER.'— Cin- 
cinnati Republican." 

Here is a presentation of the question, ten 
months after Finley's publication, covering 
most of the ground that has since been oc- 
cupied. The "hussar" theory is carried 
back to the war of 1812, long before Col. 
Lehmanowsky was in this country. The 

"who's here" theory is carried back to the 
government surveys, although it is certain 
that there were few, if any, "squatters" on 
government lands in Indiana before the sur- 
veys were made. The "husher" theory, in 
embryo, is presented in the writer's theory, 
which is apparently conjectural, except per- 
haps as evidence that the word was applied 
to the rather rough-looking class of flat-boat- 
men who made their trips down the Ohio 
and Mississippi. 

There has been a notable tendency to lo- 
cate these stories at Louisville, and to con- 
nect them with the building of the 
Louisville and Portland canal which was 
under construction from 1826 to 1831, in- 
clusive. The "husher" story is located there 
by several of its advocates. Another story, 
of recent origin, coming from one Vanblari- 
cum, was recounted by ]\Ir. George Cottman 
in the Indianapolis Press of February 6, 
1901. Vanblaricum claimed that while 
passing through southern Tennessee he met 
a man named Hoosier, and this man said 
that a member of his family had a contract 
on the construction of the Louisville and 
Portland canal; tha,t he employed his la- 
borers from the Indiana side, and the 
neighbors got to calling them " Hoosier 's 
men," from which the name "Hoosier" came 
to be applied to Indiana men generally. 
Vanblaricum could not give the address of his 
informant, or any information tending to 
confirm the story. At my request Mr. Louis 
Ludlow, Washington correspondent of the 
Indianapolis Sentinel, made inquiry of the 
representatives from the southern districts 
of Tennessee, and learned that none of them 
had ever heard of such a story, or knew of 
the name "Hoosier" in his district. An ex- 
amination of the directories of Atlanta, Au- 
gusta, Baltimore, Chattanooga, Cincinnati, 
Kansas City, Little Rock, Louisville. J\Iem- 
phis, Nashville, New Orleans, Philadelphia, 
Richmond, St. Louis, St. Joseph, Savannah, 
Wheeling, Wilmington, the District of Colum- 
bia, and the state of Tennessee, failed to 
reveal any such name as Hoosier. As it is 
hardly possible for a family name to disap- 
pear completely, we may reasonably drop the 
Vanblaricum story from consideration. The 
same conclusion will also apply to the story 
of a Louisville ])ak('r. named Hoosier, from 
whom the term is sometimes said to have 
come. It is now known that the occurrence 

of "Hoosier" as 

a Christian name in the 



minutes of an early Methodist conference in 
Indiana, was the result of misspelling. The 
member's name was "Ho-si-er (accent on the 
second syllable) J. Durbin," and the secre- 
tary in writing- it put in an extra "o. " It 
may be mentioned in this connection that 
"Hooser" is a rather common family name 
in the South, and that "Hoos" is occasion- 
ally found. 

One of the most interesting wild-goose 
chases I ever indulged in was occasioned by 
a passage in the narrative of Francis and 
Therasa Pulszky, entitled "White, Red and 
Black." The Pulszkys accompanied Kossuth 
on his trip through the States and visited 
Indianapolis in 1852. In the account of this 
visit Mrs. Pulszky says : 

"Governor "Wright is a type of the 
Hoosiers, and justly proud to be one of them. 
I asked him wherefrom his people had got 
this name. He told me that 'Hoosa' is the 
Indian name for maize, the principal produce 
of the State." 

This opened a new vista. The names 
"Coosa" and "Tallapoosa" came to memory. 
How simple! The Indiana flat-boatmen tak- 
ing their loads of corn down the river were 
called "Hoosa men" by the Southern In- 
dians, and so the name originated. But a 
search of Indian vocabularies showed no such 
name for maize or for anything else. The 
nearest approaches to it are "Hoosac" and 
" Housatonie, " which are both probably cor- 
ruptions from the same stem, "awass," 
meaning beyond or further. The latter word 
is supposed to be the Indian "wassatinak," 
which is the New England form of the Al- 
gonquin "awassadinang, " meaning beyond 
the mountains. 

In 1854 Amelia M. Murray visited Indian- 
apolis, and was for a time the guest of 
Governor Wright. In her book entitled 
"Letters from the United States, Cuba and 
Canada" (page 324), she says: 

"Madame Pfeiffer (she evidently meant 
Mrs. PuLszky, for Madame Pfeiffer did not 
come here and does not mention the subject) 
mistook Governor AVright, when she gave 
from his authority another derivation for the 
word 'Hoosier.' It originated in a settler's 
exclaiming 'Huzza,' upon gaining the victory 
over a marauding party from a neighboring 

With these conflicting statements, I called 
on Mr. John C. Wright, son of Governor 
Wright. He remembered the visits of the 

PuLszkys and Miss Murray, but knew noth- 
ing of Madame Pfeiffer. He said: "I often 
heard my father discuss this subject. His 
theory was that the Indiana tiatboatmen 
were athletic and pugnacious, and were ac- 
customed, when on the levees of the Southern 
cities, to 'jump up and crack their heels to- 
gether' and shout 'Huzza,' whence the name 
of 'huzza fellows.' We have the same idea 
now in 'hoorah people,' or 'a hoorah time.' " 
It will be noted that all these theories prac- 
tically carry three features in common : 

1. They are alike in the idea that the word 
was firat applied to a rough, boisterous, un- 
couth, illiterate class of people, and that the 
word originally implied this character. 

2. They are alike in the idea that the word 
came from the South^ or was first applied by 
southern people. 

3. They are alike in the idea that the word 
was coined for the purpose of designating 
Indiana people, and was not in existence 
before it was applied to them. 

If our primary suspicion be correct, that 
all the investigators and theorists have fol- 
lowed some false lead from the beginning, 
it will presumably be found in one of these 
three common features. Of the three, the 
one that would more probably have been de^ 
rived from assumption than from observation 
is the third. If we adopt the hypothesis 
that it is erroneous, we have left the propo- 
sition that the word "hoosier," was in use 
at the South, signifying a rough or uncouth 
person, before it was applied to Indiana ; and 
if this were true it would presumably con- 
tinue to be used there in that sense. Now 
this condition actually exists, as appears 
from the following evidence. 

In her recent novel, "In Connection with 
the De Willoughby Claim, ' ' • Mrs. Frances 
Hodgson Burnett refers several times to one 
of her characters — a boy from North Caro- 
lina — as a ' ' hoosier. ' ' In reply to an inquiry 
she writes to me : 

"The word 'hoosier' in Tennessee and 
North Carolina seems to imply, as you sug- 
gest, an uncouth sort ' of rustic. In the 
days when I first heard it my idea was also 
that — in agreement with you again — it was a 
slang term. I think a Tennesseean or Caro- 
linian vof the class given to colloquialisms 
would have applied the term 'hoosier' to any 
rustic person without reference to his belong- 
ing to any locality in particular. But when 



I lived in Tennessee I was very young and 
did not inquire closely into the matter." 

Mrs. C. W. Bean, of Washington, Ind., 
furnishes me this statement: 

"In the year 1888, as a child, I visited 
Nashville, Tenn. One day I was walking 
down the street with two of my aunts, and 
our attention was attracted by a large 
number of mountaineers on the streets, 
mostly from northern Georgia, who had come 
in to some sort of society meeting. One of 
my aunts said, 'What a lot of hoosiers there 
are in town.' In surprise I said, 'Why I am 
a Iloosier. ' A horrified look came over my 
aunt's face and she exclaimed, 'For the 
Lord's sake, child, don't let any one here 
know you're a hoosier. ' I did not make the 
claim again for on inspection the visitors 
proved a wild-looking lot who might be sus- 
pected of never having seen civilization be- 

Miss Mary E. Johnson, of Nashville, Tenn., 
gives the following statement : 

"I have been familiar with the use of the 
word 'hoosier' all my life, and always as 
meaning a rough class of country people. 
The idea attached to it, as I understand it, 
is not so much that they are from the coun- 
try, as that they are green and gawky. I 
think the sense is much the same as in 'hay- 
seed.' 'jay' or 'yahoo.' " 

Hon. Thetus W. Sims, Representative in 
Congress from the Tenth Tennessee district, 
says : 

"I have heard all my life of the word 
'hoosier' as applied to an ignorant, rough, 
unpolished fellow. ' ' 

Mrs. Samuel M. Deal (formerly Miss Mary 
L. Davis of Indianapolis) gives me this state- 
ment : 

"While visiting in Columbia, S. C, I was 
walking one day with a young gentleman, and 
we passed a rough-looking countryman. 'My! 
what a hoosier," exclaimed my escort. 'That 
is a very noble term to apply to such an 
ob.ject,' i said. 'Why so?' he inquired. 'Why 
I am a Hoosier — all Indiana people are,' I 
answered. ' Oh ! we do not use it in that sense 
here,' he rejoined. 'With us a hoosier means 
a jay.' " 

The following three statements were fur- 
nished to me by Mr. Meredith Nicholson, 
who collected them some montlLs since: 

John Bell Henneman, of the department 
of English, University of Tennessee, Knox- 
ville, writes : 

"The word 'hoosier' is generally used in 
Virginia, South Carolina, Tennessee as an 
equivalent for ' a country hoodlum, ' ' a rough, 
uncouth countryman,' etc. The idea of 
'country' is always attached to it in my 
mind, with a degree of 'uncouthness' added. 
I simply speak from my general understand- 
ing of the term as heard used in the States 
mentioned above." 

Mr. Raymond Weeks, of Columbia, Mo., 
writes : 

"Pardon my delay in answering your 
question concerning the word 'hoosier' in 
this section. The word means a native of 
Indiana, and has a rare popular sense of a 
backwoodsman, a rustic. One hears: 'He 
is a regular hoosier. ' ' ' 

Mrs. John M. Judah, of Memphis, writes: 

"About the word 'Hoosier' — one hears it 
in Tennessee often. It always means rough, 
uncouth, countrified. 'I am a Hoosier,' I 
have said, and my friends answer bewilder- 
ingly, 'But all Indiana-born are Hoosiers,' 
I declare, 'What nonsense!' is the answer 
generally, but one old politician responded 
with a little more intelligence on the subject : 
'You Indianians should forget that. It has 
been untrue for many years.' In one of Mrs. 
Evans's novels — 'St. Elmo,' I think — a 
noble philanthropic young southern woman 
is reproached by her haughty father ioj 
teaching the poor childfen in thf iieiyhbin 
hood^'a lot of hoosiers,' he calls them. I 
have seen it in other books, too, but I can 
not recall them. In newspapers the word is 
common enough, in the sense I referred to." 

It is scarcely possible that this widespread 
use of the word in this general sense could 
have resulted if the word had been coined 
to signify a native of Indiana, but it would 
have been natural enough, if the word were 
in common use as slang in the South, to ap- 
ply it to the people of Indiana. ]\lany of 
the early settlers were of a rough and ready 
character, and doubtless most of them looked 
it in their long and toilsome emigration, but, 
more than that, it is an historical fact that 
about the time of the publication of Finley's 
poem there was a great fad of nicknaming 
in the West, and especially as to the several 
States. It was a feature of the humor of the 
day, and all genial spirits "pushed it along." 
A good illustration of this is seen in the 
following passage from HotTma.n's "Winter 
in tlie West ' ''^ referred to above : 

a. Published in 1835, Vol. I, page 210. 



''There was a long-haired 'hooshier' from 
Indiana, a couple of .smart-looking 'suckers' 
from the southern part of Illinois, a keen- 
eyed, leather-belted 'badger' from the mines 
of Ouisconsin, and a sturdy, yeomanlike fel- 
low, whose white capot. Indian moccasins and 
red sash proclaimed, while he boasted a three 
years' residence, the genuine 'wolverine,' or 
naturalized Michiganian. Could one refuse 
to drink with such a company? The spokes- 
man was evidently a 'red horse' from Ken- 
tucky, and nothing was wanting but a 'buck- 
eye' from Ohio to render the assemblage as 
complete as it was select." 

This same frontier jocularity furnishes an 
explanation for the origin of several of the 
theories of the derivation of the name. If an 
assuming sort of person, in a crowd accus- 
tomed to the use of "hoosier" in its general 
slang sense, should pretentiously announce 
that he was a ' ' husher, " or a " hussar, ' ' noth- 
ing would be more characteristically Ameri- 
can than for somebody to observe, "He is a 
hoosier, sure enough. ' ' And the victim of the 
little pleasantry would naturally suppose that 
the joker had made a mistake in the term. 
But the significance of the word nuist have 
been quite generally understood, for the 
testimony is uniform that it carried its slur- 
ring significance from the start. Still it was 
not materially more objectionable than the 
names applied to the people of other States, 
and it was commonly accepted in the spirit 
of humor. As JMr. Finley put it, in later 
forms of his poem: 

With feelings proud we contemplate 
The rising glory of our State; 
Nor take offense by application 
Of its good-natured appellation. 

It appears that the word was not generally 
known throughout the State until after the 
publication of "The Iloosiers' Nest," though 
it was known earlier in some localities, and 
these localities were points of contact with 
the southern people. And this was true as 
to Mr. Finley 's locality, for the upper part 
of the Whitewater valley was largely settled 
by Southerners, and from the Tennessee-Car- 
olina mountain region, where the word was 
especially in use. Such settlements had a cer- 
tain individuality. In his "Sketches" (page 
38) the Rev. Aaron Wood says-. 

"Previous to 1830 society was not homo- 
geneous, but in scraps, made so by the elec- 
tic affinity of race, tastes, sects and interest. 

There was a wide difference in the domestic 
habits of the families peculiar to the provin- 
cial gossip, dialect and tastes of the older 
States from which they had emigrated." 

The tradition of my own family, which was 
located in the lower part of the Whitewater 
valley, is that the word was not heard there 
until "along in the thirties." In that region 
it always carried the idea of roughness or 
uncouthness. and it developed a derivative — 
"hoosiery" — which was used as an adjective 
or adverb to indicate something that was 
rough, awkward or shiftless. Testimony as 
to a similar condition in the middle part of 
the Whitewater valley is furnished in the fol- 
lowing statement, given me by the Rev. T. A. 
Goodwin : 

"In the summer of 1830 I went with my 
father, Samuel Goodwin, from our home at 
Brookville to Cincinnati. We traveled in an 
old-fashioned one-horse Dearborn wagon.. I 
was a boy of twelve years and it was a great 
occasion for me. At Cincinnati I had a fip 
for a treat, and at that time there was noth- 
ing I relished so much as one of those big 
pieces of gingerbread that were served as re- 
freshment on nnister days. Fourth of July 
and other gala occasions, in connection with 
cider. I went into a baker's shop and asked 
for 'a fip's worth of gingerbread.' The man 
said, 'I guess you want hoosier-bait, ' and 
when he produced it I found that he had the 
right idea. That was the first time I ever 
heard the word 'hoosier,' but in a' few years 
it became quite commonly applied to Indiana 
people. 'The gingerbread referred to was 
cooked in square pans — about fifteen inches 
across, I should think — and with furrows 
marked across the top, dividing it into quar- 
ter-sections. A quarter-section sold for a fip, 
which was 6i^ cents. It is an odd fact that 
when Hosier J. Durbin joined the Indiana 
IMethodist Conference, in 1835, his name was 
misspelled 'Hoosier' in the minutes, and w^as 
so printed. The word 'Hoosier' always had 
the sense of roughness or uncouthness in its 
early use. ' ' 

At the time this statement was made, 
neither Mr. Goodwin nor I knew of the ex- 
istence of the last four lines of Finley 's poem, 
in which this same term "hoosier-bait" oc- 
curs, they being omitted in all the ordinary 
forms of the poem. The derivation of this 
term is obvious, whether "bait" be taken in 
its sense of a lure or its sense of food. It 
was simply something that "hoosiers" were 



fond of, and its application was natural at 
a time when the ideal of happiness was "a 
country-boy with a hunk of gingerbread." 

After the word had been applied to In- 
diana, and had entered on its double-sense 
stage, writers who were familiar with both 
uses distinguished between them by making 
it a proper noun when Indiana was referred 
to. An illustration of this is seen in the 
writings of J. S. Robb, author of "The 
Swamp Doctor in the Southwest" and other 
humorous sketches, published in 1843. He 
refei*s to Indiana as "the Hoosier state," but 
in a sketch of an eccentric St. Louis char- 
acter he writes thus: 

"One day, opposite the Planter's House, 
during a military parade, George was en- 
gaged in selling his edition of the Advocate 
of Truth, when a tall hoosier, who had been 
gazing at him with astonishment for some 
time, roared out in an immoderate fit of 

" 'What do you see so funny in me to 
laugh at?' inquired George. 

" 'Why, boss,' said the hoo.sier, 'I wur jest 
a thinkin' ef I'd seed you out in the woods, 
with all that har on, they would a been the 
d — dest runnin' done by this 'coon ever seen 
in them diggins — you're ekill to the ele- 
phant ! and a leetle the haryest small man 
I've seen scart up lately.' " 

Unfortunately, however, not many writers 
were familiar with the double use of the word, 
and the distinction has gradually died out, 
while persistent assertions that the word was 
coined to designate Indiana people have 
loaded on them all the odium for the signifi- 
cance that the word has anywhere. 

The real problem of the derivation of the 
woixl "hoosier," is not a question of the 
origin of a word formed to designate the 
state of Indiana and its people, but of the 
origin of a slang term widely in use in the 
South, signifying an uncouth rustic. There 
seems never to have been any attempt at a 
rational philological derivation, unless we 
may so account Mr. Charles G. Leland's re- 
marks in Barriere and Leland's "Dictionary 
of Slang, Jargon and Cant," which are as 
follows : 

"Hoosier (American). A nickname given 
to natives of Indiana. Bartlett cites from the 
Providence Journal a story which has the ap- 
pearance of being an after-manufacture to 
suit the name, deriving hoosier from 'husher 
— from their primary capacity to still their 

opponents.' He also asserts that the Ken- 
tuckians maintained that the nickname ex- 
presses the exclamation of an Indianian when 
he knocks at a door and exclaims 'Who's 
yere ? ' However, the word originally was not 
hoosier at all, but hoosieroon, or hoosheroon, 
hoosier being an abbreviation of this. I can 
remember that in 1834, having read of hoos- 
iers, and spoken of them, a boy from the West 
corrected me, and said that the word was 
properly hoosieroon. This would indicate a 
Spanish origin." 

The source of Mr. Leland's error is plain. 
"Hoosieroon" was undoubtedly coined by 
Mr. Finley to designate a Hoosier child, and 
what the boy probably told Mr. Leland was 
that the name to apply properly to him would 
be Hoosieroon. But that alone would not 
dispose wholly of the Spanish suggestion, for 
"oon" or "on" is not only a Spanish ending, 
but is a Spanish diminutive indicating blood 
relation. In reality, however, ]\Ir. Finley did 
not understand Spanish, and the ending was 
probably suggested to him by quadroon and 
octoroon, which, of course, were in general use. 
There is no Spanish word that would give 
any suggestion of "hoosier." The only other 
language of continental Europe that could 
be looked to for its origin would be French, 
but there is no French word approaching it 
except, perhaps, "huche," which means a 
kneading trough, and there is no probability 
of derivation from that."" 

In fact, "hoosier" carries Anglo-Saxon 
credentials. It is Anglo-Saxon in form and 
Anglo-Saxon in ring. If it came from any 
foreign language, it has been thoroughly 
anglicized. And in considering its derivation 
it is to be remembered that the Southerners 
have always had a remarkable faculty for 
creating new words and modifying old ones. 
Anyone who has noted the advent of "snolly- 
goster" in the present generation, or has read 
Longstreet's elucidation of "fescue," "abis- 
selfa, " and "anpersant"'' will readily con- 
cede that. And in this connection it is to 
be observed that the word "yahoo" has long 
been in use in Southern slang, in almost ex- 
actly the same sense as "hoosier," and the 
latter word may possibly have developed from 
its last syllable. We have a very common 
slang word in the North — "yap" — with the 
same signification, which may have come from 
the same source, though more probably from 

a. But see the French "hiiissier," supra. 

b. Georgia Scenes, page 73. 



the provincial EngiLsh "yap," to yelp or 
bark. "Yahoo" is commonly said to have 
been coined by Swift, but there is a possi- 
bility that it was in slang use in his day. 

It is very probable that the chief cause of 
the absence of conjectures of the derivation 
of "Hoosier" from an English stem was the 
lack in our dictionaries of any w^ord from 
which it could be supposed to come, and it is 
a singular fact that in our latest dictionaries 
— the Standard and the Centurj^ — there ap- 
pears the word "hoose, " which has been in 
juse for centuries in England. It is used now 
to denote a disease common to calves, similar 
to the g-apes in chickens, caused by the lodg- 
ment of worms in the throat. The symptoms 
of this disease include staring eyes, rough 
coat Avith hair turned backward, and hoarse 
wheezing. So forlorn an aspect might readily 
suggest giving the name "hooser" or "hoo- 
sier" to an uncouth, rough-looking person. 
In this country, for some reason, this disease 
has been known only by the name of the worm 
that causes it — "strongjdus micrurus" — it 
sounds very much like "strangle us marcus" 
as the veterinarians pronounce it — but in 
England "hoose" is the common name. This 
word is from a very strong old stem. Halli- 
well, in his "Dictionary of Archaic and Pro- 
vincial Words," D-ives "hooze" and "lioors," 
and states that "hoos" occurs in the "Promp- 
torium Parvulorum," and "hoozy" in the 
"Cornwall Glossary." the latter being used 
also in Devonshire. Palmer, in his "Foik- 
Etymology," says that "hoarst — a Lincoln- 
shire word for a cold on the chest, as if that 
which makes one hoarse," is a corruption of 
the Old "host." a cous'h, Danish 
'^hoste," Dutch, "hoeste," Anglo-Saxon, 
"hweost," a wheeziness; and refers to Old 
English "hoose," to cough, and Cleveland 
"hooze," to wheeze. Descriptions of the effect 
of hoose on the appearance of animals will be 
found in Armatage's "Cattle Doctor," and in 
the "Transactions of the Highland Society of 
Scotland," fourth series. Vol. 10, at page 206. 

There is also a possibility of a geographical 
origin for the word, for there is a coast parish 
of Cheshire, England; about seven miles west 
of Liverpool, named Hoose. The naii;e prob- 
ably refers to the cliffs in the vicinity, for 
"hoo." which occurs both in composition and 
independently in old English names of places, 
is a Saxon word .signifying high. However, 
this is an obscure parish, and no special pe- 
culiarity of the people is known that would 

probably give rise to a distinctive name for 

There is one other possibility that is 
worthy of mention — that the word may come 
to us through England from the Hindoo. In 
India there is in general use a word com- 
monly written "huzur," which is a respectful 
form of address to persons of rank or su- 
periority. In "The Potter's Thumb" Mrs. 
Steel writes it "hoozur. " Akin to it is 
"housha," the title of a village authority in 
Bengal. It may seem impossible that "hoo- 
sier" could come from so far off a source, 
and yet it is almost certain that our slang 
word "fakir," and its derivative verb 
"fake," came from the Hindoo through Eng- 
land, whither for many years people of all 
classes have been returning from Indian 
service. It is even more certain that the word 
"khaki" was introduced from India, and 
passed into general use in English and Amer- 
ican nui-series long before khaki-cloth was 
knoAATi to us. 

As a matter of fact, words pass from one 
language to another in slang very readily. 
For example, throughout Eno^iand and Amer- 
ica a kidnapper is said in thieves' slang to 
be "on the kinchin lay," and it can scarcely 
be c{uestioned that this word is direct from 
the German "kindchen." The change in 
meaning from "huzur" to "hoosier" would 
be explicable by the outlandish dress and 
looks of the Indian grandees from a native 
English standpoint, and one might naturally 
say of an uncouth person, "He looks like a 
huzur. ' ' 

It is not my purpose to urge that any one 
of these suggested possibilities of derivation 
is preferable to the other, or to assert that 
there may not be other and more rational 
ones. It is sufficient to have pointed out that 
there are abundant sources from which the 
word may have been derived. The essential 
point is that Indiana and her people had 
nothing whatever to do with its origin or its 
signification. It was applied to us in raillery, 
and our only connection with it is that we 
have meekly borne it for some three score 
years and ten, and have made it widely rec- 
ognized as a badge of honor, rather than a 
term of reproach. 

Addenchim, February. 1907. The greater 
part of the preceding was published in the 
Indianapolis News of Aug. 23 and 30, 1902. 
Afterwards I rewrote and enlarged it. Since 



then tliere have appeared two publications 
which threw some additional light on the 
subject. One of these is an account of Col. 
Lehraanowsky. purporting to be autobio- 
graphical, published under the title, "Under 
Two Captains," by Rev. W. A. Sadtler, 
Ph.D., of Philadelphia. This demonstrates 
that Lehmanowsky believed he originated the 
word, for he gives the following account of it : 
"In this connection I may mention an 
amusing incident that occurred somewhat 
later in a town in Kentucky, where I hap- 
pened for a day or two. There was a drunk- 
en brawl in progress on the street, and as 
quite a number were involved in it, the people 
witli whom I was speaking began to be 
alarmed. I remarked just then that a few 
hussars would soon quiet them. My remark 
was caught up by some bystander, and the 
word hussar construed to mean the men of 
the State of Indiana (from which I had just 
come), and thus the word 'Hoosier' came 
into existence. Such is the irony of fate! 
Learned men have labored long to introduce 
some favored word of the most approved 
classic derivation, and as a rule have failed. 
Here a chance word of mine, miscalled by an 
ignorant loafer, catches the popular fancy 
and passes into Literature."'* 

At the same time he furnishes conclusive 
evidence that he did not originate it, for he 
says that he did not leave Washington 
for the West until the spring of 1833; that 
he \tent as far as Ohio with his family and 
passed the winter of 1833-4 in the state,^ 
reaching Indiana the next spring, or more 
than a year after "The Hoo.sier's Nest" had 
appeared in print. His story, as given above, 
locates the incident at a still later date. 

The other publication is the third volume 
of The English Dialect Dictionary, in which 
appears the following: 

"HoozER, Cum. 4 (hu-zer) said of any- 
thing unusually large." 

The "Cum 4" is a reference to "A Glos- 
sarv of the Words and Phrases pertaining to 
the Dialect of Cumberland"; edition of 1899. 

Although I had long been convinced that 
"hoosier," or some word closely resembling 
it, must be a,n old English dialect or slang 
word, I had never found any trace of a 
similar substantive with this ending until in 
this publication, and, in my opinion, this 
word "hoozer" is the original form of our 


Pages 188-9. 
Pages 182-5. 

"hoosier." It evidently harks back to the 
Anglo-Saxon "hoo" for its derivation. It 
might naturailly signify a hill-dweller or 
highlander as well as something large, but 
either w^ould easily give rise to the derivative 
idea of uncouthness and rusticity. 

There is a suggestiveness in the fact that it 
is Cumberland dialect. The very center of 
hoosierdom in the South is the Cumber- 
land plateau with its associated Cumberland 
mountains, Cumberland river, Cumberland 
gap, and Cumberland Presbyterianism. The 
name Cumberland in these, however, is hon- 
orary in origin, the river and mountains hav- 
ing been named for that Duke of Cumber- 
land who is known to the Scotch as "The 
Butcher of Culloden." But many of the set- 
tlers of this region, or their immediate fore- 
bears, were from Cumberland county, Eng- 
land, and so "hoozer" Avas a natural importa- 
tion to the region. Thence it was probably 
brought to iLS by their migratory dascendants, 
ma.ny of whom settled in the upper White- 
water valley — the home of John Finley. 

Since the publication of the foregoing pa- 
per, Mr. Dunn has written the following sup- 
plementary statement, which appeared in the 
Indianapolis Star, under date of June 2, 
1907 : 

"The recent publication by the Indiana 
Historical Society of a pamphlet on the origin 
of the word 'Hoosier' has caused a revival 
of interest in that mysterious subject, and 
several noteworthy points have been brought 
to light. One writer calls attention to the fact 
that in the early book descriptive of Indiana, 
entitled 'The New Purchase,' the word 
'Hoosierina' is used for a female resident 
of the State. This is evidently a coinage of 
the author of the book, and one that did not 
meet with popular favor, as it is not known 
to have been used elsewhere. 

"Another writer suggests that the word 
comes from the French 'huissier' meaning 
an usher or bailiff. This suggestion has been 
made before (Indiana Quarterly ]\Iagazine of 
History, Vol. 1, p. 94), but it is hardly with- 
in the bounds of possibility. The transition 
would have to come through pronunciation, 
and the pronunciation of 'huissier' is prac- 



tieally wees-se-ay, which has no resemblance 
to 'Hoosier. ' 

"The most interesting fact is bronght for- 
ward by Judge Timothy E. Howard of Sonth 
Bend, who has been engaged in preparing a 
local history, and has found a use of the word 
in print earlier than the publication of Fin- 
ley's ' Hoosier 's Nest.' It occurs in a South 
Bend newspaper called the Northwestern Pio- 
neer and St. Joseph's Intelligencer, in the is- 
sue of April 4, 1832, and is as follows: 

'' 'A REAL HOOSIER. A sturgeon, who, 
no doubt, left Lake Michigan on a trip of 
pleasure, with a view of spending a few days 
in the pure waters of the St. Joseph, had his 
joyous anticipations unexpectedly marred by 
running foul of a fisherman's spear near this 
place — being brought on terra firma and cast 
into a balance he was found to weigh 83 
pounds. ' 

"This paper was published at the time by 
John D. Defrees and his brother Joseph H. 
Defrees, both prominent in early Indiana his- 
tory, and both natives of Tennessee. The use 
of the word here confirms the theory of the 
pamphlet that 'Hoosier' was not coined to 
designate a native or resident of Indiana, but 
was a slang word in common use at the time 
in the South, signifying a rough, uncouth 
countryman; and that it was probably used 
verbally as a nickname for Indianians for 
several years before it was put in print, but 
not so univei-sally as afterwards. 

"The Defrees brothers were presumably 
familiar with the Southern use as well as its 
nickname application; and what did they 
mean by calling a sturgeon a 'real' Hoosier? 
Certainly not a 'real' resident of Indiana, 
for they speak of him as a visitor from Lake 
Michigan. The obvious idea is that he is a 
'real' big, rough fellow; and that therefore 
the name is appropriate to be applied to him. 
So far as now known this is the earliest ap- 
pearance of the word in print, and Judge 
Howard holds the record for successful origi- 
nal research in this line." 

Two distinguished Indianians have done 
much to give dignity and honor to the namt,' 

of Hoosier- — James Whitcomb Riley, by ac- 
cepting and gracefully wearing the title of 
' ' The Hoosier Poet ' ' ; and Governor Claude 
Matthews, by everywhere and always pro- 
claiming his love for and pride in the name. 
In the dedication of the Indiana building, at 
the Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893, the 
governor introduced Mr. Riley to that world 
audience in the following noble words : 

"If there be one characteristic above an- 
other for which the citizen of Indiana may be 
noted, it is his love of home — whether that 
may be the splendid mansion in the busy 
center — the farm house mid the smiling fields 
of grain and shaded pasture, or the cabins of 
our fathers in the deep umbrageous forest. 
It comes to us an inheritance from the 'Hoo- 
sier' pioneer who braved the unknown dan- 
gers of the forest, not with the greed of gain 
his sole absorbing thought, but with his soul 
filled with the noblest inspiration of our race, 
to build a home that he might leave a goodly 
inheritance to his children. I mentioned to 
.you the name of 'Hoosier' by which the citi- 
zen of Indiana is known far and near. I re- 
gret there are a few whose eai*s have grown 
so fastidious, that the name offends, but as 
for me I love the name and honor it. It is 
the synonym of sturdy manhood, untiring 
energy, sterling integrity, unflinching cour- 
age and a hospitality so broad and generous 
that has not its superior in all the world. 
It was the strong right arm of the 'Hoosier' 
that felled the forest, bridged the rivere, 
pushed for\vard roads over hill, throug'h 
prairie and marsh, and laid the foundation 
of an empire in the grandeur of their state. 
We love him who can paint the picture of the 
humble life: find a poem in 'the simple an- 
nals of the poor,' and sing the sacred home 
songs of his people. None other has ever 
done this better than the Hoosier poet, James 
Whitcomb Rilev of Indiana." 

Note. — The foregoing chapter, giving a 
brief outline of the history of Indiana, pre- 
vious to and including the organization of the 
state government, seemed a necessary intro- 
duction to the history of St. Joseph county. 
The relations of the county to the state are ^ 
exceedingly intimate, and an adequate knowl- 
edge of the county, as a political organiza- 
tion, and in its historical relations could 
hardly be had without a preliminary knowl- 
edge of the commonwealth of which the 
county forms so important a subdivision. 




Sec. 1. — Sources of Our Civilization. — 
Civilization, as we have seen in the preceding 
chapter, came to Indiana by way of the 
South and Southeast, from Kentucky, Vir- 
ginia, Pennsylvania and the Carolinas. To 
St. Joseph county, however, civilization came 
rather from the North and Northeast, from 
the same sources, indeed, as it came to south- 
western Michigan, to which the greater part 
of our county was so long attached. Our 
earliest traditions run back to France; at 
first, by way of the St. Joseph river. Lake 
iMichigan and the Straits of Mackinaw, and 
afterwards through the interior of Michigan, 
from Detroit, and on through Canada from 
Montreal and Quebec. Later, and when our 
first permanent population began to arrive, 
our connections were chiefly with Fort Wayne 
and Detroit, both also French settlements. 

By the treaty of Greenville, August ?., 
1795, almost the whole of Indiana, including 
all the north part of the state, except a 
tract six miles square at Fort Wayne, one 
two miles square at the portage between the 
Wabash and IMaumee, and another six miles 
square at Ouiatanon, near Lafayette, was con- 
firmed to the various Indian tribes then occu- 
pying the same. By successive treaties, ex- 
tending down as late as t*lie year 1840, those 
Indian titles, as related in the last chapter, 
were extinguished. Settlers piLshed in from 
the east, the south and the north, and also 
from Europe, as fast as the Indians retired. 

Sec. 2.— The French Traders.— But in 

advance of the settlers, and while the Indians 
still remained, the hunters and fur traders 
penetrated into the wilderness. Those himt- 
ers and tradei-s, as we have seen, were at first 
French. Many of the early adventurers had 
their headquarters at Detroit and Mackinaw ; 
others mingled with the Indians and rambled 
over the whole northwest. These last were a 
famous class of hunters and traders, known 
to the French as coureurs des bois (forest 
rangers), and penetrated to the most secret 
recesses of the wilderness. As in other cases, 
there were enterprising and ambitious men 
among those adventurers, men who sought 
their fortunes in the fur trade with the In- 
dians, as in succeeding generations others 
sought wealth in the mines of California. 
This trade, says Dillon", was carried on by 
means of men hired to manage small vessels 
on the lakes, and canoes along the shores of 
the lakes and on the rivers, and to carry 
burdens of merchandivse from the different 
trading posts to the principal villages of tlie 
Indians who were on friendly terms witli 
French. At those places the traders ex- 
changed their wares foi- valuable fufs. with 
which they returned lo their trading posts. 
The articles used in trade by the French were 
chiefiy coarse blue and ivd cloths, fine scarlet, 
ii'uns, powder, balls, knives, hatchets, traps, 
kettles, hoes, blankets, cottons, ribbons, beads, 
vermilion, tobacco and li(in()i-s. The poorer 
traders sometimes eai'ried theii- packs of mer- 
chandise bv means of leather straps attached 

a. Hist. Indiana, pp. 20, 21. 




to their shoulders, or with the straps resting 
against their foreheads. It is probable that 
some of the Indian villages on the St. Joseph 
and the Wa.bash were visited by this class 
of traders before the founding of Kaskaskia 
or Vincennes. The learned Bishop Brute 
has expressed the opinion that missionaries 
and traders, before the close of the seven- 
teenth century, passed to the south from the 
St. Joseph river, leaving the Kankakee to the 
west, "and visited the Tippecanoe, the Eel 
river, and the upper parts of the Wabash." 

"It was the fur trade, in fact," says 
Washington Irving, "^ "which gave early sus- 
tenance and vitality to the great Canadian 
provinces. Being destitute of the precious 
metals, at that time the leading objects of 
American enterprise, they were long neglected 
by the parent country. The French adven- 
turere, however, who had settled on the banks 
of the St. Lawrence, soon found that in the 
rich peltries of the interior, they had sources 
of wealth that might almost rival the mines 
of Mexico and Peru. The Indians, as yet un- 
acquainted with the artificial value given to 
some descriptions of furs, in civilized life, 
brought quantities of the most precious kinds 
and bartered them away for European trink- 
ets and cheap commodities. Immense profits 
were thus made by the early traders, and the 
traffic was pursued with avidit3^" 

Sec. 3. — The British Policy in Relation 
TO THE Fur Trade. — So valuable had become 
the fur trade of the northwest that after the 
treaty of Paris, February 10, 1763, and the 
transfer of this immense region from France 
to England, the British government declined 
to organize any form of government for the 
territory, or to allow any settlers within its 
limits, but determined to leave it wholly to 
the Indians, so as to protect the fur bearing 
animals and make of the country a vast hunt- 
ing reservation. 

On October 7, 1763, George III issued a 
proclamation, providing for colonial govern- 
ments for the countries acquired from 

a. Irving's Astoria, p. 2. 

France ; but making no provision for the gov- 
ernment of the northwest. Nor was this omis- 
sion an oversight, but intentional. "The 
purpose," says Poole in his history of 
the west,'^ "was to reserve as crown lands the 
northwest territory, the region north of 
the great lakes, and the country between the 
Alleghenies and the Mississippi, and to ex- 
clude them from settlement by the American 
colonies. They were left, for the time being, 
to the undisputed possession of the savage 
tribes. The King's 'loving subjects' were 
forbidden making purchases of land from the 
Indians, or forming any settlements west- 
ward of the sources of the rivers which fall 
into the sea from the west and northwest; 
'and all persons w^ho have wilfully or inad- 
vertently seated themselves upon any lands 
west of the limit' were warned forthwith to 
remove themselves from such settlements." 
The government declared its purpose to be, 
to confine the colonies to the region along 
the Atlantic coast, so that they should be 
within easy .reach of "the trade and com- 
merce of this kingdom"; and also in order 
that they might be subject to "the exercise 
of that authority and jurisdiction which was 
conceived to be necessary for the preserva- 
tion of the colonies in a due subordination to 
and dependence upon the mother country." 
The further extraordinary statement was 
made in this royal declaration :^ ' ' The great 
object of colonizing upon the continent of 
North America has been to improve and ex- 
tend the commerce, navigation and manufac- 
tures of this kingdom. ... It does appear 
to us that the extension of the fur trade de- 
pends entirely upon the Indians being undis- 
turbed in the possession of their hunting- 
grounds; and that all colonizing does in its 
nature, and must in its consequences, operate 
to the prejudice of that branch of commerce. 

a. W. F. Poole, The West, from 1763 to 1783 
(Hist. Am., Vol VI, Chap. 9). 

b. Report of the Lords Commissioners for 
Trade and Plantations, in 1772, on the petition of 
Thomas Walpole and others for a grant of land 
on the Ohio. 



. . . Let the savages enjoy their deserts 
in quiet. "Were they driven from their for- 
ests the peltry trade -would decrease. ' ' Such 
was the cold and selfish policy which the 
British crown and its ministers habitually 
pursued towards the American colonies; and 
in a few years this policy changed loyalty 
into hate, and brought on the American Rev- 

However reprehensible the motive of the 
British government, in thus preventing the 
settlement of the fertile lands of the north- 
west, it is nevertheless plain from this action 
that the value of the fur trade to the com- 
merce of the mother country must have been 
exceedingly great. Such an extensive hunting 
preserve as this northwest territory and the 
vast countries north and west of Lake Supe- 
rior was perhaps never since or before de- 
liberately set apart by any government. Ac- 
cording to the records of the custom house 
at Quebec, the value of the furs and peltries 
exported from Canada, in the year 1786, was 
estimated at the sum of two hundred and 
twenty-five thousand, nine hundred and sev- 
enty-seven pounds sterling, or nearly a mil- 
lion and a quarter dollars.^ 

Sec. 4. — The Great Fur Companies. — To 
control this profitable indiLstry various pow- 
erful companies were organized in England 
and Canada, and afterwards in the United 
States. In 1670, the Hudson Bay Company 
was chartered by Charles II, and the com- 
pany has continued to our own day. Until 
the acquisition of Canada by Great Britain, 
in 1763, there were almost constant disputes 
between the agents of the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany and the French merchants and coureurs 
des bois. In 1783, some merchants of Mon- 
treal began the formation of a like company, 
which, in 1787, became merged wdth a rival 
company, and thus formed the famous North- 
west Company, which for years held bound- 
less sway over the fur trade of the west. This 
company for many years held its gorgeous 

a. Poole. lb. 

b. Dillon, Hist. Indiana, p. 397. 

annual conferences at Fort William, near the 
Grand Portage, on Lake Superior; where the 
merchants from Montreal met the hunters 
and traders from all the northwest. These 
conferences are said to have been the occa- 
sion of magnificent winter entertainments, of 
almost regal splendor. Another company of 
like character was the j\Iackinaw Company, 
which took in the country to the south of that 
controlled by the Hudson Bay and the North- 
west Companies. 

After the establishment of American in- 
dependence, our government sought to check 
the operations of those British and Canadian 
companies within the territory of the United 
States. But it would seem that governmental 
supervision was no match for the skillful, 
persistent personal activity of the members 
and agents of the companies. It was during 
this time, in 1783, that John Jacob Astor, 
a young German, emigrated from Europe. 
Here he met a countr^onan, a furrier by 
trade ; and then and there began the gi'eat 
Astor fur industry. In 1809, Mr. Astor ob- 
tained a charter from the legislature of New 
York, incorporating the American Fur Com- 
pany. In his enterprise he had the good will 
and active co-operation of the American gov- 
ernment. In 1811, the interests of the Mack- 
inaw Company, within United States terri- 
tory, were practically absorbed by the Ameri- 
can Fur Company; and thereafter, for many 
years, this company controlled the fur trade 
of the northwest, and became a potent factor 
in the development of that territory." To 
the American Fur Company and its agents 
St. Joseph county is directly indebted for its 
first permanent settlement. 

The fur trade willi the Indians of this 
vicinity, while in the early days carried on by 
way of Lake Michigan and the Straits of 
Mackinaw was, after the establishment of the 
American Fur Company, conducted chiefly 
by agents from Detroit and Fort Wayne. The 
furs and peltries which were obtained from 
the Indians were generally transported to De- 

a. Irving's Astoria, pp. 1-23. 



troit. The skins were dried, compressed and 
secured in packs. Each pack weighed about 
one hundred pounds. A pirogue, or boat, 
that was sufficiently large to carry forty paclvs, 
required the labor of four men to manage 
it on its voyage. In favorable stages of the 
Wabash river, such a vessel, under the man- 
agement of skillful boatmen, was propelled 
fifteen or twenty miles a day against the cur- 
rent. After ascending the river Wabash and 
the Little river to the portage near Fort 
Wayne, the traders carried their packs over 
the portage to the head of the river j\Iaumee, 
where they were again placed in pirogues, 
or in keel boats, to be transported to De- 
troit. At that place the furs and skins were 
exchanged for blankets, guns, knives, pow- 
der, bullets, intoxicating liquors, etc., with 
which the traders returned to their several 
posts. The Indian hunter had long before 
exchanged his bow and arrows for the white 
man's fire arms. Bullets were valued at four 
dollars per hundred and powder at one dollar 
a pint.* 


After the destruction of Fort St. Joseph's 
by the Spaniards, in 1781, and before any 
settlement was made in St. Joseph county, 
three traders of more than usual enterpris'^ 
established themselves at points on the river 
below the limits of this county. Mr. George 
A. Baker, the industrious secretary of the 
Northern Indiana Historical Society, has 
gleaned many interesting facts in the history 
of these worthies, some of which may appro- 
priately find a place in this connection.^ 

Sec. 1. — Leclare. — Antoine Leclare, a 
native of Montreal, was the blacksmith em- 
ployed by the English government, in 1780, 
at Fort St. Joseph's, and was at the fort, in 
1781, at the time of its capture by the Span- 
iards. He was mustered out of service at De- 
troit, with the garrison and other employe.?, 

a. Dillon, Hist. Indiana, p. 397. 
h. In the South Bend Sunday News, October 13, 

in the fall of that year. Afterwards he re- 
turned to the vicinity of the old fort, and 
located in the Parkovash, a few miles up the 
river from the site of the fort. Here he 
built a cabin, bought furs of the Indians 
and worked at his trade. He was married 
to an Indian woman ; and a son of his, Fran- 
cis Leclare, was one of the most trusted in- 
terpreters in the service of the United States. 
Antoine Leclare removed to Milwaiikee in 
1800, and therfe devoted himself exclusively 
to the fur trade, in which he became very 
successful. In the spring of each year he 
went to Detroit in a small sailing vessel, tak- 
ing his load of furs, and also carrying furs 
for William Burnett, located near the mouth 
of the St. Joseph, and for John Kinzie and 
Robert Fonsyth, Chicago traders. In 1813, 
he removed to IMissouri, where he died in 

Sec. 2. — Burnett. — William Burnett seems 
to have been the first successful trader, not 
of French descent, who located on the St. 
Joseph. He was of a prominent New Jer- 
sey family, well educated, and a man of 
ineans, with an established credit in Detroit 
and I\Iontreal. He was tempted to come 
into the wilderness, by reason of the fabu- 
lous fortunes to be made here in the fur 
trade. The exact date when Burnett located 
on the St. Joseph is not known, but is be- 
lieved not to be earlier than 1791. He built 
a warehouse for storing furs, maple sugar, 
grain and salt, at a point near the mouth 
of the river; Mdiich is said to have been not 
far from the site of La Salle's old storehouse, 
where the city of St. Joseph now stands. 
One mile up the river, at the big gap, he 
built another house, which served as a resi- 
dence and storeroom for merchandise used by 
him in the Indian fur trade. Apple trees 
and asparagus beds planted by him have 
served to mark this spol^ up to within a few 
years. Some of Burnett's books of account 
are among the treasures of the Northern In- 
diana Historical Society. His accounts were 
kept in what is known as Ha.lifax currency; 



livres, deniere and sols. A livre was worth 
eighteen and one-half cents. It would appear 
from certain entries on the books that Bur- 
nett operated at first from IMackinaw, whieli 
was at that time the center of trade; then 
traded all along the coast of Lake Michigan, 
and finally located permanently at the mouth 
of the St. Joseph river. It is believed that 
his first venture up the St. Joseph was made 
October 15, 1791, to the Kankakee. 

Burnett's account books are particularly 
interesting as they have to do with many of 
the noted characters connected with the early 
history of the St. Joseph river, as well as 
with that of Chicago and Milwaukee. Many 
entries are found showing accounts with Jean 
Baptiste Point Au Sable, the earliest non- 
Indian settler of Chicago, who at about the 
time of the Declaration of Independence built 
a house at Avhat is now the corner of Cass 
and Kinzie streets, Chicago, which in later 
years was so well known as the Kinzie 

Jean Baptiste Point Au Sable was a French 
West Indian mulatto, who settled at first at 
Mobile, then successively at New Orleans, 
Kaskaskia and St. Louis, and finally on 
the banks of the Chicago river. Point 
Au Sable sold his house to the French 
trader, La Mai ; and from La Mai it passed 
to John Kinzie, in the fall of 1803. Other 
names appearing on Burnett's books are 
Deneau de Quindre, the government agent 
and interpreter for the St. Joseph river; 
Jean Laline, the government interpreter at 
Fort Dearborn, who was killed at that 
place in the spring of 1812; Charles Chan- 
donai ; Jolm and Robert Kinzie ; Antoine 
Leclare, already named, and Joseph Ber- 
trand, of the Parkovash ; Antoine Lafortune, 
and others. John Kinzie, so well known 
in early Chicago history, began trading 
with Burnett, October 1, 1797. In 1800, 
Kinzie located in the Parkovash, at the site 
of the old town of Bertrand ; and lived there 
until 1804, when he moved to Chicago. An 
entry in Burnett's books, dated September 

15, 1800, gives some insight into the intrigues 
carried on in those early days by the Span- 
iards at St. Louis, as well as by British 
emissaries from Canada, at a time when the 
power of the United States was not yet well 
established in these distant regions. It is 
as follows: "Jean Baptiste Point Au Sable, 
Dr. To seven bottles spirits paid an Indian, 
Askin, for going by express with the Span- 
ish commandant's letter to Fort Wayne." 
The returns of peltries for the various ad- 
ventures sent out by Burnett are instructive 
as giving a definite idea of the comparative 
numbers of fur bearing animals in this re- 
gion. For the two years 1800 and 1801, the 
returns were as follows : Beaver, 9 ; otter, 
119 ; bear, 10 ; elk, 1 ; mink, 248 ; deer, 1,076 ; 
cat, 62; muskrat, 2,014; fox, 107; redskin, 
518 ; raccoon, 5,603. 

The last entry on Burnett's day book is 
dated July 19, 1802, and is a charge to one 
Louis Ppthier of 57 packs of peltries, amount- 
ing to 20,500 livres, to be paid by draft on 
Montreal. The old trader is known to have 
been at the mouth of our river as late as 
January 20, 1804; at which date he ad- 
dressed a letter from that point to James 
]\Iay, at Detroit. Like most of the other trad- 
ers, Burnett was married to an Indian wife. 
One of his sons, James Burnett, died July 
4, 1833, and it is an interesting fact that 
his estate was administered upon by Latlu'op 
M. Taylor, one of the earliest settlers o£ 
St. Joseph county. 

Sec. 3. — Bertrand. — Another fur trader, 
and one who comes yet nearer to our early 
history, was Joseph Bertrand, who was boru 
in Mackinaw in 1780, and in 1808 located a 
log cabin and a fur press on the west side 
of the St. Joseph, near the crosssing of the 
Great Sauk Trail, just below the little creek 
known as Pokagon's branch, and opposite 
the site of the village of Bertrand afterwards 
named from him. Some slight dealings with 
Bertrand are shown on Burnett's books. In 
1804 Bertrand had married an Indian girl, 
Madeline, daughter of the Pottawatomie chief 



Topinabee. At that time lie was acting as 
agent for the American Fur Company, but 
soon afterwards went into business for him- 
self. There is a tradition that the logs for 
Bertrand's cabin were taken from the ruins 
of the little church once located at old Fort 
St. Joseph's, a little below on the east side 
of the river, and said to have been the only 
building spared by the Spaniards in the burn- 
ing of the Fort, in 1781. Bertrand's loyalty 
to the Americans, and his gi'eat influence in 
keeping the Indians at peace, brought upon 
him the enmity of the British, particularly 
that of the emissaries of the Hudson Bay 
Company; and it is said that there was for 
a time a reward of one hundred pounds 
sterling placed upon his head. After the 
close of the war with England, about 1815, 
he settled on the east side of the river on the 
spot since known as the village of Bertrand. 
He afterwards removed to St. Mary's, Kan- 
sas, where he died about the year 1860. 


The first white man to make his perma- 
nent home in what is now, St. Joseph county 
was Pierre Frieschutz Navarre, an educated 
gentleman of French descent, who came here 
from Monroe, Michigan, in 1820, as the agent 
of the American Fur Company. For several 
years previous to that date, he, with others, 
had been through the country, trading with 
the Indians, but had not remained for any 
length of time. He now permanently settled 
at this point and established the first trading 
post upon the St. Joseph within the limits 
of this county. We are told that Navarre 
was a man of literary tastes, of a kind and 
genial nature, earnest and honest in his deal- 
ings, though not remarkable for business abil- 
ity. His brother Francis, a colonel, in the 
American army, lost his life in the river 
Raisin massacre, near Detroit. Pierre, fol- 
lowing the example of the fur traders who 
had preceded him, married an Indian wife, 
a daughter of the Pottawatomies. Tradition 
represents her to have been a very intelli- 

gent woman. They had six children, three 
sons and three daughters. The children were 
bright and received a good education, for 
the time. The sons were Anthony, Isadore 
and Peter. Anthony is said to have taught 
a country school here. Friends tried to keep 
him here when the Pottawatomies went west, 
but he refused, saying, "What would be the 
use ? I am only an Indian. ' ' They built their 
dwelling house, the first to be erected in this 
county, on the east side of the St. Joseph 
river, in what is now Navarre Place addition 
to the city of South Bend, located between 
Leeper Island and the bluffs of Chapin place. 
This was a famous fishing ground; and here, 
until the building of the dams at Niles and 
Buchanan, even those who are of the present 
generation remember the mighty sturgeon 
that came up in great numbers from Lake 
Michigan every spring.* From here to old 
Fort St. Joseph's was the Parkovash, the be- 
loved resort of French and Indians. At that 
time, and ever since the Miamis had gone 
south and east, to the vicinity of the Wabash 
and the Maumee, the Pottawatomies were the 
sole inhabitants of the region. There was, 
however, no large Indian village near Na- 
varre's trading post. Old Chief Pokagon 
was located with a few members of his tribe 
down the river near Bertrand ; and there was 
another band about two miles south of the 
new post, on what is now Sumption prairie 
road, called Raccoon Village. The main por- 
tion of the tribe was farther south, in what 
are now Marshall and Fulton counties. Na- 
varre's trading post was on the line along 
which the Indians traded every spring and 
fall to reach the posts along the river, down 
to Lake Rliehigan; at which times they 
passed through in great numbers with quan- 
tities of furs, maple sugar, baskets and other 
articles. The old trails are now marked b}'' 
city streets and main roads leading through 
and from South Bend, Mishawaka and other 
towns, towards Fort Wayne and points to the 
north, south, east and west. Such trails are 

a. See Chap. 3, Sub. 7, Sec. 6. 



marked by Vistula avenue, through South 
Beud and Mishawaka; Turkey Creek road; 
Michigan street and avenue; Sumption 
Prairie road; Crum's Point road; Laporte 
avenue; Portage avenue; South Bend ave- 
nue, or Edwardsburg road; and Mishawaka 
avenue. The hunting and trapping grounds 
were mainly down the valley of the Kankakee, 
which, for centuries, ajid until within a few 
years past, has been the sportsman's para- 
dise. Pierre Navarre when in his prime is 
said to have been a noble specimen of vig- 
orous manhood, fully six feet in height, but 

by the proprietors of Navarre Place to the 
Northern Indiana Historical Society, and by 
the society removed to Leeper park, where 
it is cared for by the city of South Bend as 
its most venerable historic relic. Navarre 
Place, with its beautiful homes occupying 
the site of the home of this fine pioneer gen- 
tleman, will perpetuate his name in our his- 
tOYj ; as will also Navarre street, which over- 
looks Leeper park, where the ancient resi- 
dence is preserved,, and overlooks likewise 
the Pare aux Vaches, where the enterprising 
fur trader set up his Indian home in the 


rather slenderly built."- On the removal of 
the Pottawatomies to the west, in 1840, he 
went with the tribe, but afterwards returned 
to this county, where he died at the home 
of his daughter in South Bend, December 
27, 1864. His body rests in Cedar Grove 
Cemetery, near Notre Dame. The log house 
built by Navarre in 1820, which was the first 
fur trading station in St. Joseph county, and 
where this pioneer and his household, half 
white and half Indian, so long resided, has 
been preserved to this day. It was presented 

a. See "Art Work of South Bend and Vicin- 
ity." The Parish Pub. Co., Chicago, 1894. 

wilderness, now nearly one hundred years 



Sec. 1. — Alexis Coquillard. — The firet 
American home established within the limits 
of St. Joseph county was that of Alexis 
Coquillard, who is usually regarded as the 
founder of the city of South Bend. The 
continuity of our histoiy is well preserved in 
the life of Mr. Coquillard. While he was a 
fur trader and of French descent, as were 
most of his predecessors in the valley of the 
St. Joseph, and while he was always on 



friendly terms with the Indians, in so far 
that the Pottawatomies would have made him 
their chief if he had not prevented it ; yet 
both he and his wife were Americans of the 
Americans, spoke the English language as 
readily as they did the French, and came to 
the valley to lay the foundations of a dis- 
tinctively American community. 

Alexis Coquillard was born in Detroit, 
September 28, 1795. In the war of 1812 with 
Great Britain, though but a boy of seven- 
teen, he gave his services to the American 
cause, In the army under William Henry 
Harrison, seeking the camp of Major George 
Crogan. the brave defender of Fort Stephen- 
son on the Sandusky river, and there accept- 
ing the hazardous duties of dispatch mes- 
senger for the beleaguered garrison. After 
the war young Alexis became a fur trader, 
and was soon acting as agent for John Jacob 
Astor's American Fur Company. In the 
year 1822, in connection with Francis Com- 
paret, formerly of Detroit, but then of Fort 
Wayne, Mr. Coquillard purchased the agency 
of the fur company for the region of the 
upper lakes. The partners are said to have 
paid several thousand dollars for the property 
and control of this extensive agency. 

It was in the year 1823 that Alexis Co- 
quillard established a trading post on the St. 
Joseph river. This he operated by himself, Mr. 
Comparet remaining in charge of the post 
at Fort Wayne. To distinguish the two 
.posts, the one at this point was called the 
Big St. Joseph's Station; and the one at Fort 
Wayne, the Little St. Joseph's Station, Our 
river St. Joseph, foi-merly the river of the 
Miamis, was for a time called the St. Joseph's 
of Lake Michigan, and afterwards the Big St. 
Joseph's, to distinguish it from the small 
stream at Fort Wayne, also called the St. 
Joseph's river. The posts on the two St. 
Joseph's were the centers of the fur trade 
with the Indians of northwestern Indiana and 
southwestern ]\Iichigan. 

The first trading post opened at this place 
by Alexis Coquillard, the first business house 

in St. Joseph county, was located on what 
was then called the Dragoon trace, from 
Fort Wayne to Chicago, but which is 
now known as Vistula avenue. The 
post stood about half a square easterly 
from Washington street, and in front of 
what is kno\vn as the Edmund Pitts Taylor 
residence. Soon after locating at this point 
Mr. Coquillard abandoned it. and built a 
more pretentious log store and residence close 
to what is now North Michigan street, on the 
north side of La Salle avenue, and near the 
site of the fine concrete bridge now (1907) 
in course of construction over the St. Joseph 
river, on that avenue. It was at that point 
that the first ferry on the river was soon after- 
wards established. The site of this famous 
and hospitable residence has long been oc- 
cupied by the Miller and Loutz coal and wood 
yards. In the spring of 1824, Mr. Coquillard 
married and brought here from Fort Wayne 
his wife, Frances C. daughter of his partner, 
Francis Comparet. This was the first white 
man's home in this vicinity, and, for some 
time, the only one. The unit of society is 
the family: and the community of the great 
county of St. Joseph was then gathered in 
the hospitable home of Alexis and Frances 
Coquillard, on the banks of the beautiful river 
that was to give its name to the county. 

Sec. 2.— Lathrop :\I. Taylor.— In 1827 
Lathrop Minor Taylor settled here. Mr. 
Taylor was a native of Clinton, Oneida 
county, New York, and was born July 4, 1805. 
He came with his parents to Detroit when he 
was six years of age. Like Alexis Coquillard, 
he came to us as a fur trader, from Detroit 
and by way of Fort Wajoie. His brother-in- 
law, Samuel Hanna. of Fort Wayne, was the 
senior member of the firm of Samuel Hanna 
& Co.. general tradei-s at that place, and Mr. 
Taylor came here as agent of the firm, to 
establish a trading post at this point. Alexis 
Coquillard and Lathrop ]\I. Taylor, though 
rivals in business, seemed to think, with 
Admiral Schley, that there was glory enough 
for all; and they worked in harmony for the 


First white man who settled with his family in 

St. Joseph CountJ^ One of the 

founders of South Bend. 



common good of the town of wkicli they were 
to become the founders. Mr. Coquillard had 
<Teat faith that the settlement on the St. 
Joseph would grow towards the north from 
what is now La Salle avenu>;, instead of to 
the south of that line. To the north of us, 
the St. Joseph country, as it was called, had 
then received many settlers, while the 
country to the south, as far as the Wabash 
river, was occupied exclusively by Indians. 
He therefore advised the new trader to locate 
his store near to the place where he himself 
had removed. The site therefore selected by, 
or for, jNIr. Taylor was on what is now East 
Madison street, on the west bank of the river, 
and a block north of Mr. Coquillard 's own 
trading post. The locality is close to Judge 
Lucius Hubbard's residence, between that 
and the residence of the Hon. Benjamin F. 

Lathrop M. Taylor, like Alexis Coquillard, 
readily secured the lasting friendship of the- 
Pottawatomies, whose language he spoke 
tluently. They aided him in clearing a place 
in the woods, large enough for his new trad- 
ing post, and he soon had his stock of goods 
on hand and was actively engaged in business. 
It w^as not long, hoAvever, before he was con- 
vinced that his post was out of the main line 
of travel. Accordingly, he removed to what 
is now Vistula avenue, very near to the site 
of Mr. Coquillard 's first trading post. The 
place has long been occupied by the residence 
of the late E. Pitts Taylor, brother of 
Lathrop. The judgment of the younger 
trader as to the advantages of this locality 
was perhaps superior to that of the elder. 
The lines of travel on what have since been 
known as Vistula avenue, Turkey Creek road 
and other trails and roads leading towards 
Fort Wayne and other points south and east, 
became of more and more importance as the 
years w^ent by and Indiana became settled 
towards the Wabash. Mr. Taylor married a 
daughter of Judge Peter Johnson, father of 
Evan. Joshua and Lea Johnson, all of whom 
were noted pioneers. Peter Johnson erected 

and kept the first frame house used as a 
tavern, the old American hotel which was 
located on the southwest corner of Michigan 
and Washington streets. Coonley's drug 
store has now for many years occupied the 
site. In 1835 Judge Johnson built for his 
son-in-law a large frame store room on the 
northwest corner of the same street, opposite 
the hotel. The Michigan road had now been 
opened, and commerce and travel abandoned 
the old routes; and this change Judge John- 
son and Colonel Taylor both recognized. To 
this building Lathrop M. Taylor moved his 
trading post from Vistula avenue, and here 
he continued to live during the remainder of 
his days. Cushing's drug store occupied the 
site for many years after Mr. Taylor ceased 
to do l)usiness ; but the old pioneer loved the 
locality and continued to occupy rooms in 
the building over the drug store. The Ameri- 
can Trust Company now occupies the site." 

Sec. 3. — First Name op the New Settle- 
ment. — The first entry on L. M. Taylor's 
books of account, after establishing his agency 
at this place, is dated at "St. Joseph's, In- 
diana," October 29, 1827; and is entitled: 
"Journal of Samuel Hanna, James Barnett 
and Allen Hamilton, partners in business 
under the title of Samuel Hanna & Co., 
Lathrop M. Taylor, agent." The name "St. 
Joseph's" is retained throughout the books 
of the company, and it would seem that this 
was for some time the recognized name of the 
trading post. Years afterwards, when the 
posts of the fur traders had developed into 
a flourishing town, and the ambitious inhabit- 
ants became dissatisfied A\-ith the name of 
South Bend, which to them seemed plebeian 
and meaningless, public meetings were held 
to consider other and more stately names foi- 
the incipient Queen City of the St. Joseph 
valley ; and among the names then suggested 
was this old one of St. Joseph's or St. Joseph. 
At that time, and long afterwards, serious and 
continued efl'orts were made for the revival 

a Memoirs Elkhart and St. Joseph Counties, 
pp. 774, 775. Goodspeed Brothers, Chicago, 1893. 



of the original name given to the trading posts 
of Coquillard and Taylor. 

Sec. 4. — Early Days on the Kankakee. — 
j3n August 8, 1889, while Colonel Taylor was 
yet living, Ernest P. Bicknell, then the bril- 
liant correspondent of the Indianapolis News, 
afterwards secretary of the Indiana state 
board of charities, and now at the head of the 
department of charities in the city of Chicago, 
wrote for the News the following graphic 
and gossipy article on "The Winding Kan- 
kakee" and other kindred topics relating to 
our very early local history : 

"Before the nineteenth century was out of 
its 'teens' the flat, river-veined country be- 
tween the Lakes Erie and Michigan was the 
site of several settlements of Indian traders, 
meant to be permanent. The swamps and 
sluggish streams teemed with beaver, mink 
and muskrat, while the rich grasses of the 
moist lands fed herds and herds of deer. 
From the time of La Salle's pioneer explora- 
tions, trappers and traders had wandered up 
and down the streams, Init they had always 
made some Canadian town, or perhaps Buf- 
falo or Detroit, their headquarters. 

"But after 'Mad' Anthony Wayne had 
routed the hostile Indians and cabnly assured 
them he would arise from his grave to fight 
them if they ever warred against the whites 
again, there was a freer movement from the 
East toward these rich hunting grounds. In 
1794 a stockade called Fort AVayne was built 
and garrisoned and under its shadow a settle- 
ment slowly grew, which outlived the fort but 
retained its name. Several big eastern fur com- 
panies established agencies at Fort Wayne. 
After a few years the traders learned that 
the old route, up the St. Joseph river from 
Lake Michigan to a point near the southern- 
most bend, then a portage of some four miles 
southwest to the headwaters of the Kankakee, 
and thence down that stream toward the Mis- 
sissippi, or the reverse of this, was a popular 
one with the Indians. 

' ' A trader named Alexis Coquillard was the 
first to see that riaht where the two rivers 

came nearest together was certain to be a 
good point for a trading post. The Indian 
trappers would rather accept lower prices 
for their skins than carry them over the long 
four miles of portage. Your ordinary, un- 
heroic Indian was not given greatly to indus- 
try. So it was, that in 1823 Coquillard estab- 
lished himself at the south bend of the St. 
Joseph river, and South Bend has the settle- 
ment been ever since. The trader prospered 
exceedingly and that naturally attracted at- 
tention. In the summer of 1827 Colonel L. 
M. Taylor, a young man who was an agent for 
a fur dealer at Fort Wayne named Hanna, 
came to South Bend. Colonel Taylor is yet 
an honored citizen of the city of which he 
was the second inhabitant, and though almost 
eighty-five years old is active and in full pos- 
session of all his faculties. To him this cor- 
respondent is indebted for valuable informa- 

. ' ' In the spring and fall the Indians would 
come up the Kankakee, their canoes heavily 
laden with skins. The low, flat banks al- 
lowed an uninterrupted survey of the course 
of the stream for miles, and because of its 
remarkable crookedness the view of a party 
of Indians in their boats was peculiar. As 
they moved along in single file, the general 
appearance was that of a party gliding along 
in every possible direction through the high 
grass. On a sharp S-shaped curve, for ex- 
ample, some of the Indians would be moving 
west, some east, some north, and some almost 
due south. 

The efi'ect of this sinuosity was rather dis- 
couraging to the inexperienced canoeist. After 
paddling steadily down stream all day, round 
and round curves where the rank grass 
drooped over and narrowed the ribbon of 
open water, with its tangled mass, it was 
discouraging to draw the boat ashore and en- 
camp for the night within sight of the camp- 
fire, at which he had prepared his breakfast. 
Though he had traveled many miles he would 
find that the "bee line" distance from where 
he began his day's journey was depressingly 



small. To the experienced canoeist and 
woodsman, however, this rate of progress was 
not depressing. It was not because he did 
not care to move rapidly, but because hard- 
ships and exposure and intimate acquaintance 
with nature had taught him to accept what- 
ever lot befell, and make the most of it. This 
it was that gave him his air of profound in- 
difference and stoicism in his relations with 
his friends and enemies and his self-control 
in times of desperate danger. 

"Eef erring to the devious ways of the Up- 
per Kankakee, Colonel Taylor related an inci- 
dent of his early days in the region : 

" ' I had decided to send two men down the 
river in a pirogue to collect skins, and, as 
I wanted them to bring in a big cargo, deter- 
mined to furnish them a big boat. I searched 
through the woods along the St. Joseph river 
until I found an enormous tree. Two men 
helped me. and in a few days we had a 
pirogue made from its trunk that was a 
beauty. It was forty-five feet long, three and 
a half feet wide at one end and two feet 
wide at the other. We drew it across the 
portage sled-fashion with a team of oxen 
which had been brought to the settlement, and 
proudly launched it on the Kankakee. My 
two men set out and in due time returned 
with their load. But a more thoroughly dis- 
gusted boat crew I never saw. They vowed, 
in the strong, unhampered speech which char- 
acterizes the true woodsman, that never more 
would they hold any relations whatever with 
my prized pirogue. That vessel, they said, 
was so long that it was almost impossible to 
get it around the curves of the river, and that 
a goodly portion of the time both ends of it 
at once were well planted in the murky banks 
and had to be dug out with great labor and 
loss of time. ' 

' ' The Indians of this region were the Potta- 
watomies, and were at this time an inoffen- 
sive, shiftless tribe which much preferred the 
pursuits of peace to those of war. Members 
of other tribes which occupied the country 
south and west of the Pottawatomies visited 

the South Bend settlement in great numbers 
to dispose of the skins which they collected. 
They were easily cheated by the traders and 
made no complaint, but after an Indian had 
once been imposed upon he never took his 
wares to that trader again. The whites soon 
learned this, and as there was much competi- 
tion among them in business, they usually 
treated the simple red man fairly. 

"As has so often been the case, the closing 
history of the Pottawatomie tribe of Indians 
is a sad story. Certain zealous missionaries 
among them established themselves ten or 
twelve miles below South Bend on the St. 
Joseph, and named their settlement the 
Carey Mission. In time a sturdy Baptist mis- 
sionary named Isaac McCoy became the chief 
man at the mission and he Avas full of plans 
for the improvement of the red men. The 
whites were encroaching on them, and they 
were scattered sparsely over a wide territory. 
McCoy conceived the idea that if they were 
removed to a reservation far away from tlie 
whites, where they could be kept simple and 
free from the degrading vices Avhich they 
learned by contact with their civilized 
brothers, they could be Christianized and 
made a happy, prosperous, domestic people. 
He proposed a plan to the government which 
was eventually adopted. Some 8,000 members 
of the tribe were gathered at a point on Lake 
Michigan, and another near where the city of 
Lafayette now stands, and were paid for their 
lands. It was several years later that their 
removal was begun, and they were taken in 
detachments at intervals for several years 
more. A reservation for them had been pro- 
vided on the great western prairie. In the 
removal the happy, contented and harmless 
natives were scattered. Their families were 
broken up, and many who were unwilling to 
leave the scenes which had been the undis- 
puted possession of their ancestors for many 
generations, wandered away among the 
friendly tribes about them and eluded the 
government agents. 

"The last chapter of this sad history is 



briefly recorded. The Pottawatomies had al- 
ways lived in the woods and hunted the game 
which frequented them and the secluded 
streams. In their new home, the wild, bitter, 
winter wind swept across the prairies and 
chilled the unacclimated Indians. The game, 
of which they knew the habits, was not there. 
In place of the deer and beaver and muskrat, 
buffalo a.nd wolves and jackrabbits roamed 
the boundless prairies. The miserable aliens 
died and froze and starved and wandered 
away in despair. Some came back to their 
old homes and joined those who had evaded 
the government officer. Now, of this once 
powerful and peaceful tribe, a small remnant 
remains in Kansas and some 200 or 300 are 
scattered about St. Joseph and adjoining 
counties in Indiana and Ohio. 

"Where once the simple-minded savage pad- 
dled along the quiet streams, or with cat-like 
stealth threaded these woods and swamps in 
search of game, or carried his store of skins 
and his birchen canoe across the land which 
divided into two his water-way from the lakes 
to the Father of Waters, now all is changed. 
The heavy rumble of trains, and the muf- 
fled roar of machinery profane the ancient 
solitudes. The slow and primitive methods of 
travel — the canoe and the portage — are gone 
forever, but not more certainly are they gone 
to return no more, than are those dusky 
tribes which, in innocence and contentment, 
once owned and loved and lost this land, gone 
to exist hereafter only as a memory, as a tale 
that is told." 

' See. 5. — Other Early Settlers of the 
County. — After Navarre, Coquillard and 
Taylor, some of the very early settlers in the 
county were as follows. In what is now 
Portage township, these settlers were: In 
1827, Louis Sancomb, Doctor Fowler, Timo- 
thy S. Smith, Job Brookfield, John B. Ruleau, 
Peter Jebeau, Samuel Cannon; in 1828, 
Henry Painter, Eli Smith, Samuel Stude- 
baker (not related to the noted family that 
came later) , Thomas Johnson, John Heag ; in 
1829, Levi F. Arnold, John Lasly, Henry 

Stull, Isaac Bowman, Joseph Rohrer, John 
Becraft, Jacob Leer, Samuel Leer, Daniel 
Cripe, Benjamin Coquillard (brother of 
Alexis), Hiram Dayton, Samuel Rupe, Fred- 
erick Bainter, Oliver Bennett; in 1831, Isaac 
Cord, Jacob Cord, Samuel Cord, George Cord, 
Daniel Cord, William McCartney; in 1832, 
William Webster, Christopher Emerick; in 
1833, Matthias Stover ; in 1835, David Stover. 

In what is now German township, the fol- 
lowing persons settled : In 1827, William 
Brookfleld; in 1829, John Smith; in 1830, 
Christian Holler, Jacob Ritter, John Ritter; 
in 1831, Joshua D. Miller ; in 1832, Jacob M. 
Whitmer; in 1833, David Miller, Aaron 
Miller, Jacob Miller, Abram Smith, Jona- 
than Smith, Daniel Wagoner, John Witter, 
Samuel Witter. 

In what is now Penn township, the follow- 
ing persons settled: In 1828, William Moat, 
Timothy Moat; in 1829, William Holt; in 
1830, Jesse Skinner, Samuel L. Cottrell, 
George W. West, E. Smith, Joseph Coe, Dan- 
iel Hollingshead, David Hollingshead, Will- 
iam Hollingshead, George Hollingshead, Dan- 
iel Edwards, Samuel Edwards, George Eutz- 
ler; in 1831, Jesse Bell, Henry Huntsinger, 
Jacob Ebler, Jonathan Macy, Jacob Byrkit. 
George Byrkit, Edward Byrkit, James Curtis, 
Jolin Ireland, William Ireland, Braddock 
Chandler, Uriah Chandler, William Webster, 
Menzo Webster, Isaac Parks. 

In what is now Clay township, the follow- 
ing persons settled: In 1828, Jacob Cripe, 
Daniel Eiler, Samuel Cannon, Benjamin Pot- 
ter; in 1829, John Hague, William Mc- 
Combs, John H. Smith; in 1830, John Cripe, 
Peter Cripe, Thomas Longley ; in 1831, Peter 
Eaton, Jacob Eaton, William Smith, Joshua 
Johnson ; in 1832, John C. Stutsman, Thomas 
B. Chalfant, Evan Chalfant, James Stuckey, 
Thomas P. Bulla, William F. Bulla, Samuel 
Brooks, Gideon Draper ; in 1833, Francis 
Jennings; in 1834, Joseph Ulery, Stephen 

In what is now Harris township, the fol- 
lowing persons settled: In 1830. Jacob liar- 



ris, from whom Harris prairie and Harris 
township were named, Samuel Bell, Adam 
Miller, a Baptist minister, Adam Ringle, 
David Baldwin, Josephus Baldwin ; in 1831, 
Joseph Bnel, Jaeob ]Myers, Arbogast Zaehnle, 
Henry Augustine, Jonathan Hartzell; in 
1833, Robert Kennedy, David Ringle, Samuel 
Ringle, Levi Ringle. 

■ In what is now Olive township, the fol- 
lowing persons settled : In 1830, Charles Vail, 
for whose wife, Olive, the township was 
named, John Adams, Jacob Rush, Israel Rush, 
John Druliner, ]\Ialin Druliner, Samuel Gar- 
wood, Garrett Niekerson, Henry Nickerson, 
William White, Jaeob Egbert, John Egbert, 
Elder George Boyd ; in 1831, James Garoutte, 
Benjamin Redding; in 1832, Job Smith, 
Henry Ranstead, John Reynolds. 

In what is now Center towniship, the fol- 
lowing persons settled : In 1830, Andrew Mill- 
ing, James Palmer and Asher Palmer, from 
whom Palmer prairie was named, John Rose, 
Ncithan Rose, Jacob Rupel; in 1832, John 
Smith ; in 1833, George Smith, Abiel Hunger- 
ford, Tyra N. Bray, in 1834, John Henson, 
Thomas Jones, Isaac Lamb; in 1835, James 
Inwood, Richard Inwood, William Phillips. 

In what is now Greene to\\Tiship, the fol- 
lowing persons settled: In 1830, George 
Sumption, from whom Sumption prairie was 
named; in 1831, John Rupel, John Bird, 
Jaeob Rupe, Grave Pomeroy, Stacy Garwood, 
William Antrim, Abram Whitmer, William 
Rudduck ; in 1832, George Holloway, Nathan 
Greene, John Rudduck, David Barrett, John 
Greene, from whom the township was named, 
Jonathan Wharton, M. Borton, George Baker, 
Gabriel Fender, Samuel Pearson; in 1833, 
M. E. Hammond. John McCullough. 

In what is now Warren township, the fol- 
lowing persons settled: In 1831, Reynolds 
Dimn; in 1832, Peter Brick, Peter Wykoft*, 
George Witter, John Kingery, Stephen Field, 
Nathaniel Wilson; in 1833, Jesse Frame, 
William Frame, Nathaniel Frame, Cornelius 
Frame, Isaac Frame, David Frame, Jesse 
Frame, Isaac W^. Phillips; in 1831, Harvey 

Buckles, James Dunbar; in 1835, Joseph P. 
Jones, Joseph Price, Thomas Jackson, Calvin 

In what is now Union township, the fol- 
lowing persons settled: In 1833, John Hen- 
derson, Elijah Lineback, John Gardner, John 
Rector, Jacob Rector, Mark Rector; in 1834, 
Hubbard Henderson, James Moon, John 
Moon, Eli Moon; in 1835, James Annis, 
Henry Hardy, Daniel Glenn, Amos Heston. 

In what is now Liberty township, the fol- 
lowing persons settled: In 1835, Jacob Ear- 
hart, Jolm Earhart, John Kane, Isaac Town- 
send, Daniel Ross, Jesse Palmer, Samuel 
Loring, John Rupel, Daniel Rupel, Joseph 
Liggett, James Cole, Franklin Pearse. 

The foregoing names and dates may not be 
strictly accurate in every instance, but the 
effort has been made to avoid all error. 
Neither is it intended that these were all 
the settlers up to the year 1835 ; it was our 
purpose only to give the names of some 
prominent families and the proximate times 
and places of their settlement in St. Joseph 
county. The list will also serve to show what 
parts of the county were firet settled, and 
the years in which the several places were first 
occupied. It does not appear that in the 
territories now known as Madison and Lin- 
coln townships any settlements were made un- 
til after the year 1835. 


The rude life which these early settlers 
were compelled to lead, and the many priva- 
tions to which they were subjected, are well 
illustrated by one who gives us his own recol- 
lections in the following vivid sketch:*^ 

The poet who lived and wrote his songs, 
fifty to a hundred years ago, was inspired 
with environments, then existing, Avhich now 
would be void of sentiment. We hear the 

"How dear to my heart are the scenes of my 

When fond reeolhM-tion presents them to 

a. Contributed by a writer to the Waterloo, In- 
diana, Press. 



The orchard, the meadow, the deep tangled 
wildwood ; 
And all the loved pleasures my infancy 

The old oaken bucket — 

The iron-bound bucket. 
The moss-covered bucket 

That hung- in the well." 

The passing of the open well, with wooden 
curb, and the long "well sweep" balanced 
in the center on a post crotched at the top, 
a heavy stone fastened with large pegs on 
the large end of the long timber used as the 
sweep or elevating power, and the "old oaken 
bucket" fastened at the top with a chain 
equal in length to the depth of the well. Such 
sweeps were a familiar sight fifty years ago. 

The old oaken bucket made by the local 
cooper, bound with iron hoops, lasted several 
generations, and hence became "moss cov- 
ered. ' ' The sweep was pulled down and the 
' ' bucket ' ' dropped into the well, with a weight 
fastened to one side to sink it in the cool 
waters at the bottom, and it came up on a 
balance with the stone at the other end of the 
"sweep." Here the poet quaffed the refresh- 
ing drink of his childhood days, and received 
his inspiration for the song. 

Alongside the well with the sweep and the 
"old oaken bucket" stood the old log house, 
the home of the pioneer, now only a memory, 
and to the present generation unknown, as 
log houses are a thing of the past. Sixty-two 
years ago the writer, after leaving the strap- 
iron railroad in Adrian, Mich., came from 
"York state" by "rapid transit," consisting 
of "an ox team" and a covered "movers' 
wagon. ' ' Several days ' travel with the fam- 
ily in the wagon, landed us in the midst of a 
dense forest. A small spot was cleared of 
underbrush, and strong, enthusiastic men cut 
down trees of uniform size and built the log 
cabin in the woods. There were no public 
highways in that time, and a man with an 
ax went before the ox team to remove some 
of the brush and obstructions, for the passage 
of the wagon. 

Those homes of the early pioneer, Avould 
be a revelation to the present generation. The 
logs were cut to equal lengths as required for 
the size of the building, and rolled up on 
skids as the building increased in height with 
each log, the ends being notched to fit close, 
and at the same time bind the building to- 
gether. The structure was tapered off at the 

top with smaller timbers, and the roof, made 
of shakes, split from clear oak with a frow 
and maul, were fastened on the poles across 
the top of the building by placing small logs 
on top of them, kept equal distance apart by 
short sections of timbers at rignt angles. Then 
a bass wood log was secured to be split into 
chinks for closing up the cracks between the 
logs, which were plastered with clay mud, 
without lime or cement. The windows were 
often of greased paper, and the heavy slab 
doors hung on w^ooden hinges with a heavy 
latch inside, lifted by a leather string from 
without, and the string pulled inside when 
the door was to be locked. Hence "the latch 
string always hangs out" was the greeting 
given to neighbors, meaning they were wel- 
come to call. 

While their rude homes were being built, 
the families lived and slept in the covered 
wagon. There were no stoves in fhose days, 
and the old fireplace was cut out of one side 
of the building, and walls were made of stone 
or bog ore, found in marshes or swamps in 
the early days. The chimney was built of 
small pieces of wood four square split from 
the remnants of blocks from which the 
"shakes" for the roof were made, and this 
structure was plastered inside and out with 
mud. There were no carpets on the floors, 
and not infrequently the massasauga, or black 
rattlesnake, the dread of the mother and the 
children, found its way through the puncheon 
floor and located in the bed or mider the 
household effects, where his rattles warned all 
comers to beware. The strenuous life in the 
days of old, was along different lines. It was 
many years before the rag carpet made its 
appearance, because of the fact that the cloth- 
ing of the parents was made over and over 
and handed down from the oldest to the 
youngest child, until there was not enough 
rags from which to cut strips for weaving into 

Those were pioneer days; and what a 
strange contrast with present conditions and 
customs! The generations now living hardly 
realize how much credit should be given the 
early pioneers who carved out their rude 
homes from the dense forest, and made it 
possible for the great changes that followed 


Sec. 1. — By Daniel Greene. — On Septem- 
ber 19, 1832, John Greene and his family 



arrived in the territory afterwards to be or- 
ganized under their name, as the township 
of Greene. On the seventy-third anniversary 
of that day, Daniel Greene, one of the chil- 
dren of the family, now an honored citizen 
of the city of South Bend, gave to his friends 
and the public a most interesting interview, 
detailing the coming to their Indiana home 
in those far off years. The story which he 
tells is the story of hundreds of pioneers who 
left their homes in the east, to find other 
homes in the west. By permission of the 
venerable narrator, the following is taken 
from this interview :" 

' ' My parents, John Greene and Nancy Ann 
Jackson, were born and married in the state 
of Delaware. Not being in sympathy with 
the institution of slavery, they decided to 
seek a home for their little family in the 
then distant free soil of the northwest, be- 
yond the reach of its blighting influence. In 
the fall of 1811, with their three boys, Israel, 
John and Ezekiel, and such articles as could 
be transported in a light wagon drawn by 
one horse, they bade a final farewell to dear 
ones and native state. Guided by the star 
of hope, they started on the long, perilous 
journey over hills and mountains, across 
plains and valleys, towards the setting sun, 
cheered by the hope of a home of their own 
in a land of freedom. 

"After weeks of toil, privation and suffer- 
ing, they pitched their tent by the roadside in 
the beautiful valley of the Miami, in Greene 
county, Ohio; where they lived in tent and 
cabin and as farm renters for twenty years, 
enduring the hardships incident to pioneer 
life, and adding in that time six boys and 
three girls to their little Delaware family, and 
increasing somewha-t their worldly goods. Not 
having realized their long cherished hope of 
a home of their own, my father started, in 
the fall of 1830, on a home-seeking tour on 
horseback through northern Indiana and 
southern Michigan, returning by way of Fort 

a. In the South Bend Tribune, September 19, 

Wayne, after having failed to locate a home. 
"Not being satisfied with what he had seen, 
he started, in the fall of 1831, on a second 
tour, passing through Indianapolis, Logans- 
port and intervening territory, and arriving 
in South Bend a few months after the town 
had been laid out. Here he was offered a lot 
for five dollars, if he would erect a log cabin 
on it. Continuing his prospecting tour into 
southern Michigan, he entered one hundred 
and sixty acres of heavily timbered land near 
where Berrien Springs now stands. He re- 
turned again by way of Fort Wayne, with 
the intention of moving to X\\q land the com- 
ing fall. After reaching home, and giving 
the matter more mature consideration, he 
thought it not best to take his large family 
into the heavy timbered lands to open a farm, 
as it would entail too much labor and hard- 
ship on the family, and so changed his mind 
and decided -to go with some old friends to 
northern Indiana. 

"Memory, aroused, rolls back the shades of 
time, covering a period of years reaching back 
beyond the wild scenes, privations and dan- 
gers of pioneer life in this country to the 
old Ohio home and environs where I first 
assisted in making the ball go round in the 
active game of a busy life eighty years ago. 
There, during the winter of 1831 and 1832, 
the little colony was organized and Michigan 
road lands received for future homes by de- 
positing one dollar and twenty-five cents an 
acre with the secretary of state, and receiving 
therefor a certificate of deposit, for which 
deeds were to be obtained some two years 
later, sig-ned by Governor Noble. One of those 
deeds I now have. Arrangements were then 
completed for moving the coming fall. 

"Early in the spring of 1832, my brother 
Nathan, and John Mannering, a cousin, were 
equipped with an ox team, tools, implements 
and seeds, and were sent out to fence, plow 
and plant a part of the land to corn, potatoes 
and other useful crops for supplies for the 
families upon arrival at the anticipated time. 
Thev took with them at the same time Nathan 


Greene, another cousin, and his wife, to assist is taken and the last farewell is said. The 

in the work and then take care of the place wheels begin to turn, the wagons begin to 

while the young men returned to Ohio to fall in line and the long train has started on 

aid in moving the family in the fall. its long and perilous journey. Camp was 

"That being the year of the Black Hawk formed that first night out about five miles 

Indian w^ar in the west, the country, and north of Xenia. By arranging the wagons in 

especially the little valley where we lived, was a circle a large court was formed, in the 

kept in a state of anxiety and unrest by the center of which the general camp tire was 

exciting and exaggerated rumors of Indian lighted, and there the evening was spent. It 

treachery, depredations and massacres of was an evening long to be remembered by the 

early settlers along the western frontier. My many sad hearts that devoted the night to 

brother, Nathan, and cousin, then at work on struggling with their hopes and fears, 

Sumption prairie putting out the crop at the whether all should end well that seemed to 

future home, kept our people more correctly promise well. 

informed about the Indian war scare, and "Early the next morning things began to 

when they returned the first of August were assume a more normal or business-like ap- 

able to relieve much of the anxiety of the pearance. Sad faces began to brighten and 

colony as to the danger to life or otherwise cheer up as the wagons began to fall in line 

from the Indians. for another day's march toward the promised 

"September 2,' 1832, the day long fixed for land and home. After the noon lunch and rest, 
starting, came bright and cheering, and the one of the older men was sent in advance on 
little Ohio valley soon became one scene of horseback to select and secure a camping 
commotion and excitement. "When the fam- place for the night. Every day thereafter 
ilies of John Greene, George Baker, Joshua the camping place was located in the same 
Garwood, Jonathan Wharton, Edward Powers way, and each night the wagons were ar- 
and Michael Robertson, over sixty people in ranged in a circle, forming a large open court, 
all, fell into line in the dusty streets of Xenia, in the center of which a general camp fire 
their old county town, with twelve canvas was lighted. There the evenings were spent 
covered wagons, some drawn by two or four as age and taste suggested, with music, games, 
good horses, and others by six oxen, with a conversation and entertainment of visitors, 
large following of loose cattle, sheep, hogs and Meals were prepared and served on the out- 
dogs, for a starter at their Indiana homes, all side, to each family as called for. 
kept in line by a lot of lively boys and girls, "As we advanced, the distance between set- 
they found the streets of their old town lined tlements increased, and our visions of red- 
by hundreds of friends, neighbors and Strang- skins, tomahawks and scalping knives became 
ers, waiting for a last friendly greeting, ex- more vivid and the timid ones more nervous, 
pressions of interest in the future success and The roads, after a few days, became very bad, 
welfare of these adventurous friends were and, in many places, mere winding ways 
profuse, and a last friendly handshake was through the forests. The difficulty of crossing 
accompanied by expressions of wonderment the larger rivers with the teams and loose 
why they were leaving one of the garden stock made progress very slow. One day, in 
spots of the earth, friends, homes and plenty, the black swamps east of Fort Wayne, only 
to face the dangers and hardships of a long four miles were traveled. The route lay 
journey, and the sufferings and privations of through Dayton, Fort Wayne, Goshen and 
frontier life in the then distant west. Elkhart. At Elkhart Messrs. Powers and 

"Words fail me to tell of the emotions and Robertson broke ranks, and proceeded on to 

parting scenes of that day. The last sad look southern Michigan, where they located. The 



other four families, forty-four people in all, 
followed down the south bank of the St! 
Joseph river to South Bend, then a little In- 
dian trading post of a few log cabins nestled 
among the old oaks. 

"From the trading post we followed the old 
Indian trail out to Sumption prairie, break- 
ing ranks finally near the place where the 
James Oliver farm house now stands. Each 
family took its course from there throuoh 
the tall prairie grass for its new home. Just 
as the sun was sinking behind the western 
forest, our family came to a halt at the cor- 
ner of a lonely cornfield where father, alight- 
ing from his horse, said, 'At home at last.' 

"We lived in and under our wagons until 
a hewed log house, eighteen by thirty feet, 
with a large fireplace in each end, the first of 
its kind south of this city, was erected. 
Taking in the howling of the wolf in one ear 
and the whoop of the Indian in the other, we 
moved into the house without floors, doors or 
windows; and it soon became known as 
Grreene's big house. When the towTiship was 
organized it was named for the Greene fam- 

"While the house was being built the ox 
team was sent to Trail Creek, now Michigan 
City, a distance of forty miles, for lumber for 
floors, doors, windows and other purposes. It 
required about six days to make the trip. 
When the team returned, we found the lum- 
ber broad poplar boards, just as the logs 
had been sawed through, not edged or shaped, 
and it had to be shaped by hand with saw and 
splitting gauge. As soon as the house was 
ready to receive the goods my brother Ezekiel 
returned to Ohio with the four-horse team to 
assist my brothers Nathan and Jackson, who 
had remained there, to gather and market the 
crops grown there and winter the team. When 
the little crops grown here had been cared 
for, a part of the field sown to wheat, and 
everything made as convenient and comfort- 
able as possible for the family, John Manner- 
ing, the cousin, also returned to Ohio with 
the ox team to winter there. 

"Early in the spring of 1833, both teams 
returned well loaded with a year's supply of 
flour, farm implements and other articles, 
among them a loom, a large and a small spin- 
ning wheel and a reel, all of which at that 
time were considered indispensable articles of 
the household outfit. As an illustration of the 
value and service rendered by the wheels and 
loom in every home in the early settlement ot 
this country, I well remember myself, like 
other boys of the settlement, then in my teens, 
clad in a straw hat, linen shirt and trousers, 
the materials having been grown, and the 
goods manufactured, cut and made on the 
farm. Thus clad I toiled many a warm sum- 
mer day, armed with an ox gad with a long 
buckskin lash, driving four yoke of oxen, 
which drew a large breaking plow, made of 
wood, except the share and bar, and turning 
over the tough prairie sod for the first time. 
This was a fair sample or illustration of the 
average boy of the settlement and of his work, 
in the early days of our trials and triumphs. 

"When Alexis Coquillard and Lathrop M. 
Taylor established their little Indian trading 
posts on the banks of our beautiful river, to 
exchange their merchandise for the furs, pel- 
try and other Indian products that abounded 
in the vicinity of the Kankakee swamps, and 
for miles in all directions, they were several 
years in advance of the permanent Home-seek- 
ing pioneers who found these rich prairies and 
vast forests untouched by the hand of civili- 
zation. These lands were as yet untouched 
by the ax or the plow, and were still roamed 
over at will by the Indian on the hunt and 
chase and by the wild beast of the woods and 
the plains. The regular and permanent settle- 
ment of the county began in the spring of 
1830, the county being organized and the first 
government lands being placed on the market 
early in the spring of that year. 

"The rich productive soil of the prairies, 
and their readiness at all times, without pre- 
vious labor, to welcome the plo^\^nan and his 
seed, made them most desirable; and they 
were, therefore, the first to be entered and 



occupied. All the prairies of the coimty 
began to be settled about the same time, that 
is, early in the spring of 1830. 

"The first white pei-son to settle in that 
part of the county lying southwest of the city 
of South Bend, was George Sumption, who 
was subsequently^ honored by having his name 
given to our prairie. He located there in the 
spring of 1830, on what is now the James 
Oliver farm. Mr. Sumption being a man of 
courage and energy, soon became one of the 
leading citizens of the settlement, and re- 
mained such until the day of his death. He 
made the brick for and erected and occupied 
the first brick house south of the city of South 
Bend. John Eupel. a sturdy son of Pennsyl- 
vania, came next, in the spring of 1831, 
locating westward of and adjoining Sump- 
tion. John Bird came a little later in 1831, 
settling west of and ad.joining Rupel. Later, 
the same season. Jacob Rupe. Grove Pomeroy 
and Stacy Garwood located on the southeast 
part of the prairie. 

"In the spring of 1832, George Holloway, 
David Barrett, Nathan Greene and John Rud- 
duck settled on the west side of the prairie. 
The Black Hawk Indian war in the early part 
of that year virtually closed emigration for 
'the season, except as to our little colony of 
forty-four who had previously arranged to 
move that fall and who arrived and located 
on the prairie as already related. In the 
spring of 1833, the Indian scare was over, 
settlers came in rapidly, and in a very few 
years all the tillable lands of what is now 
Greene township were occupied and produc- 

"The first thing on the arrival of a new 
settler was the erection of a log cabin for 
shelter and protection. This was sometimes 
accomplished in one day, the neighbors turn- 
ing out to assist, some cutting the logs, others 
hauling them in and others laying them up. 
and still others, with saws and frows, getting 
out the clapboards for the roof. 

"In the absence of public roads these first 
cabins that we called homes were located on 

the edge of the timber around the border of 
the prairie, and of necessity were rude struc- 
tures. When public highways were establish- 
ed these homes were often found to be badly 
located, and in many cases required removal, 
or the erection of new and better houses. 

"Seventy-five years of intelligent industry 
and unyielding courage and energy have left 
the stamp of change and progress everywhere, 
and practically on everything. Yes, how 
changed are the people and the scenery! The 
old familiar form and face of the red man, 
who then roamed at will over the broad acres 
of this beautiful valley, lord of all he sur- 
veyed, is seen and feared no more. His old, 
well beaten paths have long since faded from 
view, and the feet that made them have been 
at rest. His wigwams and villages have crum- 
bled to dust and sunk into the kindly earth 

"The vast forests to the southeast of the 
county, and the extensive oak openings and 
wild prairies to the southwest and to the 
north, once the home of the savage, the wild 
beasts of prey and the timid, beautiful deer, 
when touched by the hand of civilization, 
began to blossom as the rose, and were soon 
dotted with comely, happy homes, fruitful 
grain fields and orchards, and with growing, 
prosperous towns and cities. The little Indian 
trading post of a few cabins that we found on 
the banks of the St. Joseph, has become one 
of the chief cities of a great state, and the 
home of many of the largest manufactories 
of the world. There mighty work shops are 
daily turning their beautiful and useful pro- 
ducts into the lap of the world's commerce, 
and carrying the name of South Bend to all 
civilized countries and peoples. 

"The successors of the Indians are the 
heroic pioneers of 1830, '31, '32, and '33, who 
faced the dangers, endured the privations, 
suffered the ills and disappointments of long 
journeys and lives of hardship ; who felled the 
forest and reclaimed the prairies; who ex- 
tended the lines of civilization and became 
the promoters of the mansions, towns and 



cities of today. Having done their work and 
done it well, leaving a noble inheritance to 
their more favored successors, they, too, have 
followed the red man to his resting place. 
Of the pioneers who settled in this county, 
south of the city, at that early day, the fol- 
lowing, who were then children, are all that 
are now (1905) left to tell the story of those 
early days : Ephraim Rupel and Mrs. George 
Rambo, of Greene township ; John B. Greene, 
of Warren; Daniel Rupe, of Liberty; John 
Stull, of Center; the Rev. N. Greene, of Dan- 
ville, Indiana; Benjamin Garwood, of Iowa; 
Mrs. James Miller and myself, of this city. 

"So far as known, there are three other per- 
sons now (1905) living in the county who 
were here when our little colony arrived. 
They are Robert Cissne, formerly of Warren 
township, now residing in this city with his 
son, John D. Cissne; Mrs. Matilda Sherland; 
and my wife, Mrs. Mary L. Greene, of South 
Bend. Mrs. Greene came here in March, 1830, 
before the town was laid out, and is prob- 
ably the oldest continuous resident of the 
county now living. So far as I know, there 
is not a man, nor any other woman, now liv- 
ing in South Bend who was a resident of the 
town or the county at the time when I came. 

"The first dark cloud that came over our 
colony was caused by the death of Isaac Rud- 
duck, a worthy young man about twenty-one 
years of age, who died early in January, 1833, 
at the home of his parents, on what is now the 
Whiteman farm, just south of Dr. Jacob R. 
Brown's place, on Sumption prairie road. 
This death occurred about four months after 
the arrival of our colony. To meet the neces- 
sities of the sad occasion was a severe test of 
the abilities and resources of the settlement. 
Some of the older men got together to select 
a burial place. Mr. Sumption generously 
gave an acre of land in one corner of his farm. 
This was the beginning of the present ceme- 
tery that has been enlarged three times since. 

"My brother John, who had just completed 
a three years' apprenticeship to a carpenter, 
made the coffin of poplar boards which we 

had hauled forty miles with oxen. My brother 
Nelson and I were sent to the thick woods to 
peel basswood bark, boil it and stain the coffin. 
The remains were taken to the grave in a lum- 
ber wagon. The lines of the harness were 
taken from the team to lower the body to its 
last resting place ; after which the fresh earth 
was filled in and the people parted in silence 
from the lonely grave. 

"The memory of that first burial that I 
ever attended, with the late Colonel A. S. 
Baker, my boyhood companion and life-long 
friend, standing at my side, and the large 
snowflakes coming down on the little company 
of neighbors and mourners, is as vivid today, 
as is another funeral, that of my esteemed 
friend and neighbor. Almond Bugbee, the last 
that I have attended, when our fellow citizen 
James Oliver was at my side. These two 
funerals, seventy-two yeare apart, fittingly 
illustrate the changes that have taken place 
in the growth of our city and county. 

"The first white person born in our part 
of the county was Andrew Bird. He was 
born in the summer of 1832 on what is now 
the John J. Rupel farm. He grew to man- 
hood, married and raised a family, resided 
all his life in Greene township and died own- 
ing a good farm adjoining the one on which 
he was born. The fii*st marriage in what is 
now Greene township was that of Abijah 
Sumption, son of the first settler, and Rachel 
Rupe. The second was that of John Rudduck 
and Elizabeth Rupe, sister of Rachel. The 
third was that of Ezekiel Greene and Sarah 
Garwood, both membei-s of the little colony. 

gee. 2. — By John Stull. — In connection 
with the reminiscences of Mr. Greene may be 
given the substance of an intervie\v with John 
Stull who, with his parents, came to the 
county when he was a boy nine years old. In 
his conversation Mr. Stull told of his attend- 
ing school in 1830, in the old school building 
in South Bend, on the site of the present Jef- 
ferson school, and also told how hard it was 
to "drum up" enough pupils, by going two 




miles in each direction, to maintain a summer 
session. Mr. Stull then continued: 

"There was then living here Lathrop M. 
Taylor, who occupied a double log house on 
what is now Vistula avenue, one-half of which 
was devoted to a stock of dry goods, and the 
business of a general country store, while 'fire- 
water' M'as dispensed in the other half. Alexis 
Coquillard was also a resident and had his 
trading quarters on the ground long occupied 
by Miller & Lontz as a coal and wood yard. 
Center street, so called for that reason, 
although but an alley proper, was the divid- 
ing line between the Taylor and Coquillard 
properties, the latter trading the land south 
to Taylor. Coquillard did not conceal his sat- 
isfaction that he had got the advantage of 
Taylor in the division. There were but the 
two stores in the place, but many dwelling 
houses scattered through the surrounding 

"In 1832 the report of the uprising of the 
northwestern Indians spread like wildfire. 
The news was that the Indians were killing 
the people, driving off stock and burning 
property. The little settlement became alarm- 
ed and action for defense was begun by draw- 
ing plans for the construction of a fort to be 
located on Avhat is now Vistula avenue, about 
where the water works stand pipe is erected. 
The plans for the fort were such that all lines 
of approach could be commanded and swept 
by the defenders. The fort was to be con- 
structed from small trees cut in such lengths 
that about ten feet should extend above the 
ground, the tops sharpened to a point. A 
ditch was to surround the entire structure. 
Luckily Black Hawk Avas defeated, up in Wis- 
consin, and his followers driven across the 
Mississippi, and the scare in St. Joseph county 
was over," 

There was any quantity of big game in 
the woods, Mr. Stull remarking that at one 
time he saw no less than seven head of deer 
making for the springs along the river. The 
burning of the barrens (oak openings) was a 
favorite pastime with the Indians. They 

could be expected to set the fire going at least 
once a year, and then there were occasionally 
exciting times; but they never could set the 
heavy timber on fire by reason of the damp- 
ness retained by the dead leaves. The only 
survivor of those early days of whom Mr. 
Stull has any knowledge is Mrs. Matilda 
Sherland, niece of the original Alexis Coquil- 

Sec. 3. — Paper by William D. Bulla. — In 
the winter of 1900, Mr. William D. Bulla read 
before the Northern Indiana Historical 
Society a most interesting paper detailing 
many of the particulars of the life of his 
father, Thomas P. Bulla, one of the earliest 
residents of what is now Clay township in 
this county. From this paper it appears that 
Thomas P. Bulla was brought by his parents 
from Ohio to what is now Wayne county, In- 
diana, in the year 1807, when he was but three 
years of age. Notwithstanding the privations 
of frontier life he became a comparatively 
well educated young man and prepared him- 
self for the professions of teaching and land 
surveying, in both of which he excelled. In 
the fall of 1832 he came to St. Joseph county 
to secure for himself a home. He located on 
a tract immediately east of and adjoining the 
grounds of the present University of Notre 
Dame. Previous to this he had made four 
trips to this county, coming first some time 
in the year 1824. With him came his brother- 
in-law, Evan Chalfaut, who located on a tract 
adjoining on the south. 

In 1833, Mr. Bulla built for himself a 
house, the first hewed log house in Clay town- 
ship. It was quite a pretentious building, be- 
ing constructed of hewed logs, with a hard- 
wood floor of matched oak, a brick chimney 
and a pine shingle roof. It consisted of one 
large room, serving the quadruple purpose of 
kitchen, dining room, bed-room and parlor. 
In the center the loom was often a conspicu- 
ous piece of furniture. There was a garret 
overhead, with matched soft-wood floor, and 
reached by a steep winding stair.' This served 
as a spare bed-room in time of need, and also 



for storing the spinning wheels, reels, swifts, 
spools, spool-rack, and the gears, reeds, shvit- 
tles, quills, temple and other things belong- 
ing to the loom. Among the conveniences 
on the lower floor were the large open fire- 
place, containing a crane supplied with hooks 
of various lengths, on which were suspended, 
over the fire, the vessels in which the cooking 
was done. A trap door led to the cellar and 
there was a closet under the stairs and a ' ' cat 
hole ' ' near the back door. 

"While boarding with his brother-in-law, 
Mr. Bulla was employed as a teacher in his 
new house and also in South Bend. Amongst 
his pupils were Lea P. Johnson, Judge Thos. 
S. Stanfield and the great wagon manufac- 
turer. Alexis Coquillard, the younger, nephew 
of the founder of the city of South Bend. Mr. 
Bulla married Hannah, daughter of Captain 
Gideon Draper, another distinguished pioneer 
of the county. She was a worthy helpmate 
of Mr. Bulla, and herself made a strong im- 
pression for good, not only upon her five 
children, but upon the whole conununity. Mr. 
Bulla, besides being a teacher and farmer, 
was for eighteen years county surveyor, suc- 
ceeding Tyra W. Bray, in 1837. Among the 
early settlers, friends and neighbors of Mr. 
Bulla, living within a radius of two miles, 
were his brother William F. Bulla, Evan 
Chalfant, Pierre Navarre, Anthony Defrees, 
Gideon and David Draper, Asa Bennett, Eze- 
kiel Benton, Joseph Metzger, James Stuckey, 
Samuel Brooks, Louis Swearingen, James J. 
Lane, Stephen and Joseph Ulery, the Rever- 
end Edwin Sorin, Brother Lawrence, Brother 
Francis Xavier, Isaac Eaton, Jacob Eaton, 
John Eaton, Samuel R. and Jesse W. Jen- 
nings, John R.. Thompson, Aaron Hoover, — 
all of whom have passed from the activities of 
this life to the realities of the life beyond. 

Sec. 4.— Recollections op Hugh V. Comp- 
TON. — To cover the early history of another 
part of the county, we give here the recollec- 
tions of Hugh V. Compton as to his early life 
on Terre Coupee prairie.^ In 1830, when Mr. 

a. As written by him for the New Carlisle 
Gazette, November 16, 1906. 

Compton was a child but one year old, he 
came with his father from Ohio to ^lontgom- 
ery county, in this state, where the family re- 
mained for nearly six years ; after which they 
made preparations to move to St. Joseph 
county. Mr. Compton says: 

"We started for St. Joseph county about 
the 19th of June, 1836. I remember the 
neighbors coming in to bid us goodbye and 
also a pet deer with a bell on its neck. They 
would pet it for a while and then set the dogs 
on it to see it run. We moved in a covered 
wagon and I do not remember much that hap- 
pened on the way except when we crossed the 
Wabash river at Logansport. I remember 
that as we drove on the ferry a cow swam the 
river at the same time. We forded the Eel 
river coming out of town, there being only Ja 
footbridge. The last night before arriving at 
Terre Coupee we stayed the other side of 
South Bend, which at that time was a very 
small town consisting of a few houses, two 
or three stores, a small brick court house, a log 
jail and the old American hotel. I thought 
the road from South Bend 'to the prairie 
would never come to an end, but about noon 
the 24th of June we landed at what is now 
the Bates farm, then owned by a widow 
Smith and rented by uncle Joe Ivens. My 
mother and family remained with aunt Sally 
Ivens and aunt Maria Dniliner while father 
went to Illinois to look for a location. He 
went on horseback and was gone about four 
weeks but concluded to remain in St. Joseph 
county. We moved into a cabin at Hamilton 
which stood back of the store and about where 
Isaac Faroute's house stands now. That same 
fall John Caskadden came and moved into a 
school house that stood in what is now the 
cemetery. At that time there Wv^re but four 
graves there. The ground was not fenced in 
and the graves were protected by log pens. 
Jonathan Hubbard and family lived on the 
south side of the road in a cabin near the pres- 
ent Hubbard residence. The cabin was built 
for a man by the name of Garwood and was 
the first cabin built on that side of the prairie. 



John Druliner, his brothers and Mr. Garwood 
had all moved from Ohio in 1830, about the 
time my father went to Montgomery county. 
Uncle John Druliner and a party first landed 
on the south side of the prairie and camped 
until they could build their log houses. 

"They began cutting down trees and dig- 
ging wells, but found water so near the sur- 
face that they concluded to see what was 
on the other side of the prairie, and finding 
it higher they all moved over there. They 
hauled the logs that were already cut to 
build the Garwood home, and then each of 
the Druliners built a home and they all 
helped one another untff they were completed. 

"While living at Hamilton during the ^\an- 
ter of '36 and '37, father went back to Mont- 
gomery county, to settle up his business and 
bring the rest of our goods. Uncle John 
Druliner went with him to buy horses. While 
father was away my two uncles, Elias and 
William Compton, came and stayed over 
night with us. They drove from near Craw- 
fordsville to Michigan City with loads of 
wheat and returned with loads of salt. The 
wagons were the old Ohio or freight wagons, 
such as were used to haul merchandise over 
the mountains when emigration reached west 
of the AUeghenies. 

"At one time that winter there were five 
or six hundred Indians camping the 
road from the church. They were on their 
way to Detroit to receive pay from the gov- 
ernment for their lands. They were a queer 
looking set with rings in their ears and noses. 
They wanted to bu}' everything to eat. 
Someone had butchered hog-s and they took 
all that wa.s thrown away, boiled it and made 

' ' During the winter father fixed up a sleigh 
and put a cow-bell on the end of the tongue. 
Our family, ]\Irs. Luther and her son George, 
all took a ride to Uncle John Druliner 's, 
but the road being rough and full of stumps, 
and the knees of the sled being low, we got 
stuck several times. This Avas the first sleigh- 
ride that I remember. 

"In the spring of '37 father rented a piece 
of land of Dick Carlisle, a field of twenty 
or thirty acres lying just south of the town. 
This was a neck of the prairie joined to the 
main prairie through J. H. Service's farm, 
back of his house. We lived in a cabin south- 
wast of town on a road that led to the Lucos 
and Warren farms. Before father had fin- 
ished plowing, an old man by the name of 
Billy Pellet came and told him he had bought 
the land and wanted possession. He said he 
was going to lay it out in town lots, etc. 
Father told him it didn't belong to him or 
Dick Carlisle, as he had rented it for one 
year. Carlisle proposed to change and let 
him have some land north of town, about 
where the depot is and taking in a part of 
the Egbert farm. It was then unbroken 
prairie, and Carlisle proposed to furnish a 
team and someone to assist. He sent his 
brother-in-law. They broke the ground, 
moved the fence and raised oats on the south 
part of the field and corn on the north. 

"New Carlisle at that time was a very small 
place. Where most of the town is now, it 
was oak grubs and woods. There were 
three small stores, one in what is now Fack's 
meat market, kept by Mr. jNIatthews (Schuy- 
ler Colfax's step-father) and a partner by 
the name of Ervin; a grocery on the corner 
east of Warner's drug store, owned by Gar- 
rett Morris; also one owned by Charles 
Egbert, near where E. C. Taylor's grocery 
now is; and one by Dr. Egbert, located 
just west of the hotel. The hotel was built 
by a man by the name of Chocklet Cramner 
and was sold to Richard Cramner before it 
was finished. Dick Carlisle's house stood 
near where Dr. VanRyper's house now 
stands. There were some log cabins in the 
yard, one occupied by Samuel Bates (known 
as Stubby) and the other by Chocklet Cram- 
ner. Across the street was Mr. Matthew's 
residence, a small frame house. West of this 
there were no buildings except a small house 
west of Dr. Egbert's store, occupied by Eber 



Woolinan. A log blacksmith shop stood about 
where Granville Dniliner's house now is. 

"Bersaw's pole cabin, which stood near 
where John Hauser's home now stands, was 
used in the summer for a school house. An 
eastern woman taught the school, and I at- 
tended, coming from our home southwest of 
town, through the oak grubs. An incident 
I well remember was that Carlisle Egbert, 
Dr. Egbert's son, and I were wrestling and 
the boys told the teacher w^e were fighting. 
She ordered three whips, called us in and 
told each to whip the other. I refused to 
do my part of the whipping; the other boy 
did his part, and the teacher whipped mo 
because I would not whip the other boy, so 
I received a double portion. Finally Mary 
Ann Ivens, my cousin, put a stop to the per- 
formance. I will mention here that the first 
school I attended in this county was witli 
Charles Ivens and his sisters, in a log school- 
house near and a little south of the present 
Kinney school-house. One log was removed 
for a window, there having been some glass 
in, but some of it w^as broken and a greased 
paper was put in its place. A board was 
put under the window for a writing desk and 
also a long board for a seat; so when the 
scholars wrote they went to the window and 
sat with their backs to the teacher. The 
boys had dug a hole in the ground, three 
or four feet deep, and for mischief put Henry 
Ranstead, then about seven years old, in it. 
When school was called and Henry did not 
put in his appearance, his sisters informed 
the teacher of his whereabouts and the boys 
received a thrashing. 

"In the fall of 1837 there was a race-track 
built south of the town. There were, in fact, 
two tracks about a rod apart, and each a 
mile long. They started from the Burk or 
Garoutte farm and extended in a northwest 
direction to where Mrs. Jane Shank's house 
now stands. Each track was put in shape by 
Stubby Bates. He turned a large iron kettle 
bottom up and hitched a horse to it, got on 

top and drove over the place for the track 
in order to cut the grass. 

"In the fall of 1837, Schuyler Colfax, aft- 
erwards vice-president of the United States, 
then a boy helping in the store of his step- 
father, Mr. Matthew^s, sometimes hauled wood 
from the Lucos place, passing our house, and 
I often went with him, and as I remember 
him now I think of him as being both a boy 
and a man. 

"I attended my first Sunday school in New 
Carlisle, Mrs. Matthews, her mother, Mrs. 
Stryker, and Schuyler Colfax having the 
management of it. What I had in the way 
of fine clothes were some of Schuyler's out- 

grown ones. 

"In the summer of '37 I earned my first 
money, a shilling, or 121/4 cents. A man, 
named Dawson, hired me to go to James 
Gilbreth's on what is now the Pidge farm 
for a powder horn. I bought a cap with the 
money and they called it seal skin, but I 
think it was cow hide or dog skin. I kept 
it in a raisin box under the bed and often 
crawled under to see and smell my cap. On 
one of these occasions my father stepped on 
my fingers and I have the marks yet. 

"Sometime during the winter of '37 and 
'38 father moved to what was then the 
William Baldwin farm. While living on this 
farm my father's two sisters, Nancy and 
Lucy Ann Compton. and Hugh Vail (whose 
deceased wife was father's sister, Rebecca) 
and his son, Randall, came from Ohio to visit 
us. While hei'e we all went to father's land, 
south of town (purchased of Clayborn Smith) 
and had a picnic. We took our dinner and 
used a large stump for a table. 

"A small deadening and a pole cabin were 
the only improvements, except a log house 
begun the year before; and the whole coun- 
try from Carlisle to Sauktown was a dense 
forest except a few pioneers, the Parnells, 
Hootons and a man by the name of West. 
At that time there was no road laid out 
from Carlisle to this laud. We cleared out 
a road around the west end of Burk's marsh 



in a southeast direction to our farm. At 
that time there was a road from Plainfield 
in a southwest direction to Sauktown. Father 
got up a petition for a county road where 
the road now is from New Carlisle south, but 
a remonstrance got up by a few who lived 
on the Plainfield road because they wanted 
the work all on their road, etc., prevented 
the county road from being made. But not 
to be outdone, father petitioned for a state 
road and had it before the opposition knew it. 
"Late in the fall of '38, father concluded 
to finish the house on the farm. He employed 
a man by the name of Job Smith to do the 
work. I went with him for company and as 
a cook. The house was a cabin of one room 
and a loft where there were two beds. The 
way of getting to this part of the cabin was 
by large pegs put in holes in the logs. There 
were three windows and a door which faced 
the east. Smith laid the floor, put in the 
door and windows and built the chimney, 
which was made of sticks and plastered with 
clay mixed with straw. I was much alarmed 
one night when I heard an owl and thought 
it was a wolf. Sometimes the Parnell and 
Hooton boys would come o^rer to visit us. 
The cabin was finally finished and we moved 
in on Christmas Day, 1838." 

VII. OLD settlers' REUNIONS. 

One of the most enjoyable and profitable 
recreations is that of old settlers' reunions, 
held annually, or oftener, in some picturesque 
spot in the county, or some neighboring 
county. Here come together old friends anil 
neighbors who have known one another from 
the days of the first settlements; and with 
them come their children and grandchildren. 
The old folks gather in little groups and 
recount the stories of other days; while the 
younger people engage in varied sports and 
games that make the woodlands happy. 
Afterwards young and old come together in 
some shady nook M^here the rustic feast is 
spread by each family upon^ a grasvsy plat; 
and there the keen appetites enjoy foods 

which the gods on Mount Olympus might 

Few sights are more touching than that 
of an elderly couple seated complacently, on 
such an occasion, in the shade of a spreading 
oak or beech, looking upon the enjoyments 
of their children, and talking quietly to one 
another and to their old friends. 

One such annual reunion is the Pennsyl- 
vania picnic, held at Island park, in the city 
of Elkhart, on the third Saturday of August 
each year. At this reunion are welcomed all 
Pennsylvanians and their descendants, resid- 
ing in northern Indiana and southern ]Michi- 
gan. The picnic has now been given an- 
nually for upwards of twenty-five years ; and 
is looked forward to each year with eager- 
ness by all our citizens of the splendid race 
that came to us from the Keystone State. 
There is no better blood in the citizenship of 
St. Josph county than that of the sturdy 
sons of that old commonwealth. The found- 
ers of our Pennsylvania picnic Avere William 
B. Garman, Michael F. Shuey and the Rev. 
James D. Huchison, of Elkhart county. 
Many of the most eminent persons of this 
and neighboring counties have been active 
participators in those annual reunions at 
Island park, — among them the late Joseph 
A. S. IVIitchell, judge of the Indiana Supreme 
Court : and also his life long friend and ad- 
mirer, the Hon. John B. Stoll, of this county. 

Another of these reunions is the annual 
pioneer picnic of northern Indiana and 
southern Michigan, held at Clear lake, in 
Warren township, near the state line, where 
the old settlers and their families from St. 
Joseph county, Indiana, Berrien county, 
Michigan, and other counties in both states, 
gather on the beautiful wooded border of that 
fine. lake. Besides the sports, shows and feast- 
ing, there is always at this picnic, as well as 
at the Pennsylvania, picnic, entertaining 
speech and song, commemorative of the past 
and promising for the future. There, too, 
comes the reformer, the politician, the man 
of affairs; and there weighty measures are 



often discussed which afterwards become a 
part of the laws of the hind. But the main 
purpose of the reunions is reminiscence, as 
to the past; enjoyment, as to the present; 
and hio'h hope, as to the future. 

At the picnic held at Clear lake, August 
15, 1900, the writer of this history had the 
pleasure to deliver such an address to the 
assembled pioneers. It was as follows : 

' ' Friends and Neighbors : When that 
worthy pioneer, Ashbury Lindley, of Warren 
township, asked me to talk to the old set- 
tlers of St. Joseph and Berrien counties, and 
when I began to consider what I should say 
on this occasion, it occurred to me that I 
ought to be in full sympathy with any gath- 
ering of Indiana and Michigan people. I 
am myself a native of Michigan, and lived 
in that goodly state until the days of man- 
hood; but I have now lived in Indiana even 
longer than I did in Michigan. I have there- 
fore some right to count myself both a 
Hoosier and a Wolverine. Though not born 
in Berrien county, I have yet many precious 
recollections of that splendid county and of 
her people. When I was first on my way 
to the Hoosier state, the last town in which 
I rasted was the pretty city of Niles. There 
I took the old-fashioned stage coach for the 
south; in those days this was the only means 
of travel from Niles to South Bend. It was 
an early morning in February, in 1859, long 
before daylight, when the mighty, lumber- 
ing stage, drawn by four great horses, began 
its journey south through the darkness, 
swaying from side to side along the lower 
river road, once the trail of Pottawatomies 
and Miamis passing to and from old Fort St. 
Joseph's. The only stop which we made before 
entering Indiana was at the tavern in Ber- 
trand. Located at the junction of the St. 
Joseph river with the Chicago road, the great 
Sauk trail, known of old to Indian and early 
settler, that pioneer village was at one time 
a more important place than either Niles or 
South Bend. But Bertrand, the famous trad- 
ing post, has disappeared from the face of 

the earth. Its pretty gardens and its busi- 
ness lots are but a part of the rich farm 
lands of the St. Joseph valley. Its Indian 
neighbor, too, Pokagon's village, just across 
the river, can be seen no more. Civilization 
has eliminated Pokagon and his band; the no- 
ble chieftain, friend of the white man, is no 
more. The railroad has removed the stage 
coach, and with that has gone the ambitious 
village of Bertrand. 

"It was three years after that early morn- 
ing ride in the stage coach when I came back 
again to Berrien county and to Michigan. 
It was February again. There was civil war 
in the land; and, like many another youth, 
I thought it my duty to offer my service, if 
need be. my life, for the preservation of the 
Union. Wlien the question came as to what 
regiment I should join, I thought at once 
of my native state. I was not then old 
enough, had not been long enough away from 
my childhood's home, to be weaned from 
Mother Michigan ; and so down I went to Niles 
and was taken into Company I of the Twelfth 
Michigan infantry, then in winter quarters 
at old Camp Barker. I did not knoAV a sin- 
gle soul in the regiment ; but it was a Michi- 
gan regiment, and I should defend my coun- 
try in the companionship of boys of my na- 
tive state. That was enough for me. Noble 
fellows, too, were those Twelfth Michigan 
soldiers. Many of them, including those of 
Company I, were residents of Berrien county. 
A better citizen, a purer patriot, a worthier 
American gentleman, than our captain, Da- 
riiLs Brown, could not be found in all the 
ranks of the Union ai-my. Lightly rest the 
green sod upon his breast, where he sleeps 
in peace by the banks of the St. Joseph. 
Many another citizen soldier of that brave 
regiment, the living and the dead, has a se- 
(nire place in the memory of his comrades 
and of his fellow citizens. From Berrien 
Springs they came, and' from Buchanan; 
from Three Oaks and Galien ; from Niles and 
St. Joseph, and Benton Harbor and New 
Buffalo, and from every farmhouse and 



hamlet of the county; simple-hearted and 
brave pioneer patriots, who thought it noth- 
ing that they should go forth and bare their 
breasts to the sword that sought to strike at 
the heart of their country. And so am I 
doubly bound to the pioneers of Indiana and 
Michigan ; by the strong bonds of mature 
manhood no less than by the tender ties of 

''And what manner of men and women 
were those pioneers? They were of hearts 
as brave as those of the children whom they 
raised up to do battle for their country. They 
came out into the wilderness with little else 
than their own stout hearts and strong arms 
to help them. They cut down and removed 
the forest, or turned over the stiff sod of the 
prairie, and so changed the desert into farm 
lands and gardens. It was often a lonely 
life, not to speal? of the terror of wild beasts 
or wilder Indians. I .very distinctly remem- 
ber in my own home, when we could see no 
habitation but our little log house, in what- 
soever direction w^e turned our eyes. We 
knew that an uncle lived off to the south, 
but it was through the dense forest to get 
to his house. To the east a pathway by a 
swamp, over a barren knoll and through a 
fearfully lonely woods, led to the nearest 
neighbor in that direction; and memory 
still elings to that triumphant day, when as 
a boy I first found my way through that 
terror-haunted woods and back safe home 
again. To the north, far beyond the marshes, 
stretched an almost endless forest, and be- 
yond that we knew there lived one of our 
most valued and respected friends. To the 
west we never penetrated, though there was 
in our minds some vague knowledge of wood- 
land denizens in that direction. The trees 
were our near, and the hills, marshes and 
swamps our more remote landmarks. The 
'hooked tree' and the 'forked tree' were 
then as well recognized objects in our con- 
fined landscape, as are now to us the stand 
pipe at South Bend or the Michigan Central 
railroad bridge at Niles. And there was an- 

other well known tree where, once upon a 
time, brave chanticleer had chased a hawk, 
and not content to drive off the robber, had 
followed him into the air, lighting upon a 
limb high up on the great oak, which ever 
after was known to us as the 'rooster tree.' 
The daring feat of this rooster was the theme 
of admiration at many a winter's fireside 
thereafter. The 'bear's hill,' half a mile 
into the mysterious western woods, was the 
spot where, on a never-to-be-forgotten morn- 
ing, a company of thirty hunters, with dogs 
and guns, had finally eome up with big brown 
bruin ; and ever after when the morning sun 
shone through the trees and rested upon that 
hillside we imagined that, through the flut- 
tering leaves and shadows, we could still see 
the hunters and their dogs, and the big bear 
in their midst. A more graceful picture rises 
before us when we call to mind the pleasant 
morning when the dew drops glittered over 
the north marshes as we boys went to bring 
the oxen from pasture, and saw far off, near 
to the edge of the woods, two deer from the 
forest contentedly grazing, as if they were 
themselves a part of our domestic cattle. 

"But the pioneer life was not all beauty 
and romance. It was, even more, hard and 
unremitting labor. The courageous toiler 
must cut away the underbrush and burn it, 
he must cut do^n the trees and make them 
into rails, boards and shingles. Ah, what 
endless work it was! But the little clearing 
was finally made; the logs were up, 
one over the other, until the walls of the 
cabin were completed, and the rude roof of 
split shingles was laid over it. And then 
came also the brave young wife, who accepted 
the prospect before her like the heroine that 
she was. Year after year, the clearing was 
enlarged, and a crop grown among the 
stumps. The marshes and swamps were 
drained and so converted into meadows. 
Alas, with this stirring up of the new soil, 
this reclaiming of the morasses, rose up also 
the germs of malaria. Regularly as the season 
came, August and September found the pio- 



neer, and sometimes the faithful wife and 
helpless little ones, shivering by turns and 
burning with the everlasting ague. Happy 
was it for them if the ague did not develop 
into bilious or intermittent fever, or even 
the dreaded typhoid. Many a brave pioneer, 
many a struggling wife, many a stricken 
boy or girl succumbed to those malignant dis- 
eases, and the tired bodies found rest in the 
little graveyards that spread out from year 
to year around the country churches. In 
those days, men and women became old at 
forty-five and fifty years; and only the 
hardier constitutions lived through that first 
period of labors, privations and sickness. But 
the hardier ones did live through it all. 
Year after year, the forest, the prairie, the 
marsh and the swamp, put on, little by lit- 
tle, the appearance of the farm and the gar- 
den. Wheat and oats, corn, potatoes and 
buckwheat, grew and ripened among the 
stumps; and finally the stumps themselves 
disappeared, and great fields of grain and 
vegetables and orchards filled the places once 
occupied by the underbrush and the dark 
and silent woods. The marshes were turned 
into pastures and hay fields. The rail fences 
gave way to boards, to hedges and to wire, 
until finally the wild rule of wandering cows 
and young stock was done away with, and 
domestic animals were fenced in, and need 
no longer be fenced out. The roads that 
were once only Indian trails and traces, 
pathways and stray tracks through the des- 
ert, crossing the streams or rivers by fords 
or ferry boats, were straightened, drained, 
graded and graveled, and substantial bridges 
or culverts thrown across the streams, until 
the highways along the farms became almost 
as fit for travel as the paved streets of the 
cities. The rude log house, laid up by the 
pioneer's own hands, was set aside, and in 
its place appeared, at first, the neat frame 
structure, and afterwards, perhaps, the 
brick or stone mansion. The stick chimney 
yielded to one of brick. The log sheds and 
barns disappeared : and in their place were 

discovered the comfortable frame shelters 
and the great bank barns, swelling with hay 
and corn and wheat. Intellectually and mor- 
ally, a like transformation took place. Well 
do I remember the old log school house, half 
hidden in the woods. There gathered the chil- 
dtrenof the pioneers from December to March, 
stamping into the warm room every morn- 
ing, half frozen from the deep snowbanks; 
and then again bundling up just before dark 
every evening, to take the same roads to 
their homes. Many an ambitious boy, sit- 
ting on one of the split log benches of those 
school houses, and facing one of the lean-to 
writing desks that lined three sides of the 
building, thought seriously of the time when 
he should be congressman, or governor, or, 
it might be, president ; or the more modest 
youth or maiden, while perhaps enamored of 
one another, became even more enamored of 
science, literature and scholarship. And the 
best of it is that a goodly number of those 
day-dreams came true. From the log school 
house went forth many a distinguished man 
and woman of the nation; and there is lit- 
tle doubt that the toils and privations of 
home, the long walks from home to school, 
and the studioiLs quiet of those winter abodes 
of learning, have all combined to give ear- 
nestness, resolution and courage to the young 
scholars; so that when afterwards they met 
with their more luxurious city rivals they 
found no trouble in distancing them in the 
race of life. The pioneer schools were rude 
ones, but they were nurseries of robust, vir- 
tuous and successful citizens in eveiy walk 
of life. 

"But the log school houses have passed 
away. More commodious and elegant homes 
of learning have taken their place; and the 
modern school building and the neat church 
edifice ornament the pleasant slopes and cozy 
valleys throughout all the smiling farming 
lands, where once the pioneer struggled and 
triumphed in the hard battle with rude na- 
ture. Yes, the pioneer has triumphed. Culti- 
vated fields, pleasant homes, churches and 



school houses, line all the well kept highways ; 
and where fifty years ago the wilderness 
frowned upon the first invasion of the axe, 
the spade and the plow, there civilization 
lifts her glorious banner over the wide land- 
scape. Let the pioneers and their children 
then gather together in those annual harvest 
reunions to commemorate the noble work, 
the joys and the sorrows, that laid the founda- 

tions of the blessings which we now enjoy. 
The pioneers builded well; they were the 
founders of a great nation, the greatest that 
has ever blest the earth. Let them and their 
children and their children's children meet 
from year to year, forever, as we fire meeting 
this afternoon at Clear lake, to keep green 
the memory of those heroic days and to shed 
honors forever upon those noble pioneers." 




Sec. 1. — Indian Titles. — When Pierre Na- 
varre located on the St. Joseph, in the year 
1820, neither the state of Indiana nor the 
United States had acquired title to any lands 
in what is now St. Joseph county, nor indeed 
to any lands north of the Wabash, except 
small tracts near Fort Wayne and Lafayette. 
The title to this great northern wild, its thick 
woods, oak openings, prairies and marshes, 
was still in the Indians, as it was left by 
the treaty made between Anthony Wayne 
and Little Turtle and the other chiefs, at 
Greenville, Aug-ust 3, 1795. Not only was 
the legal title to the lands still in the In- 
dians, but they continued to occupy the coun- 
try as their great hunting reserve. 

On August 29, 1821, as we have already 
seen,« the Ottawas, Chippewas and Potta- 
watomies of Michigan ceded to the United 
States a large tract in southern Michigan. 
This cession included also the eastern part of 
the ten mile strip between our northern boun- 
dary, as tixed by the ordinance of 1787, and 
the state boundaiy, as fixed by the enabling 
act of 1816, on the admission of Indiana 
into the Union. The western limit of the 
Indiana strip so acquired by the Unitdl 
States reached to the middle line of range 
two east; and the southern limit reached 
to the south line of township thirty-seven 
north. Those lines take in the northeast 
quarter of St. Joseph county. The Potta- 
\vatomies were then the exclusive owners of 
a. Chap. 3 of this History; Subd. 5, Sec. 12. 

the remainder of the county. By treaty of 
October 16, 1826, they ceded the western end 
of the ten mile strip, which included the 
northwest quarter of St. Joseph county. By 
treaty of September 28, 1828, an irregular 
tract lying south of the cession of August 29, 
1821, was ceded. This cession reached to 
and included the southeast quarter of the 
county.- Finally, by treaty of October 26, 
1832, the remainder of the extreme northwest 
of the state was ceded. This cession included 
the remaining or. southwest quarter of St. 
Joseph county. The only land title, there- 
fore, which Navarre could acquire, in 1820, 
was an Indian title. The same was true as 
to Coquillard on his coming, in 1823, and 
for three years afterwards, except as to the 
northeast quarter of the county. Even when 
Taylor came, in 1827, the Indian title had 
been extinguished only as to the northern 
half of the county. 

Sec. 2. — First Congressional and Legis- 
lative Acts. — The first act of congress di- 
rectly affecting St. Joseph county was that 
approved March 2, 1827, entitled "An act 
to authorize the state of Indiana to locate 
and make a road therein named." This act 
was passed to carry out certain provisions 
of the treaty of October 16, 1826, b}^ which 
the Pottawatomies, amongst other things, 
ceded to the United States, " a strip of land, 
commencing at Lake Michigan and running 
to the Wabash river, one hundred feet wide, 
for a road, and also one section of good land 
contiguous to said road for each mile of the 



•history of ST. JOSEPH COUNTY. 

same and also for each mile of a road from 
the termination thereof, through Indianapo- 
lis, to some convenient point on the Ohio 
river. And the general assembly of the state 
of Indiana shall have a right to locate the 
said road, and apply the said sections, or the 
proceeds thereof, to the making of the same 
or any part thereof; and the said road shall 
be at their sole disposal." Following the 
treaty, and the act of congi^ess in relation 
thereto, and to provide for carrying the same 
into effect, the general assembly, by an act 
approved January 24, 1828, appointed com- 
missioners "to survey and mark a road from 
Lake Michigan to Indianapolis, agreeably to 
the late treaty with the Pottawatomie In- 
dians, and the act of congress in confirma- 
tion thereof."^'' Thus were the first steps 
taken for the construction of the Michigan 
road, one of the most important public im- 
provements known in the history of Indiana. 
The work was of great moment to the whole 
state, from the Ohio to the lake, but par- 
ticularly so to St. Joseph coimty and other 
northern counties, which would thus be more 
closely connected with the settled parts of 
the state and also enabled more conveniently 
to reach the lake trade at Michigan City, 
or Trail's Creek, as that place was at first 
called.^ It was a renewal, by another route, 
of the old course of commerce from the lakes 
to the gulf. 

The act of January 24, 1828, in relation 
to the IMichigan road, was the first official 
notice taken by the legislature of the terri- 
tory of our county. But the proposition to 
construct a great highway through this re- 
gion was indeed the giving of most important 
consideration to the welfare of the valleys 
of the St. Joseph and the Kankakee. 

Sec. 3. — First Surveys. — Among the earli- 
est surveys made in the county were those of 
the Michigan road and of the Michigan road 
lands. The original survey of the road was 
begun in the fall of 1828; but that survey 

a. Acts 1827, p. 87. 

6. See Cliap. 2 of this History; Subd. 2. 

was abandoned as impracticable, being an 
attempt to lay out a road on a direct line 
from Lake Michigan to the Wabash, over al- 
most impassable swamps and marshes, chiefly 
those of the Kankakee country. The route 
proposed in this survey, from the site of the 
present city of Michigan City to that of 
Logansport, was seventy-four miles in length. 
A second survey, made the same fall, turned 
to the southeast from Trail's Creek until it 
reached the south bend of the St. Joseph 
river. "At this point," say the surveyors 
in their report, "is a beautiful site for a 
town." So, in 1828, did the surveyors of the 
Michigan road make prophecy of the future 
of the Queen City of the St. Joseph valley." 
From this south bend of the St. Joseph, the 
survey eontinued nearly in a direct line to 
the south. The distance by this route be- 
tween Michigan City and Logansport, as the 
extreme points are now called, was found to 
be one hundred and two miles. The maps 
and plats of this survey were filed in the 
office of the secretary of state, December 9, 
1828. In the spring of 1829, there was a 
resurvey of that part of the road from South 
Bend to Logansport, over practically the 
same route as that surveyed in the fall of 
1828 : and the maps, plats and field notes 
were filed in the office of the secretary of 
state on June 12, 1829. This survey, as made 
from Michigan City to South Bend in the 
fall of 1828, and from South Bend to Lo- 
gansport in the spring of 1829, was accepted; 
and the field notes are called the "Field 
notes of the second survey"; the first being 
that over the impracticable route from 
Trail's Creek, or Michigan City, through the 
swamps, directly to Logansport. Had the first 
survey been accepted, and the road built on 
that route. South Bend and St. Joseph county 
would have been left far to one side; and 
our history might have been different. For- 
tunately for us, however, it was according 

a. The field notes on which this remark is 
written were filed Dec. 9, 1828, and signed by W. 
W. Wick, surveyor. 



to the "Field notes of the second survey," 

that the road was laid out and constructed." 

The first public surveys, after those of the 

Michigan road, were the surveys ~ made in 

1829 by William Brookfield, our first county 
surveyor. Brookfield 's surveys were made in 
townships thirty-seven and thirty-eight, 
north, ranges one, two and three, east, and 
included parts of the present townships of 
Portage, Penn, Clay, German and Warren. 
Other surveyors during the year 1829 were 
David Hillis and Thomas Brown. The prin- 
cipal surveyor in connection with the Michi- 
gan road and Michigan road lands was Wil- 
liam Polke, for a long time commissioner in 
charge of the construction of the Michigan 
road, whose surveys extend from the year 

1830 to the year 1834, inclusive. Other sur- 
veyors were E. H. Lytle, in 1830 and 1834; 
and Robert Clark, Jr., in 1833. The people 
were exceedingly urgent for the completion 
of the Michigan road and for the survey of 
all the lands of the county; and both these 
important works were pushed ahead with 
energy. On the extinguishment of the In- 
dian title to the lancls of what is now the 
southwest quarter of the county by the treaty 
of October 26, 1832, the surveys were rap- 
idly extended over all our territory; so that 
by the year 1834 practically all the lands of 
the county were surveyed. At the beginning 
of the year 1832 the Michigan road was com- 
pleted from the Ohio, at Madison, to the 
Wabash, at Logansport; and by the end 
of that year the road was opened to the lake, 
at Michigan City. The tide of emigration, 
induced by the facilities thus afforded, 
poured into all the country between the Wa- 
bash and the lake; and the population of 
this vicinity increased very rapidly. 

Sec. 4. — First Land Sales. — While the 
public surveys were begun in 1829, yet it 
appears from the plat books now on file in 
the office of the eounty auditor that the 
first sales of public lands were not made un- 

a. See further as to the Michigan Road, Chap. 
7, Sub. 2, Sec. 3. 

til late in the year 1830; and the first sales 
of the Michigan road lands were made still 
a year later. Yet, although the actual sales 
were not completed until the dates named, 
the entries were made much earlier. After 
the entries were made, and even after the 
sales were completed, it was some time yet 
longer before the patents could issue. On 
October 4, 1830, the south half of the north- 
west quarter of section twelve, township 
thirty-seven, north, range two east, was sold 
to Lathrop M. Taylor; and on the 25th of 
the same month the north half of the same 
tract was sold to Alexis Coquillard. In the 
spring following, on March 28, 1831, these 
two men laid out the eounty seat on the two 
tracts so purchased, together with a smaller 
tract in the southwest quarter of section one 
of the same township and range. Yet on j\Iay 
12, 1831, in the bond of Coquillard and 
Taylor agreeing to donate certain lots in the 
new town for public purposes, they say, 
"which said several donations are to be 
legally conveyed in a reasonable time after 
the patents shall have been issued to the 
said Coquillard and Taylor." It is very 
plain that the population was pressing into 
this rich country much faster than the state 
and national authorities could prepare for 


So far had the population of this region 
increased at the beginning of the j^ear 1830, 
that the legislature, then in session, deemed 
it wise to provide for the organization of 
the two sister counties of the St. Joseph 
valley. This important act of legislation, 
which was approved by the governor and 
became a law January 29. 1830, reads as 
follows :^ 

"An Act for the Formation of the Coun- 
ties of St. Joseph and Elkhart. 

"Section 1. Be it enacted by the General 
Assembly of the State of Indiana, That 
from and after the first day of April next, 

a. Acts 1829, pp. 28-31. 


all that tract of country, which is included in the county treasury, in the same manner 
within the following boundary, shall form as other monies are paid, 
and constitute a new county, to be known ''See. 4. The circuit court of the county 
and designated by the name of the county of St. Joseph shall be holden at the house 
of St. Joseph, to-wit: Beginning at [the of Alexis Coquillard, in said county of St. 
west line of] range No. 2 west from the Joseph: Provided, however, that the cir- 
second principal meridian, of the state of cuit court, shall have authority to remove 
Indiana, on the northern line of the state, the court from the house of Alexis Coquil- 
thence running east, to where [the east line lard, to any other place in said county, pre- 
of] range No. 3 east, intersects the state vious to the public buildings being com- 
line ; thence south with the range line, pleted, should the said court deem it ex- 
thirty miles ; thence west to range two pedient ; after the completion of which, the 
west : thence north to the place of beginning, court of the said county of St. Joseph, shall 

"Sec. 2. The said new county of St. be holden at the court house at the county 

Joseph, shall, from and after the first day seat of said county of St. Joseph, 

of April next, enjoy aU the rights, priv- "Sec. 5. The agent who shall be ap- 

ileges and jurisdiction, which to separate pointed to superintend the sales of lots, 

and independent counties, do and may prop- at the county seat of the county of St. 

eriy belong and appertain. Joseph, shall reserve ten per cent, out of the 

"Sec. 3. That Thomas J. Evans and proceeds thereof, and pay the same over to 

Gillis McBane of Cass county, Daniel North such person or persons, as may be appointed 

of Randolph county, John Berry of ^Madison t)y law to receive the same, for the use of. a 

county, and John Ross of Fayette county, are county library for said county of St. Joseph, 

hereby appointed commissioners, agreeable which he shall pay over at such time or 

to the act, entitled 'an act for the fixing times, and place, as may be directed by law. 

the seats of justice in all counties hereafter "See. 6. It shall be the duty of the quali- 

to be laid off.'* The commissioners above fied voters of the county of St. Joseph, at the 

named, shall convene at the house of Alexis^ time of electing a clerk, recorder and asso- 

Coquillard, in the said county of St. Joseph, ciate judges, to elect three justices of the 

on the fourth Monday of May next, and Peaee, who, when elected and qualified, shall 

shall immediately proceed to discharge the ^^^'^ all the powers and perform all the 

duties assigned them by law. It is hereby duties, prescribed by law, as relates to 

made the duty of the sheriff of Cass county, boards of justices, in the several counties ; 

to notify the said commissioners, either in and said board shall have power to hold 

person, or by written notification, of their special sessions and to do and perform any 

appointment, on or before the first day of duties required at any previous regular 

May next; and the said sheriff of Cass session. 

county, shall receive from the said county "^^^- '^- "^^^^ ^^^ t^e territory lying west 

of St. Joseph, so much as the county board °^ ''^^^ county, to the state line, be, and the 

doing business for said county, shall deem ^^""'^ '^ ^^^^^^^ attached to the said county 

just and reasonable; who are hereby author- f ^*- Joseph for civil and criminal juris- 

ized to allow the same, out of any monies f"'"f ^ ^""^ ^^e citizens residing .vithin the 

bounds so included, shall be entitled to all 

a. The act referred to was approved January the privileges and immunities, and be sub- 

14,^1824. See Ind. R. s. 1831, p. 459, and 1838, ject to all the taxes, impositions and assess- 

6. Written Alexander in the statute by mis- "lents, of the citizens of the county of St. 

^^^^- Joseph. 



"Sec. 8. That from and after the first 
day of April next, all that tract of country, 
which is included and within the following 
boundary, shall form and constitute a new 
county, to be known and designated by the 
name of the county of Elkhart, to-wit : Be- 
ginning at [the east line of] range three 
east [on the northern line of the state], 
thence running with the state line twenty- 
four miles east; thence south twenty miles; 
thence west twenty-four miles ; thence north 
twenty-four [twenty] miles, to the place of 

"Sec. 9. That the said new county of 
Elkhart, shall, from and after the first day 
of April next, enjoy all the rights, privileges 
and jurisdiction, which to separate and in- 
dependent counties, do, and may properly 
belong and appertain. 

"Sec. 10. That William G. Ewing and 
Hugh Hanna of the county of Allen, Samuel 
Fleming and John Bishop of the coimty of 
Wayne, and Joseph Bennett of the countj^ of 
Delaware, are hereby appointed commission- 
ers agreeable to the act, entitled 'an act for 
the fixing the seats of justice in all counties 
hereafter to be laid off.' The commissioners 
above named, shall convene at the house of 
ChcKster Sage, in the said county of Elkhart, 
on the fourth Monday in May next, and shall 
immediately proceed to discharge the duties 
assigned them by law. It is hereby made the 
duty of the sheriff of Allen county, to notify 
the said commissioners, either in person, or 
by written notification, of their appointment, 
on or before the first day of May next; and 
the said sheriff of Allen county, shall receive 
from the said county of Elkhart, so much 
as the board doing county business shall 
deem just and reasonable ; who are hereby au- 
thorized to allow the same out of any monies 
in the county treasury, in the manner as other 
monies are paid. 

, "See. 11. The circuit court of the county 
of Elkhart, shall be holden at the house of 
Chester Sage, in said county of Elkhart : Pro- 
vided, however, that the circuit court shall 

have authority to remove the court from the 
house of Chester Sage, to any other place in 
said county, previous to the public buildings 
being completed, should the said court deem 
it expedient; after the completion of which, 
the court of the said county of Elkhart, shall 
be holden at the court house at the county 
seat of said county of Elkhart. 

"Sec. 12. The agent who shall be appointed 
to superintend the sales of lots at the county 
seat of the county of Elkhart, shall reserve 
ten per cent, out of the proceeds thereof, and 
pay the same over to such person, or persons, 
as may be appointed by law to receive the 
same, for the use of a county library for said 
county of Elkhart; which he shall pay over 
at such time or times, and place, as may be 
directed by law. 

"Sec. 13. It shall be the duty of the quali- 
fied voters of the countj^ of Elkhart, at the 
time of electing a clerk, recorder and asso- 
ciate judges, to elect three justices of the 
peace, who, when elected and qualified, shall 
have all power, and perform all the duties, 
prescribed by law, as relates to boards of 
justices, in the several counties; and said 
board shall have power to hold special ses- 
sions, and to do and perform any duties re- 
quired at any previous regular session. 

"Sec. 14. That all territory lying east of 
said county to the state line, be, and the same 
is hereby attached to the said county of Elk- 
hart, for civil and criminal jurisdiction ; and 
the citizens residing within the bounds so in- 
cluded, shall be entitled to all the privileges 
and immunities, and be subject to all the 
taxes, impositions and assessments, of the citi- 
zens of the county of Elkhart. 

"Sec. 15. The county of St. Joseph shall 
be attached to the first, and the county of 
Elkhart to the sixth judicial district of the 
state, for judicial purposes. 

"This act to take effect and be in force 
from and after its passage." 

Sec. 1. — Attached Territory. — From the 
foregoing act it appears that St. Joseph and 
Elkhart were the only counties then organized 



on the northern boundary of the state. All 
the territory to the west, including that of 
the present counties of La Porte, Porter and 
Lake, was attached to St. Joseph county ; and 
all to the east, including the territory of the 
present counties of La Grange and Steuben, 
was attached to Elkhart county. In addition, 
by section eight of an act for the formation 
of Grant county, approved February 10, 1831, 
all the unorganized territory then remaining 
west of the range line- dividing ranges three 
and four east, was attached to St. Joseph 
county; and that to the east of said line, to 
Elkhart county." This was done in accord- 
ance with the practice of the legislature to 
attach unorganized territory to counties al- 
ready organized. 

The original county of the state was Knox, 
with its county seat at Vincennes, organized 
January 14, 1790. Northern Indiana re- 
mained within the jurisdiction of Knox 
county until January 10, 1818, "when this 
part of the state, extending to Lake Michigan, 
was embraced in Randolph county, of which 
Winchester was the county seat, up to the 
formation of Allen county, December 17, 
1823. "'^ 

From the formation of Allen county, in 
1823, until that of St. Joseph and Elkhart 
counties, in 1830, all northern Indiana was 
attached to Allen county; even as by act of 
January 29, 1830, the territory now forming 
La Porte, Porter and Lake counties was at- 
tached to St. Joseph county. The territory 
attached in such cases was not in fact a part 
of the county to which it was joined ; yet, for 
all practical purposes, it was so treated. And 
we shall see that St. Joseph county, both 
under our board of justices and under our 
board of commissioners, formed the attached 
territory west to the Illinois line into a dis- 
tinct township, and otherwise treated it as an 
integral part of the county.^ 

c. Special Acts 1830, pp. 16-18. 

&. History of Fort Wayne, by Wallace A. 
Brice, p. 290. See also Indiana Legislative and 
State Manual, 1899, pp. 686-688. 

c. See Subdivisions 4 and 5 of this chapter. 


Sec. 1. — The Virginia System. — In our lo- 
cal government we are still Virginians. The 
first civilized authority exercised in this re- 
gion was that of France; afterwards the 
power of Great Britain prevailed; the do- 
minion of Spain flashed up for a moment 
and was gone. During the Revolution, chief- 
ly for the purpose of protecting her Kentuckj^ 
frontiers, Virginia sent an expedition across 
the Ohio river under George Rogers Clark, 
and wrested the country from England. The 
old commonwealth then formed the territory 
northwest of the Ohio into one of her coun- 
ties, named it the county of Illinois, and, so 
far as suitable to the new conditions, trans- 
ferred her own form of local county govern- 
ment to this vast wilderness empire. The 
Virginians were the Romans of our early 
American history. They had a capacity for, 
government on a large scale. The state was 
the center of the system, and the county was 
the unit of subordinate local government. The 
townships were merely convenient subdivi- 
sions created for the purpose of more easily 
administering the affaire of the county. Such 
a scheme is well adapted for the government 
of large territories, particularly when the 
same are sparsely populated. The authority 
passes from the state to the counties, and all 
the affairs of the citizen are administered 
through the county courts, county boards and 
other county officers, acting also, when con- 
venient to do so, through subordinate town- 
ship officers. That is our system of local gov- 
ernment, and we received it originally from 
the Old Dominion. After Virginia had ceded 
her great count}- of Illinois to the United 
States, the government established under the 
ordinance of 1787. was somewhat modified 
from the former, or Virginia, system, by a 
selection of many Avise provisions from the 
laws of other states ; but the prevailing char- 
acter of the machinery of government under 
the great ordinance remained Virginian. 
Sec. 2. — The New England System. — The 



New Eugland system, as it is often called, 
proceeds, not from the state to the county 
and then to the individual, but from the in- 
dividual to the town, or other local communi- 
ty, and then to the state. In the Virginia 
form of local government the county is the 
unit, and the town, or township, is quite 
subordinate. In the New England system the 
town is the unit, and the county is but an 
aggregation of towns. St. Joseph county ad- 
joins Berrien county, Michigan, but our po- 
litical ancestry goes back to Virginia, wiiile 
that of Berrien county goes back to New 
York and New England. The original set- 
tlers of Michigan came directly from the east 
and northeast ; those of Indiana from the 
south and southeast. At our northern bound- 
ary the two systems meet. The authority of 
Berrien county is exercised through the board 
of supervisors of the several townships ; that 
of St. Joseph county, through a county board 
elected by the people of the whole county. 
On the other side of the state line the town- 
ship is supreme, and the county is but an 
aggregation of townships ; on this side of the 
line the county is supreme, and the town- 
ships are but its subordinate divisions. We 
are very close to Michigan ; indeed, the north 
ten miles of St. Joseph county, as we have 
seen, was once a part of Michigan. But the 
forms of government are quite dissimilar. 
Which form is the better may admit of ques- 
tion. No doubt the Michigan system gives 
larger consideration to the individual and to 
the smaller local communities ; it is nearer 
to the people. There the township is more 
than with us; the road district is more; the 
school district is more ; the power of the in- 
dividual citizen is greater. But with us the 
county government is more effective. The 
coimty board, consisting of three members, 
selected from different sections of the county, 
but elected by the voters of the whole county, 
is much more efficient than a meeting of the 
board of supervisors of the several townships. 
We can carry on public works to much better 

advantage. We can build court houses, school 

houses, roads and bridges more effectively. 
The work of the state, of the people at large, 
can be better carried on in Indiana. But it 
must be admitted that the rights and powers 
of the individual citizen seem better guarded 
in our sister state. Each system is good in 
its way; and the statesmanship that should 
blend the excellencies of both would merit 
the very highest honor. 


See. 1. — Organization of Civil Govern- 
ment. — In accordance with the provisions of 
section six of the act for the organization of 
the county, our first county election was held 
on the first Monday in August, 1830. At this 
election Lathrop M. Taylor was elected clerk 
and recorder, and Lambert McCombs, Adam 
Smith and Levi F. Arnold were elected jus- 
tices of the peace. The board of justices held 
its first meeting at the house of Alexis Co- 
quillard, on August 27, 1830. The first entry 
on the record of the board reads as follows : 

"In pursuance of an act of the general 
assembly of the state of Indiana, entitled an 
act to provide for the carrying the laws into 
effect in new counties, approved January 2, 
1818; and also the act, entitled an act for 
the formation of the counties of St. Joseph 
and Elkhart, passed and approved January 
29, 1830, the Justices of the Peace met at 
the house of Alexis Coquillard, in St. Joseph 
county, on Friday, the 27th day of August, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and thirty. 

"Adam Smith now comes forth and pro- 
duces his commission from His Excellency, 
James B. Ray, Grovernor of the State of Indi- 
ana, commissioning him, the said Adam Smith, 
Justice of the Peace in and for said county 
of St. Joseph for and during the term of five 
years from the 11th day of August, 1830; 
and on the back of said commission is the 
following endorsement, to wit : 
" 'St. Joseph county, ) 
" 'State of Indiana, ) 

" 'Be it remembered, that on the 27th day 


of August, A. D. 1830, personally came Adam Company (Alexis Coquillard, agent,) and to 

Smith, within commissioned, before me, L. M. Samuel Hanna and Co. (Lathrop M. Taylor, 

Taylor, Clerk of the Circuit Court, and be- agent,) authorizing them, on payment of a 

ing duly sworn on his solemn oath, says that fee of ten dollars each, "to vend foreign 

he will support the Constitution of the United merchandise within the county of St. Joseph 

States and of the »State of Indiana, and that for the term of one year from the date here- 

he will to the best of his abilities and judg- ' of." 

ment discharge the duties of his office of On Monday, September 6, 1830, the board 

Justice of the Peace in St. Joseph county of justices held their second meeting, also 

faithfully, and that he has not since the first at the house of Alexis Coquillard. Grand and 

day of January, 1819, either directly or in- petit jurors for the November term of the 

directly, knowingly given, accepted or carried Circuit Court were drawn, as follows : 

a challenge to any person in or out of this Grand jurors, Samuel Cannon, Jacob 

State to fight a single combat with any deadly White, John Clyburn, William E. Short, 

weapon, and that he will not knowingly ac- Adam Keith, John Banker, Samuel Leeper, 

cept or carry a challenge to any person or Charles Labby. Henley Clyburn, Gamaliel 

persons to fight with any deadly weapon in Drulinger, Zachariah Grant, Jacob Cripe, 

single combat, either in or out of this state, Benjamin Potter, James Nixon, Thomas Cly- 

during his continuance in office. Given rm- burn, Phillip Fail, Louis Sancomb and 

der my hand and seal the day and date first Joseph Adams. 

above written. Petit jurors, Paul Egbert, John Drulinger, 

" 'L. M. Taylor, Clerk (Seal).' " Daniel Eiler, C. B. Overacker, John Whita- 

Like credentials were presented by Lambert ker, Benjamin Coquillard, Israel Rush, Bar- 

McCombs; and thereupon the Board of Jus- zilla Drulinger, Jacob Harris, John Hague, 

tices was organized by the election of Lam- Richard Harris, Nathaniel Steele, Samuel 

bert McCombs as president. Johnston, Jacob Egbert, John Rouleau, 

The first order entered was as follows : Jacob Ritter, Jacob Rhue, Alexis Coquillard, 

"Ordered by the Board of Justices of St. John Wills, John Skiles, Lewis Shirley, 

Joseph county, that John D. Lasly be ap- Joseph Rohrer, Horace Markham, Samuel 

pointed Treasurer of St. Joseph county for Garwood. It does not appear from the records 

the year of our Lord 1830 ; and he is required that the jurias so selected were ever called 

to give bond and security in the penal sum upon to serve in court.*^ 

of $1,000." The taxes to be collected in the A third session of the board of justices was 
year of grace 1830 were evidently very light, held at the house of Alexis Coquillard, on 
Mr. William C. Stover, the treasurer of St. Tuesday, September 14. 1830. At this meet- 
Joseph county for this year of our Lord 1907 ing Thomas J. Evans, John Berry, Gillis Mc- 
has been required to give a bond in the sum of Bane and Daniel Worth, commissioners 
$950,000. named in the act of January 29, 1830, were 

At this first meeting of our first county allowed three dollars a day each for their 

board other biLsiness transacted consisted of services in locating the county seat. Wil- 

the appointment of James Nixon as assessor; Ham Brookfield was appointed county agent 

Daniel A. Fullerton, collector of taxes, Ben- to superintend the sales of lots at the county 

jamin Potter, Thomas Skiles and Jacob seat; giving a bond in the sum of five thou- 

Keith, constables; Jacob Cripe and John sand dollars, with Alexis Coquillard and 

Heag, overseers of the poor ; and Daniel Eiler Lathrop M. Taylor as sureties. 

and Samuel Cannon, fence viewers. The fourth and last meeting of the board 

Licenses were granted to the American Fur a. See Chap. 6, Sub. 2. 



of justices was held at the house of Alexis 
Coquillard, on November 25, 1830. At this 
meeting certain lots donated by William 
Brookfield at the county seat for the use of 
the county, as contemplated in section five 
of the act of organization, were accepted and 
he was directed, as county agent, to make 
sale of them, on terms fixed by the board. 

Sec. 2. — The First Tov^^nships. — The last 
act of this fourth session of the board of 
justices was the division of the county into 
four townships, by the following order: 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, that all 
the district of country lying west of the 
range line dividing ranges two and three 
west of the second principal meridian of the 
state of Indiana shall form and constitute a 
township in the aforesaid county to be known 
by the name of Michigan township, and the 
sheriff of said county is ordered to notify 
the citizens of the aforesaid township by 
written notification to meet at the house of 
Lewis Shirley in said township on the 18th 
of December next to elect one justice of the 
peace in and for said township. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, that 
ranges one and two west of the second prin- 
cipal meridian of the state of Indiana shall 
form and constitute one township to be known 
by the name of Deschemin township, and the 
sheriff is ordered to give the citizens of the 
said township written notification- according 
to law to hold an election at the house of 
John Drullinger in said township to elect one 
justice of the peace in and for said township 
on the 18th day of December next. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, that 
from the second principal meridian of the 
state until the center of range two east shall 
form and constitute a township in said county 
to be known by the name of German township, 
and the sheriff is hereby ordered to give pub- 
lic notice to the citizens of said township ac- 
cording to law for the qualified voters to meet 
at the house of David Miller in said township 
to elect one justice of the peace in and for 

said township on the 18th day of December 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, That all 
the district of country lying and being from 
the center of range two east of the second 
principal meridian of the state and thence 
running east to the eastern boundary of St. 
Joseph county shall form and constitute one 
township to be known and designated by the 
name of Portage township." 

Michigan township, strictly speaking, was 
not a part of St. Joseph county-. As described 
in section seven of the act of January 29, 
1830, organizing the county, this township 
embraced "all the territoiy lying west of said 
county, to the state line. ' ' It was further said 
in the same section, that this territory wa.s 
"attached to the said county of St. Joseph, 
for civil and criminal jurisdiction ; and the 
citizens residing within the bounds so includ- 
ed, shall be entitled to all the privileges and 
immunities, and be subject to all the taxes, 
impositions and assessments, of the citizens of 
the county of St. Joseph." The township lay 
almost wholly on the southern shore of Lake 
Michigan, from which it received its name. 
It included the western part of the present 
county of La Porte and the northern parts 
of the present counties of Starke, Porter and 

Deschemin township consisted of territory 
now embraced within eastern La Porte, north- 
ern Starke, and western St. Joseph. The towns 
of new Carlisle and Walkerton, in St. Joseph 
county; and Hudson, Rolling Prairie and 
Stillwell, in La Porte county, are within what 
was Deschemin township. The name of the 
township is evidently a corruption of the 
French words Du Chemin, the designation 
formerly given to Hudson Lake. Lac Du Che- 
min, now Hudson Lake, one of the most beau- 
tiful of the small lakes of northern Indiana, 
Wcis in the heart of Deschemin township. The 
name, Lac Du Chemin, that is. the "Lake of 
the Road," had reference to the Great Sauk 
trail, since known as the Chicago road, which 
passed close to the south edge of the lake. 



The Sauk trail runs west by south, through 
the north part of the present Warren and 
Olive townships. It passes through the old 
towns of Terre Coupee, formerly called also 
Prairie Coupee ; Hudson, fonnerly called 
Lakeport, on Lac Du Chemin, or Hudson 
lake; La Porte and Door village, and thence 
on to Chicago.* 

German township, as laid out by the board 
of justices, embraced the eastern half of the 
present towTiship of Olive, all of Warren, and 
parts of German, Portage, Greene, Liberty 
and Union, in St. Joseph county; besides the 
northwest part of Marshall county. North 
Liberty, in St. Joseph county; and Teegar- 
den, Tyner City, La Paz and Plymouth, in 
Marshall county, are within the limits of our 
old German township. The original plat of 
Plymouth, now the county seat of Marshall 
county, is on record in plat book number one 
of St. Joseph county, at page thirteen. It 
was acknowledged by the proprietors, John 
Sering, James Blair and William Polke, 
October 11, 13 and 20, respectively, A. D., 
1834, before Lathrop M. Taylor, Recorder of 
St. Joseph county. 

Portage township, as laid out by the board 
of justices, extended east from the former 
German township to within three miles of the 
present eastern boundary of the county. The 
three mile strip now on the east side of St. 
Joseph county was then a part of Elkhart 
county. Lakeville, Woodland, Wyatt, Mish- 
awaka, Notre Dame and South Bend are 
within the limits of our old Portage township. 
Bremen, Marshall county, is within the same 
limits. Osceola was in what is now Elkhart 

It is to be noted that the names of German 
and Portage townships, with parts of their 
respective territories, have been retained by 
this county. No part of Michigan township 
however, was at any time within the present 
limits of the county ; and only a small part of 
Deschemin township. These last names have 

a. See map: "Territory of Michigan, by John 
Farmer, 1835." 

gone from us with the territoiy to which they 
were attached. Michigan township, in La 
Porte county, is a part of the original ]\Iichi- 
gan township of St. Joseph county; and has 
retained the name from the time when it was 
first given by our board of justices. The city 
of Michigan City is within the same township. 


Sec. 1. — Act op Organization. — There is 
no record of any action taken by our first and 
only board of justices after their fourth 
meeting, held November 25, 1830. By an act 
approved January 19, 1831," the general as- 
sembly changed the law regulating the trans- 
action of county business, substituting a board 
of commissioner for the board of justices 
and introducing many other important provi- 
sions. The act is undoubtedly one of the wis- 
est ever passed by our legislature, and consti- 
tutes a most comprehensive and simple code 
of government for the counties of the state. 
The law then passed has been modified in 
several particulars since its first enactment; 
but the main principles, and even much of the 
language, remains unchanged. The act also 
illustrates the early history of county govern- 
ment in our state ; and while many of its pro- 
visions have since been revised or amended, 
yet it merits a place in this work as a histori- 
cal document of the highest interest. It is 
therefore here given in full : 

"An act to regulate the mode of doing 
County Business in the several Counties in 
this State. 

"Section 1. Be it enacted by the General 
Assembly of the state of Indiana, That there 
shall be and hereby is organized in each 
county in this state, a board of commissioners 
for transacting county business, to consist of 
three qualified electors, any two of whom shall 
be competent to do business, to be elected by 
the qualified electors of the several counties 
respectively, on the first Monday in August 
next, as general elections are conducted. Pro- 
vided, however. In voting for commissioners, 

a. Revised Statutes, 1831, p. 129. 



the ticket shall always show which is voted 
for, for first, second or third district, and 
should there be two or more candidates in any 
one district, the person having the highest 
number of votes, shall be elected for such dis- 

"Sec. 2. At the first election in pursuance 
of this act, the person having the highest 
number of votes shall serve three years; the 
person having the next highest number of 
votes shall serve two years, and the person 
having the next highest number of votes shall 
serve one year; and thereafter annually, one 
commissioner shall be elected who shall serve 
three years, and each commissioner elected 
according to the provisions of this act, shall 
continue in office until his successor is elected 
and qualified; but if two or more persons 
shall have an equal number of votes as above, 
their grade shall be determined by lot by the 
clerk, in the presence and under the direction 
of the returning officers. 

"Sec. 3. Each person elected as a com- 
missioner, shall, on receiving a certificate of 
his election, take the oath or affirmation re- 
quired by the constitution of this state, before 
some person legally authorized to administer 
the same; which oath or affirmation, being 
certified on the back of such certificate, under 
the hand and seal of the person administering 
the same, shall be sufficient authority for such 
commissioner to take his seat with, and act as 
a member of the board, during the time for 
which he was elected. 

"Sec. 4. The commissioners thus elected 
and qualified, shall be considered a body cor- 
porate and politic, by and under the name 
and style of the board of commissioners of 

the county of , and as such 

by and under such name and style, may sue 
and be sued, plead and be impleaded, defend 
and be defended, answer and be answered 
unto, in any court either of law or equity, and 
do and transact all business on behalf of their 
respective counties, that may be assigned 
them from time to time by law; and in all 
cases w^here their respective counties may 

have been injured, or may hereafter be in- 
jured, in their goods, chattels, lands, tene- 
ment^, rights, credits, effects or contracts; 
sucii commissioners shall and may, by and 
under their corporate name and style, with- 
out setting out their individual names, bring 
any suit or suits, action or actions, either in 
law or equity, which may be best calculated 
to obtain redress for any such injury, in the 
same way or manner that private individuals 
might or could do, and may in like way and 
manner, by and under their corporate name 
and style, be sued, by any person or persons 
having any manner of claims against such 

"Sec. 5. The board of commissioners shall 
meet at the court house, in each and every 
county, for the purpose aforesaid, or at the 
usual place of holding the circuit court in 
such county, on the first J\Iondays in January, 
March, May, September, and November, in 
each and every j^ear, and may sit three days 
at each term, if the business of the county 
shall require it : Provided, however, if the 
circuit court shall meet on any of the before 
mentioned days, the commissioners shall meet 
on the Monday preceding. 

"Sec. 6. The clerk of the circuit court 
shall, by virtue of his office, attend the meet- 
ing of the board of conunissioners, and keep a 
record of their proceedings, and do such other 
business as he shall be required by law to do ; 
and the sheriff of the county shall also, by 
himself or deputy, attend said board and exe- 
cute their orders." 

a. The duties of the sheriff as fixed by this sec- 
tion remain substantially unchanged; he con- 
tinues to be the executive officer of the board, and 
executes its orders as he does those of the Circuit 

The duties here assigned to the clerk of the 
Circuit Court have, however, since the year 1841. 
been performed by the County Auditor. By an 
act approved February 12, 1841, the office of 
County Auditor was created. By section eight of 
that act it was provided that the auditor, by vir- 
tue of his office, should be "clerk to the board of 
County Commissioners." By section fifty-three 
the clerk was required to turn over to the auditor 
all books, papers, etc., relative to county busi- 
ness; and by section fifty-four all the duties of 
clerks in relation to county affairs were required 
to be performed by the auditor. The auditor is, 
in effect, the County Clerk: while the clerk of the 
Circuit Court performs the duties of a court of- 
ficer only. See Acts 1841. pp. 10-24, R. S. 1843, 
p. 189. 



"Where money has been advanced by any 
clerk, or other county officer, for the use and 
benefit of his county, pursuant to the requisi- 
tions of law, the board doing county business 
shall order such money, so advanced, to be 
first paid : and where there is any judgment 
or .judgments against any county in this state, 
the board may in their discretion order when 
and in what manner such judgment or judg- 
ments, shall be discharged, not inconsistent 
with the constitution of this state or of the 
United States, any law to the contrary^ not- 
withstanding. And when any county shall 
owe the commissioners for locating any seat of 
justice therein, such claims shall be preferred 
to any other against said county ; and the col- 
lector shall receive the said orders for com- 
missioners' wages, and shall pay the same out 
of the first monies that shall come to his 
hands, after such orders shall be presented to 
him, and the said orders accepted shall be a 
sufficient voucher in the hands of such col- 
lector for any claims the county may have 
against him, to their full amount. 

"Sec. 8. When two only of the members 
shall be present at the meeting of the board, 
and a di\asion shall take place on any ques- 
tion, it shall be continued until the next meet- 
ing, before it shall be finally determined. 
When any vacancy shall happen in the office 
of commissioner, the circuit court of the 
county, or the two associate justices in vaca- 
tion, shall appoint a suitable person or per- 
sons to fill such vacancy until the next annual 
election of commissioners, when such vacancy 
shall be filled by an election by the electors of 
the county. 

"Sec. 9. It shall be the duty of the board 
of commissioners at their ^lay session, in each 
year, to receive and inspect the listers' books, 
and levy a county tax according to law, and 
cause their clerk to make out a duplicate for 
collection accordingly. 

"See. 10. The commissioners of each 
county respectively, shall have and use a com- 
mon seal, for the purpose of sealing their pro- 
ceedings ; and copies of the same, when signed 

and sealed by the said connnissi oners, and 
attested by their clerk, shall be good evidence 
of such proceedings, on the trial of any cause, 
in any of the courts of this state. The com- 
missioners aforesaid, at their session in 
November, or when the circuit term prevents 
their meeting in November, then "at their first 
meeting thereafter, in every year, shall make 
a fair and accurate statement of the receipts 
and expenditures of the preceding year, and 
have the same set up at the court house door, 
and at two other public places in their county 
respectively, and published in some news- 
paper in their county, if there be any ; and if 
the said commissioners, or either of them, 
after accepting their appointment, shall 
neglect or refuse to do his or their duty, in 
office, he or they so offending, shall, on con- 
viction by indictment before tue circuit court 
of the proper county, be fined in any sum not 
exceeding one hundred dollars. 

"Sec. 11. And it is hereby made the duty 
of the present boards doing the business of 
the several counties, to meet on the first Mon- 
day of May, eighteen hundred and thirty-one, 
and lay their respective counties off into three 
equal commissioner's districts, numbered in 
nimierical order, one, two, and three ; and one 
commissioner shall be elected in each of said 
districts, by a vote of the whole county; and 
said districts when so laid off, may be altered 
once in every three years thereafter, if justice 
require it, and not oftener : Provided, how- 
ever, that nothing in this act shall be so con- 
strued as to affect the term of office of any 
commissioner heretofore elected. But when a 
vacancy shall occur in any board of commis- 
sioners, now in existence, the same shall be 
supplied by a person to be elected from one 
of such districts, in numerical order. 

"Sec. 12. That all the duties heretofore 
required of the boards doing county business, 
in the several counties in this state, and not 
included or otherwise directed in this act, be 
and the same is hereby made the duty of said 
commissioners, to do and perform, in the same 
manner as though it were named in this act. 



"Sec. 13. The commissioners so elected 
and qualified, shall each receive two dollars 
per day, for each and every day that they 
may necessarily be employed in transacting 
the county business ; and said board of com- 
missioners, when organized, shall possess the 
powers and authority heretofore given to the 
county board of justices. 

' ' Sec. 14. All suits, pleas, plaints, prosecu- 
tions,^ and proceedings, which may be pending 
in any court, to be tried for or against any 
board of justices, previous to the taking- 
effect of this act, shall be prosecuted to final 
judgment and execution, in the same name 
and manner, as the same might have been 
done, had this law not been passed; and all 
contracts either written or verbal, made by 
such board of justices, previous to the taking 
effect of this act, shall remain valid in law 
and equity, and suit may be thereupon 
brought, in the same way and manner as the 
same might have been, had this act not have 
been passed, with this difference, that the cor- 
porate name of the board of commissioners 
shall be used, instead of the name of the board 
of justices. 

' ' Sec. 15. It shall be the duty of the clerks 
of the several boards doing county business, 
to keep fair books, wherein shall be kept the 
accounts of the county, to attest all orders 
issued by the board for the payment of 
money, and enter the same in numerical order, 
in a book to be kept for that purpose; and 
shall copy into their said books the reports 
of the treasurer of the receipts and disburse- 
ments of their respective counties, and when- 
ever the duplicate shall be put into the hands 
of the collector, it shall be the duty of said 
clerks to send a statement of the sum where- 
with such collector stands charged, to the 
county treasurer. 

' ' Sec. 16. When any person has an attested 
county order in his name, of a larger amount 
than his county tax, and is desirous to appro- 
priate a part of such order to the payment of 
such tax, he is hereby authorized to apply to 
the clerk of the board doing county business, 

whose duty it shall be to give to the holder 
of such order, and in exchange therefor, 
two or more attested county orders, making 
together the same amount with the original 
order, which shall thereupon be cancelled; 
and such clerk shall insert in every such 
order, that the same with others, were so 

given in exchange to for 

such original order, together with the number 
and amount of such original order; one of 
which orders shall be for the amount of his 
tax, and shall appear on its face to be 
intended for the payment thereof. 

"Sec. 17. Whenever any person shall ex- 
hibit any claim against any county, for serv- 
ices rendered, for which the fund arising 
from the sale of lots, or otherwise, at the 
county seat, is specially appropriated, and 
those funds have been fully expended, it shall 
be the duty of the board doing county busi- 
ness, to give such claimant an order on the 
county treasury, for such sum as may be due 
to such claimant, to be paid out of any 
monies not otherwise appropriated. 

"Sec. 18. Every collector of county t-axes 
is hereby required to receive any regularly 
attested county order, made by the board 
doing county business, when the same may be 
tendered to him by any person in payment of 
such person's taxes, due such county. 

"Sec. 19. No collector, or other person 
doing county business, shall, either directly 
or indirectly, purchase or receive in pajTiient, 
exchange, or in any way whatever, any de- 
mand against his county, or any county order 
for a claim allowed by the board doing county 
business, at any time during the period foi- 
which he may be elected, for a less amount 
than that expressed on the face of such order 
or demand against the county; and every per- 
son elected, or ajipointed to do county busi- 
ness, shall, before entering on the duties of 
his office, take an oath not to violate the pro- 
visions of this section; and any collector or 
other person doing county business, offending 
against the provisions of this section, on con- 
viction thereof upon indictment or present- 



ment, shall be fined for every such offense, in 
any sum not exceeding five hundred dollars. 

"Sec. 20. That the qualified voters resid- 
ing within the several townships of the sev- 
eral counties of this state, shall meet together 
at the usual places of holding general town- 
ship elections, on the first Monday in April 
next; and annually on the first Monday in 
April thereafter, for the purpose of electing 
as many constables in each township as there 
are justices of the peace within the same, and 
shall at the same time elect one inspector of 
elections for each township, two fence view- 
ers, two overseers of the poor, and as many 
supervisore of highways as there are now or 
may hereafter be allotted to the respective 
townships by the proper board of commission- 
ers; and in all cases of failure on the part 
of the qualified voters, to elect any such town- 
ship officers, it shall be the duty of the board 
of commissioners, at the next session after the 
time such election should have been held, to 
appoint such officers, to remain in office until 
the time for the next election. Nothing in 
this act shall be so construed as to affect or 
repeal the laws now in force, regulating the 
manner of doing business, in the counties of 
Dearborn and Switzerland, except as to the 
election of township supervisor. 

"See. 21. The above named township 
officers shall possess the same qualifications, 
and perform the same duties, as are required 
of such officers by the laws now in force ; the 
said township elections to be held and con- 
ducted in the same manner that general and 
township elections are now held and con- 
ducted, and the constables shall give such 
bond and security, for the performance of 
their duty, as is now required by law. 

' ' Sec. 22. That the board of commissioners 
shall, so soon as may be after the first election 
held under the provisions of this act, divide 
the several townships within their respective 
counties, into as many highway districts as 
they may deem necessary; which districts 
shall be designated and numbered in numeri- 
cal order, and recorded by the clerk of the 

board of commissioners. Where any vacancy 
shall happen in any of the township officers, 
the said board of commissioners shall, at their 
next session, appoint a suitable person or per- 
sons to fill such vacancy until the next annual 
election for township officers, when such 
vacancy shall be filled by an election of the 
electors of the township. 

"See. 23. It shall be the duty of the said 
inspectors of elections in each township, 
within three days after such election, to make 
out and deliver to the clerk of the circuit 
court, a list of the several township officers, 
whose duty it shall be to make out certificates 
of the election of the person or persons 
elected, and the sheriff of said county shall 
deliver the same to the township officers so 

"Sec. 21. The circuit courts in counties 
where court houses shall not have been 
erected, shall be holden for the time being, at 
the place designated by law or selected by the 
court ; and the boards of commissioners in 
such counties, shall with all convenient speed, 
proceed to the completion of a court house, 
jail and other public buildings for the same, 
and keep the same in repair. 

"Sec. 25. The board of commissioners, in 
their respective counties, at their first meeting 
after the passage of this act, or some subse- 
quent meeting's, shall appoint some fit person, 
as trustee of the public seminary of their 
respective counties, who, on acceptance of 
such appointment, shall take an oath of office, 
faithfully to discharge the duties of his said 
office according to law, and also give bond, 
payable to the state of Indiana, with two 
sufficient securities, in the penal sum of 
double the amount as near as may be, of the 
funds of the county seminary, conditioned for 
the faithful performance of the duties of his 
office, and for paying over all monies, and de- 
livering over all books, bonds, and papers, that 
may be in his hands as trustee, to his succes- 
sor in office, when his term of service shall 
have expired agreeably to law; which bond 
shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the 



proper county, and shall not be void on one 
recovery, but may be put in suit from time to 
time, as often as occasion may require : Pro- 
vided, however. That this act shall in no way 
be construed, so as to interfere with or repeal 
any existing laws, respecting the county semi- 
nary of Switzerland county, or any other 
county, for which special laws relative to 
county seminaries have heretofore been en- 

"Sec. 26. The board of commissioners, 
shall annually allow the clerk and sheriff of 
their county, such compensation for their 
extra services, rendered the board of commis- 
sioners, the circuit court of such county, and 
the county, in any manner whatever. 

"Sec. 27. The board of county commis- 
sioners in each and every county, shall cause 
a pound to be erected at or near the several 
court houses, with a good and sufficient fence, 
gate, lock and key, where estray horses, mules 
and asses may be kept, on the first day of the 
terms of the circuit courts ; and the said board 
shall also appoint some fit person, who shall 
take charge of said pound, and keep the same 
in repair, and whose duty it shall also be to 
attend at the said pound, on the several court 
days, during the time such estrays are 
directed to continue there, with the keep of 
the same ; and the said board shall make such 
reasonable allowance for the erecting and 
keeping such pound as to them shall seem 
proper, to be paid out of the county treasury ; 
and any person being appointed and under- 
taking the charge of said pound, and failing 
to discharge his duties agreeably to the direc- 
tions herein expressed, shall forfeit and pay 
to the person injured, the sum of eight dol- 
lare for every such offense, with costs, recov- 
erable before any .justice of the peace of the 
county where such offense shall have been 

' ' Sec. 28. From all decisions of the several 
boards of commissioners, there shall be 
allowed an appeal to the circuit court, by any 
person or persons aggrieved ; and the person 
or persons appealing, shall take the same 

within thirty days after such decision, by 
giving bond with security, to the acceptance 
of the clerk of such board, conditioned for the 
faithful prosecution of such appeal and the 
payment of costs already accrued, and which 
may thereafter accrue, if the same shall be 
adjudged by the said court, to be paid by such 
appellant; and the clerk shall docket such 
appeal, with the cases pending in the circuit 
court, within twenty days after the taking 
of such appeal." 

Sec. 2. — Our First Commissioners. — The 
first commissioners of St. Joseph county, 
elected on the first Monday in August, 1831, 
in pursuance of the provisions of section one 
of the foregoing act, were Aaron Stanton, 
David Miller and Joseph Rohrer. As appear 
from section eleven of said act, it was made 
the duty of the board of justices in each 
county to hold a meeting on the first Monday 
in May, 1831, "and lay their respective 
counties off into three equal commissioner's 
districts, numbered in numerical order, one, 
two and three ' ' ; and it was further provided 
in the same section that "one commissioner 
shall be elected in each of said districts, by a 
vote of the whole county. ' ' It seems, however, 
that no meeting of the board of justices, such 
as provided for in the act, was held; and the 
county was therefore not divided into com- 
missioner's districts as contemplated by the 
legislature. Our first commissioners were 
consequently not chosen by districts, as re- 
quired by the act ; and some doubt arose as to 
the legality of their election. To remedy this 
irregularity, the legislature passed the follow- 
ing legalizing statute, approved January 31, 
1832 :« 

"An act legalizing the proceedings of the 
board of commissioners of St. Joseph county. 

"Whereas, It has been represented to this 
General Assembly, that there were three jus- 
tices of the peace elected in the county of St. 
Joseph, to transact county business, two of 
whom shortly afterwards removed from said 
county, and thereby said board became 

c. Acts 1831, p. 105. 



vacant ; and that agreeably to an act, ap- 
proved January 19th, 1831, regulating the 
mode of doing county business in the several 
counties in this state, there were three com- 
missioners elected without regard to district- 
ing, who have since laid the same off in com- 
missioner districts; Therefore, 

"Be it enacted by the General Assembly 
of the State of Indiana, That the election of 
said commissioners, and all proceedings relat- 
ing thereto in St. Joseph county, and the pro- 
ceedings of said board, so far as relates to lay- 
ing off the same in districts, be, and the same 
are hereby legalized." 


Sec. 1. — Organization of the Board. — 
The story of the development of our county 
during its formative period, the changes in 
the county boundaries, the location of the 
county seat, the erection of county buildings, 
the formation of the different townships, and 
many other matters connected with the organi- 
zation of the new county, can be found 
nowhere so fully and satisfactorily detailed 
as in the records of the county board during 
the early years of our history. The chief part 
of the records of the board of justices has 
already b^en given. The first records of the 
board of county commissioners are of equal 
historical interest. These records open as fol- 
lows : 

"In pursuance of an act of the general 
avssembly of the state of Indiana, approved 
January the 19th, 1831, the board of commis- 
sioners met at the house of Alexis Coquillard 
in said county on the first Monday of Septem- 
ber, A. D., 1831, at 12 o'clock on said day. 

"David Miller now produces his certificate 
of election, in the words and figures follow- 
ing, to-wit : 

" 'State of Indiana, St. Joseph County, ss. 
I, L. M. Taylor, clerk of the St. Joseph circuit 
court, do hereby certify that David Miller 
has been elected county commissioner in said 
county and that he received the second high- 
est number of votes of said county and that 
he is entitled to serve for the term of two 
years from the date hereof and until his suc- 
cessor is elected and qualified. 

" 'In testimony whereof I have 
hereunto set my hand and affixed 
the adopted seal of the St. Joseph 
Circuit Court, at South Bend, this 
fourth day of August, A. D., 1831. 
" 'L. M. Taylor, Clerk.' 
' ' On the back of which certificate is the fol- 
lowing endorsement, to-wit: 

■ " 'State of Indiana, St. Joseph County, ss. 
Be it remembered that on the 5th day of Sep- 
tember, A. D., 1831, personally appeared be- 
fore me, the undersigned, an acting justice of 
the peace in and for said county, the within 
commissioned, David Miller, who being duly 
affirmed saith that he will support the consti- 
tution of the United States and also the con- 
stitution of the State of Indiana, and also 
faithfully and impartially execute the within 
office of county commissioner according to law 
and the best of his abilities and judgment, and 
that he will not, either directly or indirectly 
buy, receive or take any county order, allow- 
ance or claim against said county during his 
continuance in office for a less amount than 
that expressed on the face of such order or 
demand against said county. 

" 'Given under my hand and 
seal the date first above written. 

" 'Levi F. Arnold, 
(Seal) '"J. of P.'" 

Joseph Rohrer also appeared and qualified 
in like manner. Having received the third 
highest number of votes, he was, according to 
the provisions of section two of the act of 
January 19, 1831, declared to be a member of 
the board of commissioners for one year. 
Aaron Stanton, the third commissioner, who 
was elected for three years, did not appear 
and qualify until the third day of the term, 
Wednesday, September 7, 1831. That part of 
the oath of the county commissioners relating 
to county orders was in accordance with the 
provisions of section nineteen of the act, ap- 
proved January 19, 1831, creating boards of 
county commissioners. 

Sec. 2. — Adoption of a County Seal. — In 
the afteraoon of the first day's session a form 
of county seal was adopted by an order read- 
ing as follows : 

"The board adopt the following for the 
purpose of sealing their proceedings which is 
engraved with St. Joseph County, Indiana, 



[around the margin ], with the insignia of an 
eagle engraved on it [that is, on the face of 
the seal] ; which will more fully appear by an 
impression being made on the margin of this 
page. ' ' 

The impression of the seal, found on the 
margin of the page of the old record and re- 
ferred to in the order, shows the words, "St. 
Joseph's County, Indiana," instead of "St. 
Joseph County, Indiana," as required by the 
order. The later form is the one now in use. 

Sec. 3. — Other Orders. — The remaining 
orders of the first day of the sesision are as 
follows : 

"The board of commissioners now proceed 
to select a list of grand jurors for the Novem- 
ber term of the circuit court, and draw from 
the box the following names : 

"Gaya^ Munger. Horace Wood, Jacob Rit- 
ter, John Banker, William Garwood, Alexan- 
der Blake, James S. Garoutte, John Wells, 
Samuel Rupel, H. Carpenter, Andrew Shaw, 
Peter Johnson, Orra Morrs, Charles Oaster- 
house, Samuel L. Cottrell, John Rupel, 
Samuel Harberson, Henly Clyburn. 

"And also the board then proceed to select 
the petit jurors for said term : 

"Jacob Eutzler, John Welsh. Joseph Pem- 
berton, Joseph Osborn, E. H. Brown, Benja- 
min Gillbreath, Wyley Jones, John Martin- 
dale, sen., Zachariah Grant, Jesse Skinner, 
Scott West, James Highly, John Treaver, 
Benjamin Coquillard, John Smith, sen., 
Jacob Egbert, Nathan B. Nicols, Ezekiel 
Thomas, Lewis" Shirley, John Hague, Chris- 
tian Holler, Charles Roe, Jr., David Pagin, 
Robert Redding. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, That L. 
M. Taylor, clerk, be allowed out of the county 
treasury the sum of forty-eight dollare for 
blank books, a county seal and blank paper 
purchased by him for the use of said county. 

' ' Ordered by the board aforesaid, That the 
sum of seventy-five cents be allowed out of 
the county treasury for each wolf scalp over 
six months old and thirty-seven and a half 
cents for each wolf scalp under six months 

old, agreeable to the act to encourage the 
killing of wolves, approved February 10th, 

On the second day of their first term, the 
board of commissioners made the following 
orders : 

Sec . 4. — Exemptions From Taxation. — 
"Ordered by the board aforesaid, That the 
following persons be exempt from paying a 
poll tax, either for state or county purposes: 
John Clyburn, Samuel Johnson, John Martin- 
dale, sen., Basil Sperry — for the year 1831." 

The reasons for this exemption are not 
given. According to section one of the reve- 
nue law then in force, approved February 
10, 1831,^* a poll tax of thirty-seven and one- 
half cents was to be assessed "on each male 
inhabitant between twenty-one and sixty years 
of age"; but the board was given "discre- 
tionary power to exempt any person over the 
age of fifty years from the payment of a poll 
tax, who is unable to pay the same, or on 
account of bodily disability. ' ' It is also pro- 
vided in section two of the same act, "That 
all persons who have served in the land or 
naval service of the United States, during the 
revolutionary war, be and they are hereby 
exempt from the payment of a poll tax and a 
tax upon personal property. ' ' To secure this 
exemption the soldier was required to make 
affidavit before some justice of the county, 
"That he has served in the land or naval 
service of the United States during the revolu- 
tionary war, three months or upwards; for 
the taking of which affidavit, the justice shall 
not be entitled to receive any fee or compen- 
sation whatever." Similar favors were after- 
wards given to soldiers of the Mexican war, 
by acts approved January 14, 1847.'' 

The order for the first ferry over the St. 
Joseph river was as follows: 

Sec. 5. — The First Ferry and Steamboat 
Landing. — "Ordered by the board aforesaid, 
that a ferry be established at the east end of 
Water .street [now T^a Salle avenue 1, in the 

a. Revised Statutes 1831. p. 426. 

b. Acts 1846, pp. 59 and 74. 



town of South Bend, over the St. Joseph 
river, °^ and that there be a tax assessed there- 
on to the amount of two dollars ; and that N. B. 
Griffith be licensed to keep the aforesaid ferry, 
and that the said Griffith be required to keep 
a good and sufficient flat, or boat, to convey- 
conveniently over said river two horses and 
a wagon at one time. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, that the 
following be the rates of ferriage at the ferry 
established at the town of South Bend, to- 
wit : For each person, 6i/4 cents; for a man 
and horse, I214 cents; for one horse and a 
wagon or carriage, 25 cents ; for two horses 
and w^agon, 3I14 cents ; for each additional 
horse, with a wagon as above, 614 cents; for 
oxen in wagons the same rates as horses ; for 
loose cattle, three cents a head ; for hogs and 
sheep, two cents a head. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, that the 
said N. B. Griffith be required to keep twelve 
hands to attend the aforesaid ferry." 

The following orders were also made on 
the second day of said September term: 

Sec. 6. — Licenses to do Business. — "Or- 
dered by the board aforesaid, that five dollars 
shall be the amount to be assessed on each 
tavern license and retailer of spirituo\is or 
strong liquors, foreign and domestic groceries. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, that 
there be assessed on each license to vend 
w^ooden clocks in said county the sum of 
eight dollars per annum. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, that 
Peter Johnson be allowed a tavern license to 
keep a tavern at the town of South Bend by 
his payment into the county treasury of the 
sum of five dollars, to commence on the 1st 
of August, 1831. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, that 
Benjamin Coquillard be licensed to keep a 
tavern at the town of South Bend by his 
paying into the county treasury the sum of 
five dollars. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, that 

a. A steamboat landing was established at the 
same place. 

Calvin Lilly be licensed to keep a tavern at 
the town of South Bend by his paying into 
the county treasury the sum of five dollars. 

' ' Ordered, that the American Fur company 
be licensed to vend foreign merchandise in 
said county one year from the date hereof 
by their paying into the county treasury the 
sum of ten dollars. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, that 
George Sumption be allowed the sum of one 
dollar and fifty cents out of any money in 
the treasuiy not otherwise appropriated for 
two wolf scalp certificates. 

"Ordered by the board, that Horatio 
Chapin be required to pay into the county 
treasury the sum of eleven dollars for a 
license to vend foreign goods in said county 
for one year from the date hereof. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, that 
David Pickering, deputy sherifi^ of Allen 
county be allowed the sum of five dollars for 
notifying the commissioners to re-locate the 
seat of justice of St. Joseph county. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, that 
Lewis Shirley be allowed the sum of two dol- 
lars for services rendered in making a return 
of the annual election from Michigan town- 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid. That 
John Drullinger be allowed the sum of one 
dollar for sei'vices rendered in making a re- 
turn of the annual election from Deschemin 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid. That 
each person of the grand and petit juries be 
allowed the sum of fifty cents for their ser- 
vices rendered in attending the November 
term of the St. Joseph circuit court; and the 
orders shall be issued by the clerk on satis- 
faction being made of their respective at- 

The jurors, grand and petit, thus allowed 
fifty cents each for their services, on strict 
proof furnished of their actual attendance, 
were the second set of jurors that were 
selected in St. Joseph county. The jurors 
selected the previous year by the board of 



justices were not called into service nor is 
there any record other than that here given 
of the service of jurors selected in 1831. 

Indeed it does not appear that the Novem- 
ber term, 1831, of the St. Joseph Circuit 
court was ever held. The presiding judge 
failed to appear, although the jurors were 
selected and summoned. This neglect occa- 
sioned some complaint, as may be inferred 
from a communication from "One of the peo- 
ple" which appeared in the second number 
of the Northwestern Pioneer. The judge is 
there severely upbraided for neglect of duty, 
"notwithstanding he is paid a salary of seven 
himdred dollars a year for his services. "'^ 


Sec. 1.— St. Joseph, the First County 
Seat. — The board of justices, as we have seen, 
held their sessions at the house of Alexis 
Coquillard, in South Bend. The board of 
commissioners did likewise. The St. Joseph 
circuit court was also hoi den in the same 
hospitable mansion. '^ Indeed for several 
years after the organization of the county 
the seat of justice was actually at the house 
of Alexis Coquillard. Theoretically, however, 
the county seat was for a time on the farm 
of William Brookfield, in a town laid out by 
him at the portage of the St. Joseph. This 
town was called St. Joseph. Though named 
as the first county seat, it was never in fact 
more than a town on paper. The location of 
the county seat at St. Joseph was made by 
the commissioners appointed under section 
three of the act for the formation of St. 
Joseph and Elkhart counties. This action 
of the locating commissioners never gave 
satisfaction to the people of the county. A 
petition asking for the appointment of other 
commissioners to relocate the county seat was 
circulated amongst the settlers, received over 

a. "The Northwestern Pioneer and St. Joseph's 
Intelligencer, South Bend, Indiana, Wednesday, 
November 23, 1831." 

b. See Sec. 4 of the Act for the formation of 
the counties of St. Joseph and Elkhart, set out 
in bubdivision 2 of this chapter. 

one hundred and twenty-five signatures, and 
was laid before the legislature that convened 
at Indianapolis, December 6, 1830. That 
body, in an act approved February 1, 1831," 
granted the prayer of the petitioners, the act 
being as follows : 

Sec. 2. — Act to Re-Locate the County 
Seat. — "An act to Re-locate the County Seat 
of St. Joseph county. 

"Section 1. Be it enacted by the general 
assembly of the state of Indiana, that Absalom 
Holcomb and William N. Hood of Allen 
county, John Scott of Cass county, Chester 
Sage and John Jackson of Elkhart county, 
are hereby appointed commissioners to review 
and should they judge expedient, to re-locate 
the county seat of St. Joseph county. The 
said commissioners shall convene at the house 
of William Brookfield, in the said county of 
St. Joseph, on the second Monday of May 
next, and shall immediately proceed to dis- 
charge the duties assigned them by law.^ It 
is hereby made the duty of the sheriff of 
Allen county, to notify the said commis- 
sioners, either in person or by written noti- 
fication, of their appointment, on or before 
the first day of May next ; and the said sheriff 
shall receive from the said county of St. 
Joseph, so much as the county commissioners 
of said county shall deem just and reasonable, 
who are hereby authorized to allow the same 
out of any monies in the county treasury, in 
the same manner as other monies are paid. 

"Sec. 2. Should said commissioners after 
examination of the present seat of justice of 
said county, be of opinion that the public 
interest demands a removal or re-location of 
said seat of justice, they shall then proceed 
and be governed in all respects by the law 
forming said county of St. Joseph,*' as though 
they had been appointed to fix the said county 
seat, at the formation of said county. 

a. Acts 1830, p. 21. 

b. See Sec. 3 of the act for the formation of 
the counties of St. Joseph and Ellvhart, and note 
a, Subd. 2, of this chapter. 

c. The law referred to is set out in full in 
Subd. 2, of this chapter. 



"Sec. 3. That the county agent and all 
other officers within the said county, when 
the county seat is hereby located, shall be 
governed in all respects by the law forming 
said county, as though the county seat had 
been satisfactorily fixed by the first commis- 
sioners appointed for that purpose. 

"Sec. 4. Should the commissioners hereby 
appointed, fix the county seat at any other 
place than that fixed by the former commis- 
sioners, then the said county commissioners 
shall deliver over to William Brookfield, and 
to all other persons who may have donated 
to said county, all monies, lands and other 
effects which they may have given to said 
county, as a consideration for said county 
seat. ' ' 

Sec. 3. — Re-Location. — The report of the 
commissioners so appointed by the legislature 
to re-locate the county seat of St. Joseph 
county appears of record in the proceedings 
of the third and last day's session of the first 
term of the board of county commissioners, 
Wednesday, September 7, 1831. The record 
is as follows : 

"The commissioners" report which was 
filed in the clerk's office in vacation of said 
[county] board is now brougnt into court to 
be made a matter of record here, to- wit : 

" 'The undersigned commissioners ap- 
pointed by an act of the legislature of the 
state of Indiana, at their session in the year 
A. D. 1831, entitled an act to re-locate the 
county seat of St. Joseph county, met at the 
house of William Brookfield. in the said 
county of St. Joseph, on the second Monday 
of May, A. D. 1831 ; and after being duly 
sworn as the law directs, proceeded immedi- 
ately to examine the present seat of justice 
for said county of St. Joseph, and are of 
opinion that public interest requires a re- 
moval of said seat of justice, and immediately 
proceeded to select a suitable site for the 
county seat of said county of St. Joseph ; and, 
after making all the examinations required by 
law, have selected the town of South Bend, as 
laid out and recorded on the records of said 

county, and have hereby established the same ; 
and have received from the persons herein- 
after mentioned the following donations in 
lands, lots and obligations for the payment 
of the sums of money stipulated in the follow- 
ing bonds, to-wit : The bonds of Lathrop M. 
Taylor and Alexis Coquillard, guaranteed by 
Samuel Hanna, Joseph Rohrer, Samuel Stude- 
baker and D. H. Coldrick for the conveyance 
to the use of the county, for the following 
distinguished lots in the town of South Bend : 
Lots Nos. 274. 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 400, 
401, 402. 296, 299, 302, 344, 323 and 257. 
And also the lots specified in said bond to 
religious societies, school purposes and four 
acres of land described in said bonds for a 
public graveyard, in addition to the lots and 
ground set apart and marked on the plat of 
said town for a public square, religious and 
school purposes. And also the joint bond and 
obligation of the above mentioned Lathrop M. 
Taylor, Alexis Coquillard, Joseph Rohrer, 
Samuel Studebaker, Samuel Hanna and 
David Coldrick for the payment of three 
thousand dollars to the commissioners of said 
county, payable in the annual installments of 
one thousand dollars each. Which said several 
bonds and obligations are hereby particularly 
referred to and made a part of this report; 
all of which bear date herewith. 

" 'In witness whereof we have 
hereunto set our hands this 
twelfth day of May, A. D. 1831. 
" 'Absalom Holcomb, 
" 'William N. Hood, 
" 'Chester Sage, 
" 'John Jackson, 

" 'Commissioners. 
" 'Know all men by these presents. That 
we Lathrop M. Taylor, Alexis Coquillard, 
Joseph Rohrer, Samuel Studebaker, Samuel 
Hanna and David Coldrick, do hereby bind 
and obligate ourselves and our heirs and 
representatives to well and truly pay or 
cause to be paid unto the commissioners of 
the county of St. Joseph, in the state of 
Indiana, or their successors in office, in the 



full and just sum of three thousand dollars, 
to be paid as follows: One thousand in one 
year from the signing and ensealing of this 
bond, and one thousand in two years and the 
residuary one thousand in three years; in 
consideration that the county seat of St. 
Joseph county, in the state aforesaid, shall 
be permanently located at the South Bend, 
in said county. ^ 

" ' In testimony whereof w i have 
hereunto set our hands and seals 
on this the twelfth day of May, 
in the year of our Lord, eighteen 
hundred and thirty-one. 

" 'Lathrop M. Taylor, (Seal.) 
" 'Alexis Coquillard, (Seal.) 
" 'Joseph Rohrer, (Seal.) 
" 'Samuel Studebaker, (Seal.) 
" 'Samuel Hanna, (Seal.) 
" 'D. H. Coldrick, (Seal.) 
" 'Attest: Horace Wood, Hiram Dayton. 
" 'Know all men by these presents. That we, 
Lathrop M. Taylor and Alexis Coquillard, do 
by these presents obligate ourselves and our 
representatives well and truly to convey and 
donate by an indisputable title to the county 
agent whom the commissioners shall appoint 
agent of the county of St. Joseph, in the 
state of Indiana, for the use of said county, 
fifteen in lots situated in the town of South 
Bend, and designated on the plat of said town 
by being numbered, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 
279, 400, 401. 402, 296, 299, 302, 344, 323 and 
257 ; and to give and donate and convey in lot 
number 341 on said town plat to and for the 
use of a religious denominawon of people 
called the United Brethern, to build thereon 
a church for worship ; also in lot number four 
hundred and three on said town plat for the 
same purpose for the German Baptist congre- 
gation ; also in lot number two hundred and 
thirty-four on said town plat for a church for 
the denomination commonly called the Pres- 
byterian ; also to give and donate for the use 
and convenience of said town four acres of 
land on the east half of the southwest quarter 
of section number twelve in town niunber 

thirty-seven of range number two east, to be 
dedicated and used as a public graveyard ; — 
all of which said several donations are to be 
legally conveyed in a reasonable time after 
the patents shall have issued to the said Co- 
quillard and Taylor; in consideration that 
the county .seat shall be permanently located 
at South Bend, in said county. 

' ' ' Witnessed our hands and seals 
on this twelfth day of May, 1831. 
" 'Lathrop M. Taylor, (Seal.) 
" 'Alexis Coquillard, (Seal.) 
" 'Attest: Horace Wood, Hiram Dayton. 
' ' ' Know all men by these presents, That we, 
Samuel Hanna, Joseph Rohrer. Samuel Stude- 
baker and David Coldrick, do bind and obli- 
gate ourselves and our representatives, under 
a penalty of two thousand dollars, to secure 
and guarantee the stipulations and obligations 
of the said Coquillard and Taylor in their 
above bond, according to the true spirit and 
equitable meaning thereof, waving all legal 
technicalities or inaccuracies, if any there be. 
" 'Witness our hands and seals 
on this twelfth day of May, 1831. 
" 'Samuel Hanna, (Seal.) 
" 'Joseph Rohrer, (Seal.) 
" 'Samuel Studebaker, (Seal.) 
" 'D. H. Coldrick, (Seal.) 
" 'Attest: Horace Wood, Hiram Dayton.' " 
Sec_ 4. — South Bend the Permanent 
County Seat. — Thus was the county seat 
definitely and permanently fixed at the new 
town near the south bend of the St. Joseph 
river, laid out March 28, 1831, by Alexis 
Cofiuillard and Lathrop Minor Taylor. The 
effort of William Brookfield, our first sur- 
veyor and one of the most distinguished of 
our early settlers, to build up a business 
center at the old portage was a natural but a 
mistaken one. It is true that commerce had 
gone by the St. Joseph-Kankakee portage for 
unknown ages. The ancient tradere went 
from the lakes up the St. Joseph, over the 
portage, down the Kankakee and the Missis- 
sippi, and so reached all the countries border- 
injj on the gulf and the south seas; and that 



the return was by the same ancient route. 
But that day was past. Commerce had taken 
new lines. Detroit, Fort Wayne and Chicago 
had become gathering points ; and the trails 
and traces to and from these points, and from 
these points to the Atlantic coast, were 
gradually taking direction and form. North 
and south was the Michigan road. And the 
south bend of the St. Joseph river w^as on 
the new lines. The old routes became filled 
with dust and ^ leaves and overgrown with 
grass; while the new routes were worn and 
traveled and improved from year to year. 
Coquillard and Taylor had chosen wisely and 
labored effectively. The county seat was 
located in the proper place. 


Not only was the 'first location of the 
county seat unsatisfactory to the people, but 
also the division of the county into the town- 
ships of Michigan, Deschemin, German and 
Portage, as made by the board of justices. 
Accordingly, on September 7, 1831, on the 
third day's session of the first term of the 
board of commissioners, after the entry of 
the record in relation to the county seat, the 
following important orders were made in re- 
lation to the townships of the county; and 
also in relation to commissioners' districts: 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, That so 
much of the ordens of the board of justices 
held on the 25th day of November, 1830, as 
regards the laying off of townships in said 
county be hereby repealed and set aside. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid. That 
ranges two and three east of the second 
principal meridian of the state of Indiana, 
so much as lies in said county, shall form one 
township in said county, and shall be kno\\Ti 
by the name of Portage township. All elec- 
tions in said township shall be held in the 
town of South Bend. Said township shall 
form the first county commissioner district in 
said county. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, That 
range number one east and range number one 

west of the second principal meridian of the 
state of Indiana shall form a township in said 
county, to be known by the name of Center 
township, and all elections in said township 
shall be held at John Drulinger's. Said 
township shall form the second county com- 
missioner district in said county. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, That 
all the territory lying west of the range line 
dividing ranges number one and number two 
west of the second principal meridian of the 
state of Indiana shall fonn and constitute a 
township, to be known by the name of High- 
land township, and the elections in said town- 
ship shall be held at the house of Jacob Miller, 
in said township. The said township shall 
form the third county commissioner district 
in said county. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, That 
Hiram Dayton be appointed Inspector of 
Elections in Portage, and John Egbert shall 
be appointed Inspector of Elections in Center 
township, and also that Chapel W. Brown be 
appointed Inspector of Elections in Highland 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, That 
on the fourth Saturday of Inst, the qualified 
electors in Portage township be authorized 
to elect one justice of the peace at South 
Bend, in said township ; and that the qualified 
electors of Center township be authorized to 
elect one justice of the peace in said township 
on the fourth Saturday as aforesaid ; and also 
that the qualified electors of Highland town- 
ship be authorized to elect one justice of the 
peace in said township on the fourth Satur- 
day, Inst. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, That 
the sheriff be required to notify the qualified 
electors of said county to meet in the several 
townships as organized by this board to meet 
at the several places in said townships, to 
elect associate judges."" 

It will be seen that Highland township, as 
laid out by the board of commissioners, in- 

a. The organization of our courts will be given 
in another place. 



eluded one more range than did Michigan 
township, as laid out by the board of justices. 
The east line of Michigan township was "the 
range line dividing ranges two and three 
west;" while the east line of Highland town- 
ship was ' ' the range line dividing ranges num- 
ber one and number two west." No part 
of either of those primitive townships was 
within the present limits of St. Joseph county. 
Highland township included the greater part 
of what is now La Porte county and all of 
Porter and Lake. 

Center township, as laid out by the board 
of commissioners, included the w^est half of 
range one west, now in Laporte county, and 
likewise so much of the east half of said 
range as is also in said county. The rest 
of old Center township, being the remainder 
of range one west and all of range one east, 
— except parts on the south afterwards at- 
tached to Marshall and Starke counties — are 
still in St. Joseph county. The east line of 
Center township was the range line between 
ranges one and two east, being the line which 
now divides our present Warren township 
from German and Portage. The townships of 
Olive, Warren and Lincoln, as now consti- 
tuted, with the greater part of Greene and 
almost all of Liberty, were then in Center 

Portage township, as laid out by the board 
of commissioners, took in all of the county 
embraced in ranges two and three east. That 
included the present townships of German, 
Clay, Portage, Center and Union, with parts 
of Greene, Liberty, Harris, Penn and Madi- 
son. The west half of range four, being a 
strip three miles in width on the east side 
of the county as at present constituted, was 
then in Elkhart county. 


St. Joseph county, as formed by the act 
of January 29, 1830, extended east and west 
across five ranges of congressional townships, 
and reached south from the Michigan line 
a distance of thirty miles. To this thirty 


miles square was added, for jurisdictional 
purposes, all the territory west to the Illinois 
state line. Other unorganized territory was 
afterwards attached for like purposes on the 
south. This attached territory, as we have 
seen," was by the board of justices erected 
into a township of St. Joseph county, and 
named Michigan township. The board of 
commissioners added to Michigan a range of 
congressional townships on the east, and 
called the whole territory Highland town- 

Not counting the attached territory on the 
west, St. Joseph county proper then included 
nearly one-half of the present county of La 
Porte, and also nearly one-half of the present 
counties of Marshall and Starke. The act of 
February 10, 1831, defining the boundaries 
of all the counties of the state,'* left unchanged 
the boundaries of St. Joseph county as fixed 
by the act of its organization, January 29, 

The county of La Porte was formed by an 
act of the legislature, approved January 9, 
1832. In this act the east boundary of La 
Porte is declared to be, "the center line of 
range number one west," extending south 
twenty-two miles from the north boundary 
line of the state.'' Thus, not counting the 
attached territory west to the Illinois line, 
which had constituted our Michigan town- 
ship, and nearly all of our Highland txDwn- 
ship, the legislature, in one act, took from St. 
Joseph county a range and a half of congres- 
sional townships on the west, and made them 
part of the new county of La Porte. 

As if to make up for this loss on the west, 
the same legislature, a few days afterwards, 
by an act approved January 31, 1832,** took 
three miles from P^lkhart and added it to 
St. Joseph. The act is short, and reads as 
follows : 

"Be it enacted by the general assembly of 

a. See Siibd. 4, of this chapter. 

1). Revised Statutes of Indiana, 1831, pp. 110- 


c. Acts 1831, p. 9. 

d. Acts 1831, p. 114. 



the state of Indiana, That the boundary line 
between the counties of Elkhart and St. 
Joseph, be, and the same is hereby changed, 
and that the same shall be a north and south 
line, three miles east, and parallel with range 
line number three east of the second princi- 
pal meridian line. And all that portion of 
territory so stricken off of Elkhart county, be, 
and the same is hereby attached to, and shall 
constitute a part of St. Joseph county. ' ' 

The net result of both those acts of the 
legislature of 1831 was to move St. Joseph 
county three miles to the east, giving us half 
a range on the east and taking from us a 
range and a half on the west, and so reducing 
the width of the county along the north 
boundary line of the state from thirty miles 
to twenty-four miles. This left us a half 
range west of the second principal meridian 
and three and a half ranges east of the same 

The next act of the legislature that inter- 
fered with the boundaries of the county was 
that approved February 7, 1835,^ entitled 
"An act laying out all the unorganized terri- 
tory to which the Indian title has been ex- 
tinguished in this state, into a suitable num- 
ber of counties, and for other purposes." 

Section nine of that act defined the north 
line of jMarshall county as the north line of 
congressional township thirty-four, being the 
same as the south line of our present town- 
ship of Lincoln extended east. This bound- 
ary, while taking seven miles and a half off 
the south end of St. Joseph county, still left 
us the whole of congressional township thirty- 
five, including the sites of the present towns 
of Bremen, La Paz and Teegarden, besides 
the right of way of the Baltimore & Ohio 
railroad from the eastern to the western 
boundary of the coimty. 

By section ten of the same act, the north 
line of Starke county was defined to be the 
north line of the same congrassional township, 
thirty-four. This boundary left the territory 

a. Acts 1834, pp. 44-47. 

of the present Lincoln township within our 
county, as it has remained ever since. 

Although the boundaries of Marshall 
county were fixed by the act of February 7, 
1835, yet the county was not organized until 
the succeeding session of the legislature. The 
act passed for that purpose was approved 
February 4, 1836.'* The eighth section of 
that act appears to have no proper connection 
with the other sections : it seems to be attached 
to the act rather than to be a part of it. The 
section, however, did seriously affect the 
interests of St. Joseph county. It reads as 
follows : 

"Sec. 8. The northern boundary line ot 
the county of Marshall shall be extended to 
an east and west line running through the 
center of township thirty -five north." 

A strip three miles in width was thus taken 
from St. Joseph county and added to Marshall 
county, leaving a part of Lincoln township 
in St. Joseph county projecting between ]Mar- 
shall and La Porte counties, to a distance of 
three • miles south of the remainder of St. 
Joseph county. 

In an act approved February 16, 1839, en- 
titled "An act to define the boundaries of 
the counties of St. Joseph, ^Marshall, La Porte, 
Starke, Porter and Lake, "^ the boundaries of 
St. Joseph county were left as they had re- 
mained after the act of February 4, 1836, de- 
fining the north boundary of Marshall county. 
This act of February 16, 1839, defined what 
were expected to be the fixed and permanent 
boundaries of the county, in these words: 

"St. Joseph county shall be bounded as 
follows, by a line commencing on the north 
boundary of this state at the intersection 
thereon of the section line running north and 
south through the center of range four east: 
thence south to the center of township thirty- 
five north ; thence west to the second meridian , 
line, being that line between ranges one east 
and one west; thence south to the township 
line between townships thirty-four and thirty - 

a. Acts 1835, pp. 49, 50. 

b. Acts 1838, p. 70. 



five north; thence west to the section line 
running north and south through the center 
of range one west; thence north by said sec- 
tion line to the north boundary of this state; 
thence east to the place of beginning." 

St. Joseph county seemed at last to have 
found herself, to have reached the definite 
and fixed limits of her physical entity. For 
ten years her integrity as a county was re- 
spected, and no further attempt was made to 
interfere with her defined boundaries. But 
by an act approved January 16, 1849,^ the 
legislature provided: 

"That the territory which now belongs to 
St. Joseph county, described as follows: Be- 
ginning at the present county line, at the 
northwest corner of section twenty-two, town- 
ship thirty-seven north, range one west; 
thence with the north line of said section, and 
that of section twenty-three, to the northeast 
corner of said section twenty-three; thence 
south with the section line, until it shall strike 
the great Kankakee river; thence with said 
river to the present county line, may be at- 
tached to the county of La Porte, upon the 
conditions following. ' ' 

One of the conditions upon which the trans- 
fer of territory should take place is set out 
in section four of the act, in which it was 
provided that, "The county commissioners of 
said county of St. Joseph, shall, and they are 
hereby authorized to, decide at their regular 
June term, 1849, w^hether said territory shall 
be attached as aforesaid. ' ' Should our board 
of commissioners agree to the change it should 
take place. "But," it was further provided 
in the same section, "in case said board of 
county commissioners do not decide in favor 
of attaching the territory as aforesaid, to 
the said county of La Porte, then and in that 
case the said territory shall be and remain 
a part and parcel of said county of St. 
Joseph. ' ' 

As might be anticipated, there was much 
opposition to the scheme on the part of the 
people of St. Joseph county; and the board 

a. Local Laws of Indiana, 1848, p. 32. 

of county commissioners accordingly refused 
to concur in the action of the legislature. At 
the regular June term, 1849,« of the board 
it was therefore formally ordered, ' ' That said 
territory shall not be set off as a part of the 
territory of La Porte county." 

The people of the disputed territory were, 
however, bent on having the sections trans- 
ferred to La Porte county. It must be ad- 
mitted that their reasons in favor of the 
project were plausible. The territory in ques- 
tion was situated on the west side of the Kan- 
kakee river; and it was then impossible to 
go directly across the river and marshes to 
the county seat of St. Joseph county. It was 
the old trouble, over again, of the first survey 
of the Michigan road from Michigan City, 
directly across the Kankakee swamps, to Lo- 
gansport. Such roads were impossible of con- 
struction in those days. The people to the 
west of the Kankakee quite naturally, there- 
fore, preferred to go to the county seat of 
La Porte county, both for their marketing 
and also to attend to such business as must 
be transacted in the court house. 

The matter came again before the legis- 
lature at the ensuing session ; and, by an act 
approved January 14, 1850,^ the transfer of 
the territory was made absolute, without any 
consent asked for or given by St. Joseph 
county. A touch of patriotic sentiment was 
given to the severance of the territory, by 
providing in the act that the sections in ques- 
tion should be attached to and become a part 
of La Porte county from and after July 4, 

So was St. Joseph county reduced in size 
from its original thirty miles square, and 
attached territory, to its present dimen- 
sions. Some slight movements were after- 
wards made to limit still further the 
size of the county. Citizens on the east 
side of the county at one time tried to per- 
suade the commissioners that they should be 
attached to Elkhart county; and citizens of 


Commissioners' Record No. 3, p. 285. 
Acts, 1849, pp. 114, 115. 



the west side of the county filed like petitions, 
with a view to the formation of another 
county made up in part of St. Joseph and in 
part of La Porte territory, and having New 
Carlisle as a county seat. These petitions 
were before our county board for several ses- 
sions, each, but were all finally dismissed. 
Another movement developed at one time in 
the southwest part of the county, with a view 
to the formation of a county out of parts of 
St. Joseph, Marshall, Starke and La Porte 
counties, and having Walkerton as the county 
seat. There was more reason for this move- 
ment than for either of the others, the south- 
west part of this county not being of easy 
access to the county seat. But afterwards 
came improved gravel roads, not to speak of 
the Three ''I" railroad; and North Liberty 
and Walkerton at once found themselves in 
easy reach of the city on the St. Joseph, and 
more closely knit to the county of which they 
form so important a part. Every inhabitant 
has long since become proud of his citizenship 
in the good old county of St. Joseph. 

The county is now twenty-four miles in 
length, east and west, measured along the 
boundary between Indiana and Michigan; 
and nineteen and one-half miles in width, 

north and south, measured along the bound- 
ary between St. Joseph and Elkhart counties. 
To these dimensions are to be added the nine 
sections of Lincoln township, bounded on the 
east by Marshall county, on the south by 
Starke and on the west by La Porte. And 
from these dimensions must be deducted the 
fourteen full and five fractional sections at- 
tached to La Porte county by the act of 
January 14, 1850. 

Notwithstanding the loss of territory on the 
west and on the south, our county is still one 
of the largest, as it is one of the best, in the 
state. The limits of the county are, on all 
sides, within congressional townships thirty- 
five, thirty-six, thirty-seven and thirty-eight, 
north ; and Avithin ranges one, west, and one, 
two, three and four, east, of the second prin- 
cipal meridian of Indiana. It is the central 
county on the north boundary of the state. 
The county contains within its borders the 
source and a large part of the valley of the 
Kankakee. We have no less than five prairies 
of various sizes, one of them, Terre Coupee, 
the finest in the state ; while, with Elkhart 
county, we claim as ours the whole of the 
St. Joseph valley within the state of Indiana. 

Lathrop M. Taylor 



I. ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS AND BOARDS. lie was therefore the keeper of the county 

Sec. 1. — The Ci^rk. — Lathrop Minor Tay- I'ecords. He thus united in himself the duties 

lor and Alexis Coquillard continued for many °^ ^^^^ present offices of clerk of the circuit 

years largely to divide with one another the °°^^^^' county recorder and county auditor, 

honors and responsibilities attendant upon ^^^ original records in each of those offices 

the development of the new county. In ^^'^ ^^ *^^ handwriting of L. M. Taylor, 

friendly rivalry they had established on "the '^'o^ards the end of his term appears the 

Big St. Joseph's of the Lake" the two trad- ^^^^^ ^^ ^ deputy, Thomas S. Stanfield, who 

ing posts about which gathered the early set- ^^^^ afterwards to become one of the strong 

tlement; together they had purchased from characters of the county and of the state, 

the government the land upon which they had '^^^^ three modest little blank books with 

laid out the new town at the south bend of which Mr. Taylor began the records of the 

the river, and by their united efforts they co^^iity business as clerk of the court, clerk 

had succeeded in causing the removal of the ^^ *^^*^ county board and county recorder still 

county seat to the town thus established, remain in good condition; except that the 

From the organization of the county "the recorder's records are somewhat injured by 

house of Alexis Coquillard" appears in the frequent handling. 

records for several years as the place of hold- Lathrop M. Taylor's term lasted for seven 

ing the sessions of the circuit court, the board years. He was succeeded, in 1837, in the 

of justices and the board of commissioners, office of clerk of the circuit court, by Tyra 

All these records, too, show the name of W. Bray, who also held for seven years. John 

Lathrop M. Taylor, L. M. Taylor or Lathrop F- Lindsay, the last clerk under the constitu- 

Minor Taylor, as it was written on dif- tion of 1816, was in office from 1844 to 1851. 

ferent occasions. "- At the first election held Under the constitution of 1851 the term of 

in the county, the first ^Monday in August, office was reduced to four yeare, and the in- 

1830, Mr. Taylor was elected clerk of the eumbent rendered ineligible to more than 

circuit court and also county recorder. Sec- two successive terms. Samuel M. Chord was 

tion ten of article eleven of the constitution clerk for two terms, or until 1859. He was 

of 1816 provided that the same person might succeeded by Elias V. Clark, who also served 

hold both these offices. He was also author- two terms, or until 1867. Mr. Clark was 

ized by statute to act as clerk of the county succeeded by George W. Matthews, called 

board or as county clerk.^ As such officer sometimes the younger, to distinguish him 

from the elder George W. Matthews, formerly 

a. See Deed Record B, pp. 579, 580, 581, for his ^^,,„+., „„^^+^„ 

different signatures. county auditor. 

&. See Sec. 6, act approved January 17, 1831. Mr. Matthews was succeeded, in 1875, by 




Edwin Nicar, and Mr. Nicar by Timothy E. 
Howard, who was himself succeeded in 1883 
by George H. Alward, the elder. Mr. Alward 
died during his term, November 11, 1885, 
and the county commissioners appointed his 
son, also George H. Alward, to fill out his 
term. In 1886 William C. McMichael be- 
came clerk, and in 1895, George M. Fountain. 
In 1903, George H. Alward became clerk 
again, by election, and in 1907 was succeeded 
by the present incumbent, Frank P. Chris- 
toph. Thirteen different men have filled the 
office of clerk of the circuit court from the 
organization of the county. 

Sec. 2. — The Recorder. — On the expiration 
of Lathrop M. Taylor's term as county re- 
corder, in 1837, he was succeeded by William 
H. Patteson, who served for two terms, and 
was succeeded by Lott Day, Jr. 

By an act approved February 16, 1852,* 
the county recorder was required to provide 
an official seal for his county. Before any 
such seal should be used, it was provided in 
the act that "an accurate description of the 
impression thereof, attested by the proper 
recorder, and the impression of such seal, 
shall be filed in the office of the clerk of 
the circuit court, and by said clerk recorded 
in the order book of said court." 

On February 28, 1853, Mr. Day, then re- 
corder, adopted a seal for his office, and filed 
for record in the office of the clerk of the St. 
Joseph circuit court a description reading as 
follows : ' ' Said seal is about one and one-half 
inch in diameter, with two circles on the 
outer edge, between which are the following 
words, 'Recorder of St. Joseph County, In- 
diana.' Inclosed in the inner circle or center 
of said seal is the following design : An axe- 
man and two trees; and in the distance a 
buffalo and rising sun." An impression of 
the seal appears on the margin of the order 

Mr. Day was succeeded as recorder by 

a. Vol. I, R. S., 1852, pp. 427, 428. 

b. See Order Book St. Joseph Circuit Court, 
No. 7, p. 436. 

Reece J. Chestnutwood, the elder, who held 
the office until 1867. Mr. Chestnutwood is 
still (1907) living in the city of South Bend, 
in the ninety-second year of his age. 

Alexander N. Thomas became recorder in 
1867 and served for eight years, being suc- 
ceeded, in 1875, by John Groff. Harrison G. 
Beemer succeeded to the office in 1879, and 
w^as himself succeeded in 1883 by Thomas 
M. Howard, who served for eight years. Will- 
iam D. Shimp became recorder in 1891, Jere- 
miah Hilclebrand in 1895, and Josiah P. Reed 
in 1899. Noah Lehman, the recorder elect, 
will take the office January 1, 1908. 

Sec. 3. — The Auditor. — By an act ap- 
proved February 12, 1841,* the office of coun- 
ty auditor was created. The auditor was by 
the act made clerk of the board of county 
commissioners, or virtually county clerk, and 
was required to perform all the duties in 
relation to county business theretofore en- 
joined upon the clerk of the circuit court. 
After the expiration , of the term of L. M. 
Taylor, in 1837, his successor, Tyra W. Bray, 
as clerk of the circuit court, continued to 
act as clerk of the board of commissioners 
until the enactment of the foregoing statute 
and the election, on the first Monday of 
August, 1841, of George W. Matthews, the 
elder, who was the first county auditor. 
Schuyler Colfax, who was a stepson of Mr. 
jMatthews, acted as deputy auditor during his 
incumbency. This was the first experience in 
public life of the man who was afterwards 
three times speaker of the national house of 
representatives and also vice-president of the 
United States. Mr. Matthews served as coun- 
ty auditor until his resignation August 1, 
1849. The board of commissioners selected 
Aaron B. Ellsworth to fill the vacancy, and 
in 1851 Mr. Ellsworth was elected by the 
people, and held the office until 1859, when 
he was succeeded by Woolman J. Holloway. 
Mr. Holloway held the office until 1867, and 
was then succeeded by Alfred Wheeler. Mr. 
Wheeler was succeeded, in 1875, by William 

a. Acts, 1840, pp. 10-24. 



D. Smith, and Mr. Smith in 1883 by Aaron 
Jones. Then followed Robert Myler, George 
W. Loughman, John M. Brown, and John W. 
Harbou, the present incumbent, whose second 
term will begin January 1, 1908. 

Sec. 4. — The County Agent. — The county 
agent was an officer having charge of the real 
estate and other property of the county. His 
duties in the beginning seem to have been 
confined to affairs connected with the organi- 
zation of new counties, and were provided 
for in section four of the act to establish 
seats of justice in new counties, approved 
January 24, 182-4."^ He was to be appointed 
by the board doing county business, and was 
the fiscal officer of the county. 

William Brookfield was appointed by the 
board of justices as the first agent of St. 
Joseph county, at a called session of the board 
held for that purpose, ' ' at the house of Alexis 
Coquillard in said county, on Tuesday, the 
14th day of September, 1830." The order of 
appointment reads: 

"Ordered by the board of justices of St. 
Joseph county that William Brookfield be ap- 
pointed agent of St. Joseph county; and he 
is required to give bond and security in the 
penal sum of five thousand dollars. Alexis 
Coquillard and Lathrop M. Taylor are ac- 
cepted by said board as his securities." 

On September 7, 1831, the board of county 
commissioners appointed John Egbert as the 
second county agent, in the following order: 

' ' Ordered by the board aforesaid, that John 
Egbert be appointed county agent of said 
coimty, and he is required to give bond under 
the penalty of six thousand dollars. Jacob 
Egbert and William McCartney are approved 
of by the board as his securities." 

At the January term, 1832, the board made 
the following allowance: "Ordered by the 
board aforesaid, that John Egbert be allowed 
the sum of six dollars for his services for the 
past year as county agent." At the Septem- 
ber term, 1832, he was allowed fifteen dollars 
additional for his services to that date. 

a. R. S., 1831, pp. 459-463; R. S., 1838, pp. 

At the September term, 1832, the following 
order of appointment was made : 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, that An- 
thony Defrees be appointed county agent in 
and for said county, in the room of John 
Egbert resigned ; and said Defrees is required 
to give bond and security in the penalty of 
six thousand dollars. Peter Johnson, L. M. 
Taylor and Jacob Hardman are approved of 
by the board as his securities." 

The most important duties transacted by 
the county agent of this county were the ne- 
gotiations for the sale of the town lots do- 
nated to the county, in consideration of the 
location of the county seat, first at Mr. Brook- 
field 's town of St. Joseph's, and afterwards 
at South Bend; and also matters in relation 
to the erection of the county buildings. The 
office was abolished and its duties transferred 
to the county auditor, subject to the orders of 
the board of county commissioners, by an 
act approved May 13, 1852.« 

Sec. 5. — The Sheriff. — Although the con- 
stitution of 1816 provided for the election 
of both a sheriff and a coroner, yet neither of 
these officers is mentioned in the act of Janu- 
ary 29, 1830, for the formation of St. Joseph 
county. None seems to have been elected, 
nor is there any record of the appointment of 
either such officer by the board of justices or 
by the board of commissioners. 

The legislature, however, by an act ap- 
proved February 9, 1831,^ seems to have rec- 
ognized that Samuel L. Cottrell was appointed 
by the board of justices as our first sheriff, 
for the year 1830. The act is as follows: 

"Whereas, it is represented to this general 
assembly, that Samuel L. Cottrell acted as 
sheriff' to the board of justices of the county 
of St. Joseph, from the month of August in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and thirty, to the month of Novem- 
ber in the same year, without being legally 
elected and commissioned: and some doubts 
having arisen as to the legality of the pro- 

a. Special and Local Acts, 1852, p. 32. 
1). Special Acts, 1830, pp. 97, 98. 



ceedings of said board in consequence there- 
of ; wherefore, 

"Be it enacted by the general assembly of 
the state of Indiana, that the acts and pro- 
ceedings of said board of justices of the 
county of St. Joseph, for and during the 
time aforesaid, be and the same are hereby 
declared as legal and valid, as if the said 
Samuel L. Cottrell had been sheriff of said 
county, according to law, at the taking place 
thereof. ' ' 

The board of commissioners also, by an or- 
der entered on the third day of their first 
term, September 7. 1831, recognized Mr. 
Cottrell as having acted as sheriff during the 
first year of our county history, and made 
him an allowance for his services, as follows: 
"Ordered by the board aforesaid, that 
Samuel L. Cottrell be allowed the sum of 
twenty-two dollars for services rendered said 
county as sheriff." 

The sheriffs succeeding Samuel L. Cottrell 
were : Benjamin McCarty, 1831 ; Scott West, 
1832; Daniel A. Fullerton, 1832 to 1833; 
Samuel L. Cottrell, 1833 to 1838 ; Charles M. 
Tutt, 1838 to 1842; Lott Day, sr.. 1842 to 
1846; Lott Day, jr., 1846 to 1850; Ralph 
Staples, 1850 to 1852; Benjamin F. Miller, 
1852 to 1856; Evan C. Johnson. 1856 to 1360; 
Nelson Ferris, 1860 to 1864: Solomon W. 
Palmer, 1864 to 1868 ; George V. Glover, 1868 
to 1872 ; Joseph Turnock, 1872 to 1876 ; Rob- 
ert Hardy, 1876 to 1878: James Dougherty, 
1878 to 1880 ; Zachariah M. Johnson, 1880 to 
1884 ; George Rockstroh, 1884 to 1886 ; John 
Finch, 1886 to 1890 ; Andrew J. Ward, 1890 
to 1894; James C. Eberhart. 1894 to 1898; 
Charles E. McCarty. 1898 to 1903; Schuyler 
C. Robinson, 1903 to 1905 ; David J. Schafer, 
1905 to — . 

Sec. 6. — The Coroner. — The office of cor- 
oner, closely related to that of sheriff, was 
held by Samuel L. Cottrell beginning in 
1834 ; Edmund Pitts Taylor, 1835 ; Daniel D. 
Custard, 1838; Jacob Hardman, 1840; Leon- 
ard B. Rush, 1841; Israel De Camp, 1843; 
Truman Fox, 1845: Richmond Tuttle, 1847; 

Allen Bassett, 1852; Aaron A. Webster, 
1854; Andrew H. Long, 1856; Daniel Day- 
ton, 1874; Israel Underwood, 1876; John C. 
Miller, 1878; Alexander Rixa, 1880; Corne- 
lius H. Myers, 1881; Hugh T. Montgomery, 
1884; Erastus M. Drollinger, 1890; James A. 
Varier, 1892; Richard B. Dugdale, 1894; 
Callie A. Rennoe, 1900; Henry C. Holtzen- 
dorff, 1904 ; Stanley A. Clark, 1906. 

Sec. 7.— The Treasurer.— The office of 
county treasurer wa.s at first an appointive 
one. By an act approved January 8, 1831,« 
it was made the duty of the boards doing 
county business, "at their first meeting after 
the first day of February annually, to ap- 
point some respectable elector as county treas- 
urer." This officer was required to give bond 
to the satisfaction of the board, and to per- 
form duties similar to those now required. 
His compensation was fixed at "one and a 
half per centum, for all moneys received, and 
one and a half per centum, for all moneys 
paid out for the county; excepting, how- 
ever, moneys arising from the sale of lots at 
county seats, in which case he shall receive 
no more than two per centum for both re- 
ceiving and paying out." 

As we have already seen, John D. Lasly 
was appointed by the board of justices as 
first treasurer of the county for the year 
1830. This was the first order made by our 
first county board.'^ 

Aaron Miller was appointed second treas- 
urer of the county, by an order of the board 
of county commissioners, made September 
7, 1831, as follows: 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, that 
Aaron Miller be appointed county treasurer 
of said county, from this time until the first 
of March next, and until his successor be 
appointed and qualified ; and that said Aaron 
Miller is required to give bond with good se- 
curity in the penal sum of two thousand 
dollars. William IMcCartney and Benjamin 

0. Revised Statutes, 1831, p. 136; R. S., 1838, 
p. 158. 

&. See Chap. 5 of this work, Subd. 4. 



McCarty are approved by the board as se- 
curity." John T. McLelland was appointed 
treasurer in 1834. 

By an act approved February 12, 1841," 
the office was made elective by the people, 
and the term tixed at three years. The con- 
stitution of 1851 made the office a constitu- 
tional one, but shortened the term to two 
years,- also, as in case of other county 
officers, limiting the incumbent to two suc- 
cessive terms. ^ 

From the time when the office was made 
elective the county treasurers have been as 
follows: Albert Monson, 1841; John K. 
Wright, 1850; Robert B. Nicar, 1851; Solo- 
mon Miller, 1856; John H. Harper, 1860; 
Ezekiel Greene, 1864; Hiram Miller, 1868; 
David B. Creviston, 1872; C. Henry 
Sheerer, 1876; John Hay, 1878; Frederick 
Lang, 1880 ; Emanuel R. Wills, 1884 ; George 
H. Stover, 1888 ; Simon Yenn, 1892 ; William 
H. Oren, 1894 ; John W. Zigler, 1898 ; Adam 
Hunsberger, 1903; William C. Stover, 1907. 

The bonds given by the county treasurer 
from time to time may be some indication of 
the constant growth of the county since its 
organization. As we have seen, the first 
treasurer, John D. Lasly, was required, in 

1830, to give a bond in the sum of one thous- 
and dollars ; and the second, Aaron Miller, in 

1831, in the sum of two thousand dollars. 
John K. Wright, in 1850, gave a bond of 
forty -three thousand dollars; Robert B. 
Nicar, in 1851, a bond of fifty thousand dol- 
lars; Solomon Miller, in 1856, eighty thous- 
and dollars : and the same treasurer, in 1858, 
one hundred thousand; John H. Harper, in 
1860, one hundred and thirty thousand; 
Hiram Miller, in 1870, one hundred and fifty 
thousand; Simon Yenn, in 1892, three hun- 
dred thousand; William H. Oren, in 1894, 
four hundred thousand; and Adam Huns- 
berger, in 1903, seven hundred and fifty 
thoiisand. William C. Stover, the present 
county treasurer, who is also ex-offieio city 

a. Acts, 1840, p. 27. 

b. Constitution, 1851, Sec. 2, Art. 6. 

treasurer of South Bend, has given a bond 
of nine hundred and fifty thousand dol- 

Sec. 8. — The Surveyor. — County survey- 
ors, as appears from an act approved Feb- 
ruary 4, 1831,* were originally "appointed 
in each and every county, by the boards do- 
ing county business in the respective coun- 
ties." Afterwards, by an act approved Feb- 
ruary 2, 1833,^ the power of appointment to 
this office was placed in the circuit court, 
and the duration of the office was fixed at 
three years. The right of appointment was 
still later placed again in the county board, 
but the term remained three years.'' 

While it does not appear from any order 
of record made by the board of justices that 
any surveyor was appointed by that board, 
yet it is quite evident that William Brook- 
field acted in that capacity during the years 
1830 and 1831. He was a deputy United 
States surveyor, and made the first land sur- 
veys of the county. He platted his o\^ti 
town of St. Joseph's, the first county seat; 
and also platted for Coquillard and Taylor 
the toA\Ti of South Bend, the permanent 
county seat. 

To the plat of South Bend there is ap- 
pended the following certificate : 

"The scale by which this town is laid off 
is ten rods to the inch. 

"Wm. Brookfield, 

' ' Surveyor. 

"March 28, 1831." 

William Clark was appointed the second 
county surveyor by an order of the board 
of county commLssioners, made November 1, 
1831, as follows: 

' ' Ordered by the board aforesaid, that Wil- 
liam Clark be appointed county surveyor in 
and for said county." 

On the same day the following order was 
likewise entered: "Ordered by the board 

a. Indiana R. S., 1831, pp. 516-518; R. S., 1838, 
pp. 576-578. 

b. Acts, 1832, pp. 106-108; R. S., 1838, pp. 578- 

c. See R. S., 1843, p. 103. 



aforesaid, that William Clark, the county 
surveyor, be requested to procure certified 
copies from the registers of the diiferent 
land offices wherein the lands lying in said 
county have been sold, the field notes of the 
townships, ranges, sections, fractional sec- 
tions and quarter sections, as originally sur- 
veyed; and deposit the same in the recorder's 
office of said county, according to law. ' ' 

Tyra W. Bray was appointed surveyor by 
the board of commissioners at the September 
term, 1832. He held the office until 1836, 
when Thomas P. Bulla succeeded to the of- 
fice ; and thereafter continued to hold it until 
1856, serving the last four years by election 
under the new constitution. 

In 1851 the office became a constitutional 
one, and elective by the people of the count^^ 
The term was fixed at two years, but there 
was no limitation as to the number of terms 
which an incumbent might fill.* 

Milton W. Stokes succeeded Thomas B. 
Bulla in 1856, and held the office until March 
12, 1864, when he was succeeded by Wil- 
liam D. Bulla, who held until December 5, 
1865. William J\I. Whitten became surveyor 
in December, 1865, and held the office until 
1868, when Milton V. Bulla was elected: he 
continued in office until 1872. In 1872, Mr. 
Whitten was again elected. In 1874, Arthur 
Joseph Stace became county surveyor and 
held the office until 1880 ; when ]\Ir. Wliitten 
was again elected. j\Ir. Whitten held the 
office from 1880 until 1888 ; when Benjamin 
F. Waldorf was elected, continuing in office 
until 1892. In 1892 William E. Graves was 
elected; and in 1894, George H. Leslie. 
Frederick W. Keller succeeded to the office 
in 1899 : and Titus E. Kinzie, the present in- 
cumbent, became surveyor in 1905. 

Sec. 9. — The County Board.^ — The first 
county board, called the board of justices, 
and consisting of Lambert MeCombs, Adam 
Smith and Levi T. Arnold, served but a part 
of the year 1830. Elected in August of that 

a. Sec. 2. Art. 6, Constitution of 1851; 1 R. S., 
1852, p. 469; 1 Gavin and Hord, p. 595. 

year, their official action seems to have come 
to an end with their fourth session, in No- 
vember, 1830. 

The first board of commissioners, elected 
in August 1831, consisted of Aaron Stanton, 
elected for three years; David Miller, for 
two years; and Joseph Rohrer, for one year. 
Thereafter, the requirement of the act or- 
ganizing the board was, that each year one 
commissioner should be elected for three 
years, from the district represented by the 
commissioner whose term should expire at 
the end of the current year. The term of 
each commissioner was fixed at three years; 
and in case of a vacancy the commissioner 
elected should serve only until the end of the 
term, the design being that one commissioner 
should go out and one come in each year. 

At the election held on the first day of 
Augaist, 1832, John Ireland, of the first dis- 
trict, was elected commissioner for three 
yeara, to succeed Joseph Rohrer, whose term 
expired that year. At the same election, 
John Martindale, of the second district, was 
elected commissioner for one year "to fill a 
vacancy occasioned by the resignation of 
David Miller." And at the same election 
Benjamin Hardman, of the third district, 
was elected commissioner for two years, to 
fill the vacancy apparently occasioned by the 
departure of Aaron Stanton from the county. 
Afterwards commissioners were elected for 
full terms or to fill vacancies, as follows: 
In 1833, Lott Day and Rejoiolds Dunn; in 
1835. Orlando ]\I. Hurd; in 1836. William 
H. Patteson; in 1837, George Holloway and 
Alonzo Delano; in 1840, Thomas D. Vail; 
in 1841, Oilman Towle ; in 1842, ^Matthew 
B. Hammond; in 1843, Thomas D. Vail; in 
1844, Oilman Towle: in 1845, i\Iatthew B. 
Hammond; in 1846, Ranson Hubbard; in 
1847. Oilman Towle; in 1848, Samuel M. 
Chord: in 1849, John Drulinger; in 1850, 
Oilman Towle; in 1851, Edwin Pickett; in 
1852, John Drulinger; in 1853, Oilman 
Towle; in 1854, John Hammond; in 1855, 
John Drulinger; in 1856, Oilman Towle; in 



1857, John Hammond; in 1858, James C. 
Williams ; in 1859, William F. Bulla ; in 1860, 
Francis R. Tutt; in 1861, James C. Wil- 
liams; in 1862, Oilman Towle; in 1863, 
Clement Studebaker ; in 1864, Nathaniel 
Frame ; in 1865, Oilman Towle ; in 1866, John 
C. Knoblock; in 1867, Nathaniel Frame; in 
1868, Oilman Towle. (There was no elec- 
tion in 1869, for the reason that the legisla- 
ture had provided for biennial elections, 
instead of annual elections, as formerly. Had 
there been an election in 1869, commissioner 
John C. ,Knoblock's successor would then 
have been chosen; as it was, Mr. Knoblock 
held over until the election of Dwight Dem- 
ing, his successor, in 1870. Mr. Deming, 
through a misundertsanding, held his office 
for three years, instead of holding for two 
years only, and so filling out the term for 
which Mr. Knoblock had held one year. 
Many errors of this kind occurred at this 
time in different counties. To correct these 
mistakes, and restore the terms to the reg-ular 
length of three years, one commissioner com- 
ing in each year, as intended by the original 
act of January 19, 1831, organizing the 
board of county commissioners;* the legisla- 
ture passed a remedial act, approved March 
7, 1885.^ In accordance with the provisions 
of this act of 1885, the term of commissioner 
Jacob Eaton was afterwards extended from 
1885 to 1890, and thus the error which had 
existed from 1872 to 1890 in the terms of the 
commissioners of the second district was cor- 
rected. Since 1890, the terms are each three 
years, and one commissioner succeeds to the 
office each year, according to the original 
plan of the act of 1831.^ In 1870, Dwight 
Deming became county commissioner; in 
1871, Albert Cass; in 1873. Dwight Deming; 
in 1874, John Ernsperger; in 1876, Dwight 
Deming and William D. Rockhill; in 1877, 

a. R. S., 1831, p. 129. 

ft. Acts, 1885, pp. 69, 70. 

r. See Commissioners' Record, No. 11, for the 
opinion of the county attornery, according to 
which the error in commissioners' terms was cor- 

John Ernsperger; in 1879, Dwight Deming 
and William D. Rockhill; in 1880, Newton 
Jackson and Charles O. Towle ; in 1882, Isaac 
Early and Samuel Bowman ; in 1883, Charles 
O. Towle; in 1885, Jacob Eaton and Dixon 
W. Place; in 1886, Charles O. Towle; in 
1888, Dixon W. Place; in 1889, James 
Dougherty; in 1890, Jacob Eaton; in 1891, 
John Olinger; in 1892, James Dougherty; in 
1893, John N. Lederer; in 1894, Peter H. 
Reaves; in 1895, John D. Fulmer; in 1896, 
Samuel Bowman; in 1897, Peter H. Reaves; 
in 1898, John D. Fulmer; in 1899, Samuel 
Bowman; in 1900, Isaac Newton ]\Iiller; in 
1901, Marion B. Russ. (In 1901, the legis- 
lature, by an act in force March 11, 1901," 
provided that the terms of county officers, 
including those of county commissioners 
should "begin on the first day of January 
next following the term of office of the present 
incumbent.") In 1903, Herman A. Fohulka 
succeeded to the office of county commis- 
sioner; in 1904, Isaac Newton Miller; in 
1905, Marion B. Russ; in 1906. Barney C. 
Smith ; and in 1907, Daniel A. White. 


Sec. 1. — The President and Associate 
Judges. — By article fifth of the constitution 
of 1816, it was provided that, "The judiciary 
power of this state, both as to matters of 
law and equity, shall be vested in one su- 
preme court, in circuit courts, and in such 
other inferior courts as the general assembly 
may from time to time direct and estab- 

The same article of the constitution 
further provided. That the circuit courts 
should each "consist of a president, and two 
associate judges"; that the state should be 
divided into three circuits, for each of which 
a president should be appointed, who should 
reside within his circuit ; that the legislature 
might increase the number of circuits and 
presidents as the exigencies of the state might 
from time to time require ; that all judges 

a. Acts, 1901, p. 411. 



should "hold their offices during the term of 
seven years, if they shall so long- behave well, 
and shall, at stated times, receive for their 
services, a compensation which shall not be 
diminished during their continuance in of- 
fice;" and that, "The presidents of the cir- 
cuit courts shall be appointed by joint ballot 
of both branches of the general assembly; 
and the associate judges of the circuit courts 
shall be elected by the qualified electors in 
the respective counties." There was this 
further provision, that "The president 
alone, in the absence of the associate judges, 
or the president and one of the associate 
judges, in the absence of the other, shall be 
competent to hold a court, as also the two 
associate judges, in the absence of the presi- 
dent shall be competent to hold a court, ex- 
cept in capital cases, and cases in chan- 
cery. ' ' 

In the act approved January 24, 1831,^ 
the legislature provided that the president 
should receive a salary of seven hundred dol- 
lars a year, to be paid out of the state 
treasury; and that the associate judges should 
receive two dollars per day, while attending 
court, to be paid out of the county treasury. 
By an act approved February 15, 1838,^ it 
was provided that, in the absence of any 
presiding judge of a circuit, any other pre- 
siding judge of the state might hold court in 
such circuit. This was, in effect, a provision 
for a change of venue from a judge, and was 
so intended by the legislature as shown by 
the preamble to the act. Express provision 
was afterwards made for changes of venue 
in case the presiding judge should be disqual- 
ified for any cause. In such case the special 
judge was allowed three dollars a day for his 

Sec. 2. — The Circuits Under the Consti- 
tution OF 1816. — ^By an act approved Feb- 
ruary 10, 1831, <^ the state was divided into 

a. R. S., 1831, pp. 138-142; R. S., 1838, pp. 161- 

b. R. S., 1838, p. 164. 

c. R. S., 1843, pp. 646-651. 
(I. R. S., 1831, pp. 142-146. 

seven circuits; the first consisting of the 
counties of Vermilion, Parke, Montgomery, 
Fountain, Warren, Tippecanoe, Clinton, Car- 
roll, Cass and St. Joseph. In St. Joseph 
county provision was made for two terms of 
court, beginning on the first Mondays of 
May and November, each year. By the 
same act, the terms in Cass county were made 
to begin on the fourth ]\Iondays in April and 
October; and, in order to enable the judge to 
come immediately from Cass to St. Joseph, 
the legislature, by an act approved February 
3, 1832,« pro\dded that the terms in St. Jo- 
seph county should begin on the Mondays 
following the terms in Cass county, which 
provision in some cases made a week's dif- 
ference in the dates of the beginning of the 
terms in St. Joseph county. 

By an act approved January 7, 1833,^^ the 
eighth judicial circuit was organized, con- 
si.sting of the counties of Carroll, Cass, 
Miami, Wabash, Huntington, Allen, La- 
gi-ange, Elkhart, St. Joseph and Laporte. 
Each of these counties was given one week's 
court, except Allen and Elkhart which were 
given two weeks each. The terms in Cass 
county began, as formerly, on the fourth 
Mondays of April and October; those in Al- 
len, on the Mondays succeeding the terms 
in Cass: those in Lagrange in like mariner, 
succeeding the terms in Allen ; those in Elk- 
hart, succeeding the terms in Lagi^ange; and 
those in St. Joseph succeeding the terms in 
Elkhart. This arrangement usually brought 
the terms of St. Joseph county in June and 
December. By a re-arrangement of terms in 
the eighth circuit, in an act approved Janu- 
ary 28, 1834,*' the terms of the St. Joseph 
circuit court were transferred to the first or 
second weeks of April and October. By an 
act approved January 30, 1835,*^ the terms 
in St. Joseph county were again changed to 
the first weeks of April and November. By 

a. Acts. 1831, pp. 242-244. 

6. Acts, 1832, pp. 4, 5. 

c. Acts, 1833, p. 70. 

a. Acts, 1834, pp. 57, 58. 



an act approved February 4, 1836,'^ definite 
days were named for the several counties for 
the year 1836, the terms for St. Joseph being- 
Monday, the eighteenth of April and Mon- 
day, the third of October, of that year. 

By an act approved December 9, 1836,^^ 
the ninth judicial circuit was formed, con- 
sisting of the counties of Elkhart, St. Jo- 
seph, Porter, Lake, Newton, Starke, Pulaski, 
Marshall, Fulton and Kosciusko. The length 
of the term in St. Joseph county remained 
one week; the terms to begin on the first 
Mondays of April and October. The district 
and terms of St. Joseph county remained un- 
changed in the act dividing the state into 
eleven districts, approved January 28, 1839,^ 
except that the terms were made two weeks 
each. By an act approved January 20, 1841,*^ 
it was provided that the terms in St. Joseph 
county should begin on the fourth Mondays 
of March and September. 

In the revised statutes of 1843 the various 
laws in relation to the twelve circuit courts 
of the state were codified.^ 

By article seventh of the constitution of 
1851, our .judiciary system was completely 
changed. The associate judges were discon- 
tinued, and provision was made for the elec- 
tion for six years of one judge for each cir- 
cuit. By an act approved June 17, 1852,^ 
the state was divided into ten circuits, St. 
Joseph county continued to be in the ninth 
circuit; which now consisted of the counties 
of Lake, Laporte, Porter, St. Joseph, Mar- 
shall, Starke, Fulton, White, Cass, Pulaski, 
Howard, Carroll and Miami. By an act ap- 
proved June 18, 1852,s' the length of each 
term in St. Joseph county remained two 
weeks; and the terms were fixed for April 
and October, each year, succeeding the terms 
in Marshall county. By an act approved 

a. Acts, 1835, pp. 40-42. 

6. Acts, 1836, pp. 61, 62. 

c. Acts, 1838, pp. 8-12. 

d. Acts, 1840, pp. 103-106. 

e. R. S., 1843, pp. 646-651. 

f. Special and Local Acts, 1851-2, p. 101. 

g. Special and Local Acts, 1851-2, pp. 102-105. 

January 21, 1853," the eleventh circuit was 
created, and the counties of White, Cass, 
Howard, Carroll and Miami were transferred 
from the ninth to the eleventh circuit; while 
Jasper county was for a time added to the 
ninth circuit. By an act approved February 
3, 1853,^ the terms in St. Joseph county 
continued to be in April and October, but 
following the terms in Laporte ; with a pro- 
viso that the first term of St. Joseph county 
in that year should begin on the twenty- 
eighth day of February. By an act approved 
March 1, 1855,^ a like arrangement was con- 
tinued, except that each term was one week 
earlier. By an act approved February 15, 
1859,'^ the terms in St. Joseph county were 
advanced still another week, following Porter 
instead of Laporte. 

Sec. 3. — -The Circuits Under the Consti- 
tution OP 1851. — By an act approved March 
6, 1873,^ the legislature re-organized the ju- 
dicial circuits of the state, increasing the 
number to thirty-eight. In this act it was 
provided that "The counties of Laporte and 
St. Joseph shall constitute the thirty-second 
circuit." The terms in Laporte county were 
made five weeks each, beginning on the firet 
Monday in February, the fourth Monday in 
April, the first Monday in September, and 
the third Monday in November, each year. 
The terms in St. Joseph county were made 
four weeks each, beginning on the Mondays 
following the Laporte terms. The arrange- 
ment so made continued for twenty-four 
years ; when, by an act approved January 
30, 1897,^ the legislature finally created a 
separate district, with unlimited terms, for 
St. Joseph county. Section second of that 
act reads as follows : 

"The county of St. Joseph shall constitute 
the sixtieth judicial eircuit, and the terms 
thereof shall be held as follows, to-wit : Com- 

a. Acts, 1853, p. 32. 

h. Acts, 1853, p. 35. 

c Acts, 1855, p. 66. 

d. Acts, 1859, p. 70. 

e Acts, 1873, pp. 87-98. 

/=. Acts, 1897, pp. 13, 14. 



mencing on the second Monday of September 
and first Monday of November, February and 
May of each year, and shall continue in ses- 
sion so long as the business thereof shall re- 
quire. ' ' 

It was found that the November term, as 
so fixed, came too near the September term; 
hence, by an act approved February 28, 
1901,* this section was so amended that the 
November term should begin on the third 
]\Ionday of November instead of upon the 
first Monday. No further ehange has been 
made, and St. Joseph county continues to be 
a circuit by itself, with four terms of court 
each year. The ternxs are practically con- 
tinuous during the year, beginning on the 
second Monday of September, and each term 
ending just before the beginning of the next 
term, until July in each year, when a sum- 
mer vacation is taken. 

Sec. 4." — The First Session of the Court. 
— The first session of the St. Joseph circuit 
court, of which we have any record, was held 
at a term beginning on Monday, November 
29, 1832, the day fixed by the act of the 
legislature approved February 3, 1832.^ 
According to the provisions of this act, taken 
in connection with those of the act of Febru- 
ary 10, 1831,^ it would seem that terms of 
court should have been held in May and Oc- 
tober, in the year 1831. and also in May, 
1832. There was dissatisfaction, as well as 
some sharp criticism, for what was looked 
upon as neglect of official duty in relation to 
this matter. The county records show that 
juries were drawn by the board of commis- 
sioners for a term that should have been held 
in November, 1831; as also by the board of 
justices for a term that should have been held 
in November 1830. But the records do not 
show that any court was held at either of 
these times.*^ 

While, as stated, the records do not show 

a. Acts, 1901, pp. 38, 39. 
h. Acts, 1831, pp. 242-244. 
c. R. S., 1831, pp. 142-146. 

'/. See "Early County Records," Chap. 5, Subd. 
6, of this work. 

that the jurors selected for 1830 or 1831 were 
ever called to serve in court, or indeed that 
there was any term of court held in either of 
these years, yet there are traditions that such 
sessions of court were actually held. Mr. 
Timothy G. Turner, w^ho, in 1867, published 
a ' ' Gazetteer of the St. Joseph Valley, ' ' tells 
us of enquiries concerning this matter made 
by him among the older residents of the 
county, then living; and in that publication, 
he makes a statement of what he learned as 
to the November term, 1830, of the St. Joseph 
circuit court :* 

"It is, however, a matter of doubt," he 
there says, "whether this court was ever 
held. Mr. Samuel L. Cottrell, now living at 
South Bend and who was then sherifl', has an 
indistinct recollection that it was. He thinks 
at least one of the county judges was present, 
that court was duly opened in the woods near 
the bank of the river, below Water street, 
and inunediately adjourned. Other persons 
remember to have been present at some time, 
about that date, when a court was held by 
county judges; but the first court of which 
there is any record, and at which there was 
a presiding judge, was held at South Bend, 
on the 29th day of October, 1832, by the 
Hon. John K. Porter, presiding judge of the 
first judicial circuit, to which the county was 
then attached. It lasted but for one day, 
and was held in the bar room of Calvin 
Lilly's hotel, then standing on Michigan 
street, [on the west side of the street, be- 
tween Jefferson and the first alley north.] 
The old building is now in existence, and 
Ls used by Studeba.ker Brothers, on Jeffer- 
son street as a ware room." 

The proceedings of that first and only day 
of the October term, 1832, of the St. Joseph 
circuit court, as set out in order book number 
one, are as follows : 

"Be it remembered, that on the 29th day 
of October, in the year of our Lord A. D. 
1832, a term of the circuit court for St. Jo- 
seph county, state of Indiana, was begun and 

a. Gazetteer of the St. Joseph Valley, p. 44. 



held at the house selected by the county com- 
missioners in the to"\\Ti of South Bend. 
Present John R. Porter, president judge of 
the first judicial circuit of the state of In- 
diana, also William INIeCartney, Senr., and 
John Banker, Esqr^., associate judges of the 
St. Joseph circuit court;* also Andrew In- 
gram, prosecuting attorney of the first ju- 
dicial circuit of the state of Indiana; also 
Daniel A. Fullerton, sheriff of said county, 
and Lathrop M. Taylor, clerk of said county 
of St. Joseph. And the court was opened 
in due form of law. Now comes Daniel A. 
Fullerton, sheriff, and returns the venires 
which were heretofore issued. The following 
grand jurors appeared and answered to their 
names, viz. : Lowdy Stevenson, Eli Roe, 
Pleasant Harris, Nathan Greene, Robert Red- 
ding, Peter Johnson, George Wilkenson, An- 
thony Defrees, John Smith, sen., Stanton 
Porter, John Massey, William P. Howe, 
Frederic Beuter, William Runion, Peter 
Rupel, Jacob Harris, George Holloway and 
Jacob Bowman. Whereupon the court ap- 
pointed George Holloway foreman ; and the 
said grand jurors were severally sworn, and 
retired to deliberate. And Calvin Lilly was 
sworn as bailiff for said grand jury. 

"On motion of E. Egbert, Esqr., J. A. Lis- 
ten, E. Egbert, A. Ingram, Thomas B. 
Brown, William M. Jenners and C. K. Green 
were admitted to practice as attorneys and 
eounsellers at law at the bar of this court. 

a. Chapel W. Brown was one of the associate 
judges, elected at the first county election, in 
August, 1830. He, together with Judge Banker, 
held the first term of our probate court, in Jan- 
uary, 1832. as authorized by the act of February 
10, 1831, organizing the probate court. He was 
succeeded by William McCartney. See Subd. 3, 
Sec. 1, of this chapter, "The Probate Court." It 
does not appear that Judge Brown ever sat in the 
circuit court. In Subd. 3, of this chapter, it is 
shown that while Judge Brown was elected in 
August, 1830, he did not qualify till the day he 
held probate court, January, 1832. It would seem 
that in this interval William Brookfield was asso- 
ciate judge, by appointment, perhaps. He took 
the acknowledgment of the plat of South Bend 
as associate judge, Mai-ch 28, 1831. See Chap. 11, 
Subd. 1, Sec. 3; also Subd. 3. of this chapter, 
Sec. 1. 

"Matthias Redding "j 

vs. V Petition for Divorce. 

Hannah Redding ) 

"And now, at this day, comes the complain- 
ant, by E. Egbert, his attorney, and it ap- 
pearing to the court, upon affidavit filed, that 
the defendant in this ease is a non-resident 
of the state of Indiana, it is thereupon 
ordered by the court that the pendency of 
this suit be published for three weeks suc- 
cessively, sixty days prior to the next term 
of this court, in the St. Joseph Beacon, a 
paper published in the town of South Bend, 
notifying the defendant to appear at the 
next term of this court, to answer said peti- 
tion ; or the matters therein contained will 
be heard in her absence. 

"Job Brookfield 

William Brookfield 

Bill in Chancerv 

"And now, at this day, comes the plaintiff, 
by his solicitor; and it appearing to the 
court, upon affidavit filed, that the defendant 
in this case is a non-resident of the state of 
Indiana, it is thereupon ordered by the court 
that the pendency of this bill be published 
for three weeks successively (sixty days prior 
to the next term of this court), in the St. 
Joseph Beacon, a paper published in the town 
of South Bend, notifying the defendant to 
appear at the next term of this court, and 
plead, answer or demur to said bill : or the 
matter therein contained will be heard in his 

Case for Libel. 

"Elisha Egbert 

Jacob Hardman 

"And now, at this day, come the parties; 
and this case is dismissed at the plaintiff's 
cost, for want of a declaration. 

"Received my docket fee. J. A. Liston, at- 
torney for defendant. 

Case in Trover. 

"James Nixon, Admin. 

Orra Morse 

' ' And now, at this day, comes the plaintiff, 
and the defendant not appearing, this case 
is continued until the next term. 



"William Harris 

Reuben Brunson 

Case in Slander. 

"And now, at this day, comes the plaintiff, 
by his attorney; and this case is dismissed 
at the plaintiff's cost. 

"On motion of A. Ingram, it is ordered to 
be certified on the record, that C. K. Green, 
an applicant for a license to practice law, is 
a young man of good moral character. 

"Thomas T. Benbridge 
William Foster 
Charles Foster 

Cornelius Bradlewsey ^ Debt. 

Peter Johnson 

Pleasant Harris 

"Now, at this time, come the plaintiffs, by 
Ingram, their attorney, and this cause is con- 
tinued by operation of law until the next 
term of this court. And time is given. 

[A case almost identical with the preced- 
ing case was that of The Heirs of John Hall, 
by their guardian and next friend, against 
The Heirs of George Cicott.] 

In Chancery. 

"Orra Morse 

James Nixon 

"And now, at this time, comes the plain- 
tiff, by his counsel, and the defendant, by 
his attorney, comes also and files his de- 
murrer, in these words (here insert), to which 
the plaintiff files his rejoinder. And the 
court thereupon, after mature deliberation, 
sustains the said demurrer to the plaintiff's 
said bill. It is therefore considered by the 
court that the plaintiff's said bill be dis- 
missed, with leave to amend his bill in ninety 
days; and the said plaintiff' pay the costs of 
this demurrer within ninety days, or attach- 
ment to issue, 

"State of Indiana I Indictment for Sell- 
vs. V ing Spirituous Liquors 

Sarah McLelland *» Indians. 

"Peley Babcock 

John B. Cicott, et al. 

In Chancery 

"Now comes the said plaintiff, by Evans, 
his attorney, and files here his bill against 
the said defendants; and it appearing to the 
satisfaction of this court that Louis Cicott, 
James Cicott, Joseph Cicott, Francis Cicott, 
Mary Ann Labada, Hagget Fisher, and the 
unknown heirs of Ferris Compo, deceased, 
heirs at law of George Cicott, deceased, by 
the affidavit of Benjamin Coquillard, defend- 
ants to said bill are not inhabitants, and live 
without the state of Indiana; it is therefore 
ordered that notice be given of the pendency 
of this cause to the said defendants, by three 
successive publications in the St. Joseph 
Beacon, a newspaper of general circulation 
published in the county of St. Joseph and 
state aforesaid, sixty days prior to the next 
term of this court, that they be and appear 
on the first day of the next term of this 
court, to show cause, if any they have, why 
the prayer of said bill shall not be granted; 
and it is further ordered that process issue 
against the said Zachariah Cicott, in this be- 
half directed, etc. And this cause is con- 
tinued to the next term of this court, with 
leave to the plaintiff to amend his bill. 

"Now, at this day, comes A. Ingram, Esq'"., 
prosecuting the pleas of the state of Indiana, 
and the defendant comes also; and being set 
at the bar of the court, and it being de- 
manded of her how she will acquit herself of 
said charge, for plea thereto says she is 
guilty. It is therefore considered by the 
court that the said def*^ do make her fine to 
the state of Ind. in the sum of five dols., and 
that she stand committed in the custody of 
the shff. until the fine and costs of said suit 
are paid or replevied. 

"The grand jury empanelled to enquire 
into the body of St. Joseph county do report 
that they have examined the jail of said 
county, and do find in said jail one prisoner; 
and further do find said jail insufficient and 

"Octo. 29, 1832. 

"George Holloway, 

"Ordered that court adjourn until court in 

"Signed, Oct. 29, 1832. 

"John R. Porter." 
Sec. 5. — The Second Session of the 
Court. — The act of January 7, 1833, as we 
have already seen, transferred St. Joseph 




county from the first to the eighth judicial 
circuit; and also iixed the terms of court 
for June and December, in each year. The 
second term of the St. Joseph circuit court, 
accordingly, was held in June, 1833. The 
record shows the court to have been held in 
a "court house," and also shows the presence 
of a new president .judge and a new prose- 
cuting attorney. The proceedings of this 
second term opened as follows : 

' ' At the June term of the St. Joseph circuit 
court, conmienced and held at the court house 
in the town of South Bend, in the county of 
St. Joseph and state of Indiana, on the first 
Monday of June, being the third day of June 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and thirty-three. 

"Gustavus A. Everts produced his commis- 
sion bearing date the ninth day of January 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and thirty-three, from his excel- 
lency Noah Noble, governor of the state of 
Indiana, appointing him president judge of 
the eighth judicial circuit of said state, for 
and during the term of seven years from the 
ninth day of January, 1833. 

"On the back of which commission is the 
following endorsement, to-wit : ' State of In- 
diana, Sixth Judicial Circuit, ss. I, Charles 
H. Test, president judge of said sixth cir- 
cuit, certify that Gusta\ais A. Everts per- 
sonally appeared before me on the 25th day 
of February, in the year of our Lord 1833, 
and being duly sworn deposeth and saith that 
he will support the constitution of the United 
States and the constitution of the state of 
Indiana, and that he will well and faithfully 
and impartially discharge the duties of presi- 
dent judge of the eighth judicial circuit of 
the said state of Indiana, to the best of his 

'As witness my hand and seal, the day and 
year above written. 

'Charles H. Test.' " 

Lathrop M. Taylor also "produces his com- 
misvsion from his excellency J. Brown Ray, 
governor of the state of Indiana, bearing 


date the eleventh day of August, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 
thirty, commissioning him clerk of the St. 
Joseph circuit court for the said county of 
St. Joseph, for and during the term of seven 
years from the 11th day of August, 1830." 
And endorsed on such commi.ssion is his oath 
of office, sworn to on the twenty-fourth day 
of August, 1830, before Samuel L. Cottrell, 
sheriff of St. Joseph county. 

So much of the record of said term as 
shows the names of the jurors then sum- 
moned is also here given, as indicating per- 
sons then prominent citizens of the county: 

"Daniel A. Fullerton, sheriff of the county 
of St. Joseph, now returns into court the 
venire of the grand jury heretofore issued, 
and brings into court the following jurors 
named in said venire, to-wit: Horatio Cha- 
pin, who was sworn as foreman, Simeon 
Mason, William Roe, Samuel Witter, 
Adonijah Rambo, Samuel Ritter, Warren 
Burk, James Garrett, Abraham Whitmore 
and Abraham Smith, ten in number, being of 
the regular panel of grand jurors. The 
sheriff now summons the following by- 
standers, to-wit: John D. Lasley, Londy 
Stephenson, John Becraft, William Stanfield 
and John Ireland, who being accepted by 
the court, together with the above named ten 
of the regular panel, were sworn as the grand 
jury of this term; who retired under the 
charge of Reuben Hildreth, a sworn bailiff, 
to deliberate upon matters touching their 
present service. 

' ' The following grand jurors of the resrular 
panel, being three times solemnly called, an- 
swer not, to-wit: Samuel Newman, Lot Day, 
John Egbert, Daniel Edwards, James Palmer, 
Henry Augaistine and John Weaver, but here- 
in wholly make default. It is therefore or- 
dered by the court that an attachment do 
issue against the above named delinquents, 
returnable at the first day of the next term 
of this court, to render excuse, if any they 
have, for failing appear as grand jurors." 

An order followed, admitting certain well 



known lawyers to practice in court, as fol- 
lows: "On motion of J. A. Liston. John B. 
Chapman, Martin M. Ray, D. H. Coleriek. 
Joseph L. Jernegan, Samuel C. Sample and 
William 0. Ross are admitted to practice as 
attorneys and connsellers of law at the bar of 
this court, and they are severally sworn as 
such. ' ' 

The seal of the court was also adopted ac 
ihis term, by the following order: "The 
court now devise aaid adopt a seal, and order 
a description thereof to be recorded, which is 
done as follows: 'Indiana. St Joseph 
County. ' The device whereof is an eagle, 
bearing in his talons a bunch of darts, an 
olive branch and an escutcheon. An impress 
of which said seal is annexed to this entry 
and description." 

At this second term of the St. Joseph cir- 
cuit court a considerable increase was shown 
in litigation. During the six days' session 
there were thirty-six cases considered by the 
court, distributed as follows: Domestic' at- 
tachment, two ; attachment for contempt, one ; 
action on bond, one; forfeiture of recogni- 
zance, two ; to keep the peace, one ; trespass, 
two: trespass in trover and case, one; insol- 
vency, two ; divorce, two ; chancery cases, five ; 
suppression of ferry license, one ; appeal from 
county commissioners as to ferry license, one ; 
appeals from justice of the peace, fifteen. 

It is shown by the record of this June ses- 
sion that Jolui IB. Chapman appeared in 
court and produced his commission from 
jXoah Noble, governor of the state, commis- 
sioning him as prosecuting attorney of the 
eighth judicial circuit for the term of two 
years from the tenth day of Januarj^ 1833. 

On the fourth day of the term the grand 
jury made their report the record being as 
follows : 

"The grand jury now come into court, and 
return into court sundry bills of indictment 
found by them, and sig-ned by their foreman 
as true bills; which are filed by the clerk as 
such. And the grand jury further make the 
following ' presentment of the insufficiency of 

the county jail, to-wit: The grand jurors 
for the state of Indiana, empanelled, sworn 
and charged in the circuit court of St. Joseph 
county to enquire in and for the body of the 
county aforesaid, upon their oath present that 
they have examined the jail of the county 
aforesaid, and find that the same has been 
broken open by some person to them un- 
known, by cutting a log from one side, ren- 
dering the said jail insufficient for the deten- 
tion of prisoners; and we further present 
that the said jail is wholly insufficient for the 
safe keeping of prisoners in other respects. 

"H. Chapin, 
"Foreman of Grand Jury." 

The following orders relating to the re- 
port of the grand jury and to jury service 
were made : 

"Ordered by the court that writs of ca- 
pias ad respondendum do issue, on all indict- 
ments found at the present term ; and that 
each of the defendants in said bills named 
are required to enter into a recognizance in 
the sum of $25.00, with surety in the like 
sum, except where a different amount is en- 
dorsed on said bills. 

"It is ordered by the court that the clerk 
of this court certify to the board of county 
commissioners the number of days the grand 
jurors and petit jurors served at this term 
of the circuit court ; as also the number of 
days the associate judges served at this 
term. ' ' 

The names of the associate judges are not 
mentioned in the proceedings of the term, the 
record of each day's proceedings being 
signed only "G. A. Everts." 

The following entries are also shown : 

"On motion of Samuel C. Sample, Esq.. 
Albert S. White is admitted to practice as 
an attx)rney and counsellor at law, and is 
sworn as such. 

"On motion of Albert S. White, Esqr., 
Hugh McCulloch, Esqr., is admitted to prac- 
tice as an attorne.y and counsellor at law 
at the bar of this court, and is sworn as 



"On motion of Jonathan Listen, Esqr., it 
is ordered by the court to be certified of rec- 
ord that John D. Defrees, an applicant for a 
'license to practice as an attorney and coun- 
sellor at law, is a man of good moral char- 
acter. ' '« 

Sec. 6. — Other Sessions of the Court 
Under the Old Constitution. — The record 
for the December term, 1833, beginning Mon- 
day. December 9, 1833, shows that Gustavus 

A. Everts was present as president judge and 
William IMcCartney and John Banker as 
associate judges. Lathrop M. Taylor was 
clerk; Samuel L. Cottrell, sheriff, and John 

B. Chapman, prosecuting attorney. 

The jurors attached to show cause why 
they should not be punished as for contempt 
for failing to attend at the June term were 
each found to have had suflficient excuse, and 
were discharged. 

Ten cases of indictments for selling 
spirituous liquors were considered by the 
court at this term. There was one conviction, 
the trial being by a jury, and a fine of twelve 
dollars and fifty cents and costs was assessed 
against the defendant. Three divorces w^ere 
granted. The grand jury again found the 
jail "wholly insufficient for the confinement 
of prisoners, there being a large hole in one 
corner of said jail and otherwise deficient 
and wanting much repair." Among the in- 
dictments returned was one ' ' for keeping and 
exhibiting a gaming table," and the defen- 
dant was required to enter into a recogni- 
zance in the sum of one hundred dollars, and 
bail in the like sum. 

The final order of adjournment at this 
term was signed only by the associate jus- 
tices, William McCartney and John Banker. 
Chapel W. Brown does not appear in the 
records of the circuit court as one of the as- 
sociate judges, although he sat with Judge 

a. See act approved January 31, 1824, R. S.-, 
1831, pp. 84-87, regulating admission of attorneys 
to practice law; also acts approved January 31, 
1825, December 28, 1827. February 17, 1838, R. S., 
1838, pp. 83-87; R. S., 1843, pp. 660-664. 

Banker at a term of the probate court held 
in 1832. (See note, supra.) 

The act of January 28, 1834, brought the 
first term of our circuit court for that year 
in April.« The session convened on Monday, 
April 7, 1834. The judges and other officers 
were the same as at the December term, 
1833, and the character of the litigation was 
but little different. The final order of ad- 
journment was again signed by the associ- 
ate judges, this time with the explanation, 
"previous to signing Judge Everts having 
left the bench. " - 

At the October term, 1834, the officers of 
court were unchanged, except the prosecut- 
ing attorney. In the following entry it is 
shown that one of the most distinguished 
men of the local bar was advanced to that 
position : 

"Now comes into court Sanuiel C. Sample, 
Esqr., and produces a commission from his 
excellency, Noah Noble, governor of said 
state, commissioning him, the said Sample, 
prosecuting attorney of the eighth judicial 
circuit. On the back of which commission 
was the oath of office endorsed." 

At this term there were numerous prose- 
cutions for violations of law, — gaming, 
selling liquor to Indians, affray, assault and 
battery, contempt of court, to keep the peace, 
rout, drunkenness, burglary, larceny, as also 
cases of slander. 

The grand jury again reported "that the 
jail of said county is totally insufficient in 
point of strength to confine prisoners, and 
that the same wants repairing. The same we 
find clean and wholesome. 

"Signed, Reynolds Dunn, Foreman of the 
grand jury." 

On this report it was "ordered by the 
court that the clerk of this court certify down 
to the board of county commissioners a copy 
of the aforesaid jail report, together that it is 
the order of this court that said commission- 
ers have said jail repaired in a good and 
substantial manner to contain prisoners." 

a. Acts, 1833, p. 70. 



John B. Niles was at this term admitted to 
practice law. 

On Thursday, the first day of January, 
1835, a special term of the St. Joseph circuit 
court was held for the trial of Alexis Provon- 
cille, indicted for burglary and larceny. The 
following jury was empanelled to try the 
case: Simeon Mason, Ezekiel Thomas, John 
Rudduck, Jr., Londy Stephenson, Seymore 
Stilson, John Rose, Alexander Blake, Tim- 
othy Mate, Henry Smith, Francis R. Tutt, 
William Middleton and Samuel Good, — 
"twelve good and lawful men, householders 
and freeholders of the said county of St. 
Joseph, who are chosen, elected, tried and 
sworn to well and truly try the issue joined, 
as aforesaid." The defendant was convicted, 
and was sentenced to state's prison for two 
years and fined five dollars. This was the 
first case of imprisonment in the state's 
prison from St. Joseph county. 

At the April term, 1835, the officers re- 
mained as before. The prosecutions for vio- 
lations of the criminal law continued numer- 
ous, particularly those for gambling, and for 
keeping gaming tables. There were two in- 
dictments for vending merchandise without 
license, and one for betting on a horse race. 
At the October term, 1835, the officers of 
the court were unchanged, and the character 
of the litigation continued to show numer- 
ous violations of the criminal law. Gambling 
was still the chief offense, but there were also 
nine indictments for selling intoxicating 
liquors without a license, and one for selling 
spirituous liquors to Indians. Two indict- 
ments were returned for violations of the 
astray laws. There were actions also to keep 
the peace, and several suits for slander. 

At the October term, 1836, Samuel C. 
Sample was presiding judge, and Joseph L. 
Jernegan prosecuting attorney. The associ- 
ate judges remained as before. 

At the October term. 1837, John Ireland 
and Reynolds Dunn appeared as associate 
judges; and an innovation is shown upon the 

records — all three judges signing their names 
to the orders. 

At the October term, 1839, Peter Johnson 
appears as associate judge, and William C. 
Hanna as prosecuting attorney. 

At the October term, 1840, Gustavus A. 
Everts was prosecuting attorney; and at the 
April term, 1841, the office was again filled 
b}^ William C. Hanna. 

At the September term. 1842, John H. 
Bradley appeared as prosecuting attorney; 
and at the March term, 1843, Ebenezer Cham- 

At the September term, 1843, John B. 
Niles was president judge, and Reuben L. 
Farnsworth prosecuting attorney. 

At the March term, 1844, Ebenezer M. 
Chamberlain became president judge, and at 
the September term of the same year Powers 
Green and John D. Robertson became asso- 
ciate judges. 

At the October term, 1846, Joseph H. 
Mather succeeded to the office ©f prosecut- 
ing attorney. 

At the October term, 1848, George Pierson 
was prosecuting attorney, and at the April 
term, 1849, Theodore S. CoMdes. Philo Ben- 
nett was associate judge at the September 
term, 1851, and James S. Frazer, afterwards 
judge of the supreme court, was prosecuting 
attorney at the same term. 

Sec. 7.- — Sessions op the Court Under 
THE New Constitution. — Under the consti- 
tution of 1851, which took effect on the first 
day of November in that year, the offices of 
president judge and associate judges were 
discontinued. The office of circuit judge sim- 
ply took the place of president judge, al- 
though the several president judges were con- 
tinued in office until the ends of their re- 
spective terms. By the act of June 18, 1852," 
re-arranging the circuits, it became doubtful 
on what day the October term of the St. 
Joseph circuit court for that year should be- 
gin. Accordingly Judge Robert Lowry, 
a. Special and Local Acts, 1851-2, pp. 102-105. 



who was here to preside at that term, en- 
tered the following order: 

"It being the opinion of the majority of 
the bar of this court that there may be much 
doubt -whether court can be legally held in 
this county commencing on this day, under 
the laws heretofore in force; that by the act 
of the last session of the general assembly the 
old law may be considered as being repealed 
and a different day fixed for holding said 
court in this county. It is therefore ordered 
by the court that all writs, suits, complaints 
and proceedings pending in said court, both 
civil and criminal, be and are hereby con- 
tinued until court in course, and that publi- 
cation hereof be made in the St. Joseph Val- 
ley Register. And court adjourned until 
court in course. 

"Sig-ned October 4th, 1852. 

"R. LOWRY." 

At the February term, 1853, Thomas S. 
Stanfield presided as "judge of the ninth 
judicial circuit, and ex officio judge of the 
St. Joseph circuit court," as was then the 
official title of our circuit judge. Don J. 
Woodward was the prosecuting attorney at 
this term. Alvin S. Dunbar appeared as 
deputy prosecutor under Mr. Woodward for 
several terms. 

There was a special June session in the 
year 1853, at which the Hon. William E. 
Stuart, one of the judges of the supreme 
court, presided, for the reason that Judge 
Stanfield had been interested as attorney in 
several then on the docket. 

At the April term, 1855, Morgan H. Weir 
was prosecuting attorney, but frequently ap- 
peared by William G. George, as deputy, or 
as special prosecutor appointed by the court. 
Mr. Weir resigned during the next year. 

At the April term, 1857, Albert G. Deavitt 
was judge and Mark L. De Motte, who had 
been appointed to fill a vacancy caused by the 
rasignation of Judge Stanfield, became ill 
after his appointment and was succeeded by 
John B. Niles, prosecuting attorney. Mr. 
De Motte, prosecuting attorney, usually ap- 

peared by William G. George, and sometimes 
by James Davis, special prosecutors. 

At the April term, 1858, Andrew L. Os- 
born was judge. At this term the court pro- 
mulgated and had spread of record a set of 
rules for the government of the business of 
the court. Reuben L. Farnsworth wa^* ap- 
pointed special prosecuting attorney. As 
Judge Osborn was disqualified to try a num- 
ber of cases in which he had been attorney, 
there was a special term for June, 1858, at 
which Charles H. Test, judge of the twelfth 
circuit, presided. At the April term, 1859, 
Thomas S. Stanfield was appointed special 
judge, and William B. Biddle appeared as 
prosecuting attorney. In April, 1861, D. J. 
Phillips was prosecuting attorney, and in 
April, 1865, Aaron Gurney. 

At the April term, 1867, Alvin S. Dunbar 
was appointed special judge, to hold for the 
term instead of the Hon. Andrew L. Osborn, 
who was ill. At the October term of the 
same year William H. Calkins, afterwards 
representative in Congress, was prosecuting 

At the April term, 1871, Thomas S. Stan- 
field was again circuit judge, and at the same 
term Michael L. Essick became prosecuting 

At the March term, 1873, the thirty-second 
judicial circuit was fonned, consisting of St. 
Joseph and Laporte counties. Four terms, 
each for four weelis, were assigned to St. 
Joseph county. Judge Stanfield continued 
to preside as judge of the new circuit. An 
important order for the rearrangement and 
improvement of the court room and the 
clerk's and sheriff's offices was made at this 
term. It was one of the most commendable 
a.cts of Judge Stanfield 's public life, though 
for a time it occasioned much adverse criti- 

At the June term, 1873, George Ford, by 
appointment of Governor Thomas A. Hen- 
dricks, appeared as prosecuting attorney; 
and at the December term of that year James 
A. Crawley became prosecutor. At the De- 



cember term, 1875, George Ford again at- 
tained to the office, and continued to hold it 
for many years, until he was elected to 

At a special term, opened on July 25, 1876, 
the Hon. Horace P. Biddle, judge of the su- 
preme court of the state, presided in the 
trial of important cases. Judge Stanfield hav- 
ing personal interests, by reason of which he 
deemed it improper for him to preside. 

At the December term, 1876, the Hon. 
Daniel Noyes appeared for the first time as 
judge of the St. Joseph circuit court. He 
continued thereafter to preside for the period 
of eighteen years. 

At the March term, 1885, Andrew J. Eg- 
bert was prosecuting attorney, and was suc- 
ceeded at the December term, 1887, by Abra- 
ham L. Brick, who, like Mr. Ford, held the 
office until his election to congress. 

An adjourned term of court was held, be- 
ginning July 23, 1889, at which the Hon. 
Joseph A. S. Mitchell, then a member of the 
state supreme court, took the bench for the 
trial of an intricate case involving the rights 
of the various owners of the water power 
generated by the dam in South Bend over 
the St. Joseph river. By agreement of par- 
ties Judge Mitchell appointed former su- 
preme Judge James S. Frazer referee, to 
hear and report upon the evidence. The 
case was finally adjudicated to the satisfac- 
tion of all parties, chiefly by reason of the 
measurements and well-considered system of 
weirs devised by civil engineer John F. 
Meighan and adopted by the court. 

Judge Stuart, Judge Biddle and Judge 
Mitchell were the only judges of our supreme 
court to sit in the St. Joseph circuit court in 
the trial of causes during their terms as 
judges of our highest court. Almost as great 
honor Avas done us by that eminent jurist, 
James S. Frazer, who, however, had left the 
supreme b'^neh before sitting here as referee 
in our noted hydraulic case. 

In December, 1891, Peter D. Connolly was 
prosecuting attorney. He was one of our 

most promising young lawyers, but very soon 
failed in health. His deputy, Francis M. 
Jackson, acted for him during the greater 
part of the time, until the death of Mr. Con- 
nolly in the spring of 1893. Mr. Jackson was 
appointed by the court special prosecutor for 
the May term, 1893, and soon after was com- 
missioned by Governor Claude Matthews to 
fill the office until the beginning of the term 
of Mr. Connolly's successor, Oliver M. Cun- 
ningham, in the fall of the same year. 

In 1894 the Hon. Lucius Hubbard took 
his seat as judge of the St. Joseph circuit 
court, and in 1895 the Hon. John C. Richter, 
now judge of the Laporte circuit court, be- 
came prosecuting attorney of the circuit. In 
1897 St. Joseph county became the sixtieth 
circuit of the state, and Judge Hubbard was 
retained as first judge of the new circuit. 
Thomas W. Slick , was the prosecuting at- 

In 1900 the Hon. Walter A. Funk became 
judge, an office to which he was last year re- 
elected. In 1901 George E. Clarke became 
prosecuting attorney. He held the office until 
1905, when he was succeeded by George A. 
Kurtz. The present prosecuting attorney, 
Joseph E. Talbot, took his office at the be- 
ginning of the current year. 

Of the judges of the St. Joseph circuit 
court, Samuel C. Sample, Thomas S. Stan- 
field, Albert G. Deavitt, Lucius Hubbard and 
Walter A. Funk were at the time of their 
incumbency citizens of this county, as were 
also the following named prosecuting attor- 
neys : Samuel C. Sample, Joseph L. Jernegan, 
George Ford, Andrew J. Egbert, Abraham L. 
Brick, Peter D. Connolly, Francis M. Jack- 
son, Oliver M. Cunningham, Thomas W. 
Slick, George E. Clarke, George A. Kurtz 
and Joseph E. Talbot. The remaining 
judges and prosecuting attorneys were citi- 
zens of other counties attached to our judicial 


Acting under the provisions of article fifth 



'PUBLIC L!9--*ARy1 

\^AM«r, Lenex and T\ld«n , 
1 803 . 



of the constitution of 1816, authorizing the 
establishment of courts inferior to the cir- 
cuit court, the legislature, by an act approved 
February 10, 1831,* provided for the or- 
ganization in each county of a probate court, 
consisting of one judge, to be elected every 
seven years by the voters of the county. The 
court was given "original and exclusive ju- 
risdiction in all matters relating to the pro- 
bate of last wills and testaments,- — granting 
of letters testamentary, letters of administra- 
tion, and of guardianship; including also 
"the protection of minors, idiots and lunatics, 
and the security and disposition of their per- 
sons and estates." The probate court was 
also given concurrent jurisdiction with the 
circuit court in actions "in favor of or 
against heirs, devisees, legatees, executors, 
administrators, or guardians, and their 
sureties and representatives;" also "in the 
partition of real estate." and some other like 

The procedure as to pleadings, writs, trial, 
judgment, executions, etc., was in all respects 
.similar to that in the circuit court, including 
the right to trial by jury. There might be an 
appeal either to the circuit court, or directly 
to the supreme court. The clerk of the cir- 
cuit court and the sheriff of the county were 
alike officials of the probate court. As finally 
fixed by statute, the court met regailarly on 
the second Mondays of February, May, 
August and November, — except in case the 
circuit court or the board of county commis- 
sioners should be in session on such day, 
when the probate court was to sit on the suc- 
ceeding Monday. The sessions of the court 
were limited to six days, and the compensa- 
tion of the judge was three dollars per day. 

Sec. 1. — The. First Session. — The first 
term of the St. Joseph probate court was held 
on the fifth day of January, 1832. This term 
was held by the associate judges of the cir- 
cuit court, as provided in the act of Febru- 

a. R. S.. 1831, pp. 154-180. See also Act ap- 
proved Feb. 17, 1838; R. S., 1838, pp. 172-199; and 
R. S., 1843, pp. 664-670. 

ary 10, 1831, for the organization of the pro- 
bate court, there being at the time no pro- 
bate judge qualified to hold the court. Pre- 
vious to the holding of this term of court the 
clerk, as authorized by the same statute, had 
issued letters testamentary on one estate, and 
letters of administration on another. The 
record of those first letters issued in this 
county, and also the record of the first ses- 
sion of our probate court, were entered up in 
the order book as follows: 

"Joseph Garwood, Ex'" ) 
of Jonathan Garwood, j 

"On application of Joseph Garwood to 
the clerk of the St. Joseph probate court, let- 
ters testamentary issued to the said Joseph 
Garwood on the estate of his father, Jonathan 
Garwood, late of said county, deceased, in 
vacation of said court, by his filing bond with 
John Wills and John Drulent as his securi- 
ties, in the sum of five thousand dollars. 

"John D. Lasly, Adm'" 
of Basile Prunie. 


"On application of John D. Lasly to the 
clerk of the St. Joseph probate court, letters 
of administration issued to the said John D. 
Lasly on the estate of Basile Prunie, late of 
said county, deceased, in vacation of said 
court, by his filing bond with Alexis Coquil- 
lard and Peter F. Navarre as his securities, 
in the sum of five hundred dollars. 

"At the first term of the St. Joseph pro- 
bate court, begun and held on Thursday, the 
fifth day of January. A. D. 1832, at the house 
of Calvin Lilly, in the town of South Bend, 
in a room furnished by Alexis Coquillard, it 
not being convenient for said Coquillard to 
furnish a room in his house, as provided by 
law ; before the honorable John Banker and 
Chapel W. Brown, associate judges of the St. 
Joseph circuit court and sole judges of this 
court, there being no probate judge qualified 
in said county according to law to hold 

"At the hour of eleven o'clock appears 
John Banker and produces a commission from 


his excellency, J. Brown Ray, governor of the not held for more than a year after the first, 

state of Indiana, commissioning him, the said The record opens as follows : 

John Banker, an associate judge of the St. "At the February term of the St. Joseph 

Joseph circuit court for term of seven yeare probate court appears James P. Antrim, at 

from the eleventh day of August, 1830, dated the hour of eleven o'clock on the second Mon- 

at Indianapolis the 24th day of October, day of February, being the eleventh day of 

A. D. 1831." , February, A. D. 1833, at the house of Calvin 

Endorsed upon Judge Banker's commis- Lilly, in the town of South Bend, in a room 

sion was his oath of office, taken on December provided by the county commissioners of the 

8, 1831, before Israel H. Rush, a justice of said county of St. Joseph, and produces a 

the peace. A like record is made of the conunission in the words and figures fol- 

commission and oath of office of Chapel W. lowing: 

Brown, the other associate judge. Judge 'Noah Noble, Governor of the State of 

Brown's oath of office, however, was taken Indiana, To all who shall see these presents, 

before Levi F. Arnold, justice of the peace. Greeting: Know ye, that, in the name and 

on January 5, 1832, the day on which the by the authority of the state of Indiana, I 

court was held. It thus appears that Judge do hereby appoint and commission James P. 

Bro\TO waited from his election, in August, Antrim probate judge for St. Joseph county, 

1830, until Januarv;, 1832, before qualifying, to serve as such until a successor is appointed 

As there is no further record of his services, and commissioned. 

it is probable that his only official action was ' In testimony whereof I have hereunto set 

that taken as ex officio probate judge on Jan- my hand and caused to be affixed the seal of 

uary 5, 1832.* the state of Indiana at Indianapolis, this 10th 

The only orders made by the court at this day of December, A. D. 1832, the seventeenth 

first session were to confirm the appointments, year of the state, and of the independence 

of executor and administrator, made by the of the United States the fifty-seventh, 

clerk prior to the session; and also to adopt a 'N. Noble. 

seal for the probate court. The last order 'By the Governor, 

reads as follows: 'James Morrison, 

"The court now here adopt the following 'Secretary of State.' 

seal, to- wit : Marked with letters thereon, St. " On the back of which commission is the 

Joseph County, Indiana, with a spread eagle following endorsement, to-wit: 

thereon, an impression whereof is made on 'This day came James P. Antrim and af- 

the margin of this page ; which this court firmed that he would support the constitution 

will use for the purpose of sealing their or- of the United States and the constitution 

ders, decrees and other proceedings thereof." of Indiana, and that he would to the best of 

The order of adjournment of this first one- his abilities and judgment faithfully dis- 

day term of court then followed: "And no charge the office of probate judge, in and for 

further business appearing before the court St. Joseph county. 

it adjourned until court in course. 'January, the 18th day, A. D. 1833, af- 

"C. W. Brown. firmed before me. 

"John Banker. .'Samuel Martin, 

"Signed Jany. 5, 1832." 'Justice of the Peace.' 

Sec. 2.— Further Sessions of the Court. "And thereupon a probate court is held." 

— The second term of the probate court was The only business transacted at this second 

a. See Note, Subd. 2, of this chapter, Sec. 4. ^^™ ^^ *^^^ P^°'^^^e ^^^^^^ ^^^^ the appoint- 

See also C?hap. 11, Subd. 1, Sec. 3. ment of Samuel Garwood as administrator 



of the estate of Pricillia Garwood, and the or- 
dering- of a citation to require John D. Lasly 
to file a sale bill and make settlement of the 
estate of Basile Prnnie. 

At the February term, 1834, Elisha Eg- 
bert appeared as judge of the probate court. 
Judge Eg-bert continued to preside until the 
November term, 1838, when John J. Deming 
succeeded to the office. In 1846 Edward F. 
Dibble became judge, and in 1848 Judge Eg- 
bert came upon the bench for the second 
time and served until the court was abolished 
under the constitution of 1851. The last en- 
try in the probate records reads : ' ' And court 
adjourns sine die. Signed August 25th, 
1852. Elisha Egbert, Probate Judge." 


Sec. 1. — Organization. — The seventh arti- 
cle of the constitution of 1851, as originally 
adopted, provided that "The judicial power 
of the state shall be vested in a supreme court, 
in circuit courts, and in such inferior courts 
as the general assembly may establish." 
Under the power so granted the legislature, 
by an act approved May 14, 1852,* provided 
for a court of common pleas, to consist of 
one judge, elected by the voters of the proper 
district, M-ho should hold his office for four 
years. ' ' 

This court was given the jurisdiction of the 
old probate court, with certain additional 
civil and criminal jurisdictimi, inferior to the 
jurisdiction of the circuit court. It was the 
old probate court greatly improved, and with 
its powers and usefulness much enlarged. 

By an act approved June 11, 1852,* pro- 
vision was made for the election of a district 
attorney in every common pleas district. The 
duties of this officer in the court of common 
pleas were quite similar to those of the prose- 
cuting attorney in the circuit coui^:, except 
that his jurisdiction, like that of the common 

a. 2 11. S., 1852; pp. 16-23; 2 Gavin and Hord, 
pp. 19-30. See also Acts, 1853, p. 38; Acts, 1857, 
p. 33; Acts, 1859, p. 91. 

b. 2 R. S., 1852; pp. 385-386; 2 Gavin and Hord, 
pp. 429-431. And see Acts, 1861, sp., p. 39. 

pleas judge, was in general limited to prose- 
cutions for misdemeanors. As in case of the 
oid probate court, appeals might be taken 
from the court of common pleas either to the 
circuit court or to the supreme court. Ap- 
peals from justices of the peace might be 
taken to the court of (fommon pleas or to the 
circuit court. There were four terms of 
court each year. At first these terms were 
fixed for the first Monday of January in each 
year, and for the first Monday of every third 
month thereafter. The length of each term 
was made to depend upon the population of 
the county, varying from one to three weeks. 
The clerk, however, in the absence of the 
judge, was, for many purposes, required to 
keep the court open "on every judicial day 
of the year.""- 

As the common pleas districts were at first 
arranged, the counties of St. Joseph, Marshall 
and Starke formed one district.^ But, by an 
act approved March 5, 1859, Laporte, Mar- 
shall, St. Joseph and Elkhart were formed 
into one common pleas district; while in the 
act numbering the several common pleas dis- 
tricts, approved March 11, 1861, the district 
composed of the counties of Laporte, Mar- 
shall, St. Joseph and Elkhart was named the 
seventeenth common pleas district.^ 
Sec. 2. — The Court in St. Joseph County. 
— The court of common pleas of St. Joseph 
county held its first session beginning on the 
first Monday of January, 1853. Although the 
court was in effect a continuation of the old 
probate court under the constitution of 1816, 
yet there were two sides to the court, law and 
probate. Separate records were kept, all 
civil and criminal business being transacted 
on the law side; while on the probate side 
were considered chiefly matters relating to 
the settlement of estates and guardianships. 

a. 2 R. S., 1852, p. 16. 

h. lb. 

c. Acts, 1859, p. 92; 2 Gavin and Hord, p. 20; 
Acts, 1861, p. 53; 2 Gavin and Hord, pp. 653, 654. 
And see Acts, 1859, p. 84; 1 Gavin and Hord, pp. 
277-281; Acts, 1869, p. 55; Davis' Sup. 1, 206. 



The first entry on the probate side reads as 
follows : 

"Be it remembered, that at a term of the 
court of common pleas of St. Joseph county 
and state of Indiana, established according 
to law, begun and held at the court house in 
the town of South Bend in the county of 
St. Joseph, in the state of Indiana, on Mon- 
day, the third day of January, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 
fifty-three, and before the Hon. Elisha Eg- 
bert, judge of the district composed of the 
counties of St. Joseph, Marshall and Starke 
and ex officio judge of the said court of com- 
mon pleas of St. Joseph county; and also 
present Samuel M. Chord, clerk of the court 
of common pleas of St. Joseph county ; and 
also present Benjamin F. Miller, sheriff of 
said county. And at the hour of one o'clock 
P. M., on said day,' said court was opened in 
due form of law. Thereupon it was ordered 
by the court that the commissions of said 
judge, clerk and sheriff of said court be en- 
tered of record on the order book of said 
court. ' ' 

This term la.sted for three days and but 
little business was done. 

In vacation of court, on January 13, 1853, 
the judge and clerk, -as required by the act 
of May 14, 1852, organizing the court, "pro- 
ceeded agreeable to law to devise and adopt 
a seal to be used for said court, and it is de- 
scribed as follows : Said seal is about one 
and three-quarters inch in diameter, with 
two circles on the outer edge, between which 
are the following words in capitals, to-wit : 
Court of Common Pleas of St. Joseph County. 
In the inner circle or center of said seal is 
the following design, to-wit : A female with 
a spear and a pair of scales, with the word 
Indiana immediately over her head." 

An impression of the seal of the probate 
court is made upon the margin of the record. 

There were only three judges of the St. 
Joseph court of common pleas, Elisha Egbert, 
who held the office until his death, in 1870 ; 
Edward J. Wood, who held until the Janu- 

ary term, 1873, and Daniel Noyes, who was 
elected in 1872 and held the office until the 
court was abolished by the act of March 6, 

The district attorneys during the existence 
of the common pleas court of St. Joseph 
county were : In 1853, Horace Corbin ; in 
1854, James L. Foster, and Edward F. Dib- 
ble ; in 1855, Joseph Henderson ; in 1857, 
Andrew Anderson, Jr.; in 1858, Reuben L. 
Farnsworth; in 1859, Amasa Johnson; in 
1861, James Davis; in 1861-2, Charles P. 
Jacobs; in 1863, William Andrew; in 1869, 
Joseph D. Arnold; in 1872, William B. Hess, 
and in 1873, George Ford. 


Sec. 1. — Slavery, as Known in Indiana. 
— Very many important cases affecting the 
rights of the people in their persons and prop- 
erty were passed upon from time to time b\ 
the three courts of St. Joseph county. To 
some of them reference has been made in the 
preceding pages. No case, however, has at 
any time been tried in our courts which 
roused the people to a higher pitch of inter- 
est at the time, or was productive of more 
la.sting results upon the community, not only 
of this county, but of all northern Indiana, 
than the fugitive slave case that came before 
Judge Egbert in the old probate court in 
1849. The conflict in relation to slavery was 
growing warmer year by year over the whole 
country, and nowhere more so, perhaps, than 
in this state. Indiana, as we have seen, had 
originally been slave territory. The ordinance 
of 1787 for the government of the northwest 
had declared that ' ' There shall be neither 
slavery nor involuntary servitude in said ter- 
ritory," and this prohibition was repeated in 
both our constitutions. But though prohib- 
ited by law, slavery did exist in fact. Even 
as late as 1840, as we have seen, the existence 
of slaves in Indiana is shown in the United 
States census. From the first settlement the 
question was a burning one in our common- 
wealth, and this fire was destined to be 



(|iieuehed only by the blood of the people 
in the great civil war. 

But to the jieople of St. Joseph county in 
the year 1849 the existence of slavery seemed 
a thing" afar off. The great body of our citi- 
;^ens knew of the institution only as some- 
thing, as it were, in a distant land, something 
of which they had read or heard people talk. 
They had not as yet come in contact with it ; 
it was a thing quite removed from their 
daily life. Railroad communication, which 
now brings the uttermost parts of the land 
so close to one another, was then unknown. 
Kentucky was not nearer to us than Califor- 
nia or Oregon is now. Neither was the con- 
dition of slavery aired among the people by 
any national uplifting of the subject that 
set the real nature of the institution before 
their eyes, or called upon them to take ac- 
tion in regard to it. The compromise meas- 
ures of Henry Clay had not yet been passed, 
nor had the fugitive slave law been enacted. 
The slavery dispute was as yet smoldering, 
and had not burst into flame. Such was the 
condition of the public mind of the people 
of St. Joseph county upon the subject of 
slavery when a most remai-kable object lesson 
was brought before them. The slave and his 
master were found pleading the great issue 
in our simple probate court." 

Sec. 2. Our Slave Case. — John Norris, 
residing south of the Ohio river, a little be- 
low the town of Lawrenceburg, Indiana, 
claimed to own as slaves a family consisting 
of David Powell, his wife Lucy, and their 
four children, Lewis, Samuel, George and 
James. The family was allowed to cultivate 
a plat of ground and sell the produce where 
they pleased; and David and his boys often 
crossed the river to Lawrenceburg to make 
sale of their crops. During the night of 

a. The St. Joseph County Fugitive Slave case 
was fully treated in a paper prepared for a His- 
tory of St. Joseph County, published in 1880 by 
Chapman & Co.. of Chicago. The writer shows 
himself to have been familiar with the facts, but 
does not give his name. We have somewhat 
abbreviated the narrative. Chapman, Hist. St. 
Joseph County, pp. 618-626. 

Saturday, October 9, 1847, the whole family 
disappeared from Kentucky. The alarm was 
given next morning and several persons 
started in' pursuit. Norris and his party 
hunted through southern Indiana for two 
months without success, though they fouml 
in several places articles belonging to the 

Two years afterwards, in September, 1849, 
Norris started north with eight men, and at 
midnight on the 27th of that month, they 
l)roke into the house occupied by the Powells, 
about eight miles from Cassopolis, Michigan. 
The house was in the woods, about half a 
mile from any other dwelling; and David 
Powell and his son Samuel were at the time 
absent from home. Norris and his party com- 
pelled the mother and her three children 
to rise from their beds and go with them ; 
and, hurrying them off to their covered wag- 
ons, they started for Kentucky. A guard was 
left at the house to prevent the other in- 
mates from giving the alarm. After a short 
time, however, the news spread and pursuit 
commenced. A neighbor, Wright Maudlin, 
overtook Norris and his party about noon 
next day near South Bend, Indiana, thirty 
miles from where they had started. JNIr. 
Maudlin immediately applied to Edwin B. 
Crocker, an attorney of South Bend, stat- 
ing what he knew of the circumstances, that 
he had no doubt the Powells were free peo- 
ple, that he had known them as quiet and 
industrious persons, and never heard any 
intimation that they were slaves; that they 
had purchased a small tract of land, on 
which they resided at the time of their ab- 
duction, and that they were laboring hard 
to pay for it. 

A petition for a writ of habeas corpus was 
drawn up, and signed and sworn to by INIr. 
Maudlin, averring that Mrs. Powell and her 
son Lewis were deprived of their liberty by 
some person whose name was unknown, un- 
der pretense that they were fugitive slaves; 
and averring that he verily believed they 
sheriff, for service. Mr. Day called upon sev- 



were free persons. On this petition the Hon. 
Elisha Egbert, probate judge, ordered a 
writ of habeas corpus to i&sue. The writ 
was placed in hands of Eussell Day, deputy 
eral citizens to accompany him in serving 
the writ. In the meantime, the report hav- 
ing spread that a party of kidnappers with 
their captives were in the vicinity, the whole 
community was aroused, and the people, in 
a state of excitement, ran about anxiously 
inquiring into the matter. The deputy sher- 
iff overtook Norris and his captives about a 
mile south of the town, where he had stopped 
in the woods to feed his horses. His party 
was well armed and made quite a display 
of their weapons, and at firet evinced a dis- 
position to resist all legal proceedings. The 
writ, however, was served by reading; and 
after a parley in which the deputy insisted 
that Norris and his party would not be al- 
lowed to proceed without a fair trial of his 
claims, he at last agreed to go back to town 
and proceed to trial on the writ of habeas 
corpus. By this time thirty or forty persons 
had arrived from town, two of them with 
guns; but no attempt was made to do vio- 
lence to the kidnappers; and Norris and his 
party drove back to town, followed by the 
deputy sheriff and the people. Meanwhile 
another writ of habeas corpus, for all four 
of the captives, was sued out, and directed 
to Mr. Norris, whose name had now been 
learned. The first writ was dismissed. At 
the request of Norris, the deputy sheriff took 
the custody of the captives until Norris could 
procure counsel. In a short time he secured 
the ser\aces of Mr. Liston and ]\Ir. Stanfield, 
to conduct his defense. Mr. Crocker and ^Ir. 
Deavitt appeared for the captives. 

The fugitive slave law not then being on 
the statute book, the only law under wiiich 
Norris could hold his captives was an old 
statute of 1793, not having any particular 
reference to the recovery of runaway slaves, 
but intended, in general, for the arrest of 
persons who had violated law in one state and 
then fled to another. It was contended 

against Norris that he had not complied with 
the terms of this statute, and therefore had 
no standing in court to hold his captives. 
In his favor it was contended that he had a 
right to arrest his slaves wherever he found 
them. No authority was introduced to sus- 
tain this contention; and Judge Egbert, 
after a full and candid hearing, ordered the 
Powells to be discharged. 

The court w^as crowded with an anxious 
audience, listening to the argument of coun- 
sel and awaiting the decision of the court. 
Everything had been conducted with order 
and propriety, and no one anticipated the 
scene that followed the decision of the court. 
The judge spoke in a low tone of voice, so 
that but few had heard him. Mr. Crocker, 
however, stated the decision in a voice that 
all could hear. Norris, in the meantime, had 
gathered his men around the captives seated 
within the bar; and the moment the decision 
was repeated by Mr. Crocker the Norris party 
seized each of the captives with one hand, 
brandished their weapons with the other and 
threatened to shoot the first man that inter- 
fered. This action took place before adjourn- 
ment of court and while the judge was still 
sitting on the bench. Up to that time every- 
thing had been quiet among those gathered 
in the court room ; but upon this display of 
force the people rose to their feet in a state 
of excitement. Some ran out to spread the 
alarm through the town ; others crowded 
around the Norris party and their captives, 
calling upon them to put up their arms. 
Notwithstanding their excitement the citizens 
made no attempt to rescue the captives by 
force. At length the Norris party put up 
their arms, the excitement subsided, and the 
sheriff, at the request of Norris, locked up 
the captives for safe keeping. 

This was on Friday. During that evening 
and the next day several warrants were is- 
sued against Norris and his men for assault 
and battery, and one for riot, based upon 
their violent proceedings in the courthouse. 
Saturday was occupied in trying these cases; 


and ill the riot case Norris and his party sons who had prevented him from taking 

voluntarily gave bail to appear in the circuit them back. 

court, which was to begin its session the On jMonday morning, accordingly, when 
next Monday morning. Two suits were also the habeas corpus case came on for trial, 
begiin by the Powells against Norris and his Norris refused to appear, saying that he did 
men, for trespass and false imprisonment; not want the negroes; but would make the 
and they were held to bail in the sum of one citizens pay for them, which suited him bet- 
thousand dollars in each suit. On Saturday ter. The sheriff, in his return, stated that 
evening another writ of habeas corpus was he held the captives as the agent of Norris, 
issued against Norris, charging him with hav- under the state writ, which was set out in 
ing placed the captives in jail, returnable full. A replication to this return was filed, 
also on ]\Ionday morning. sworn to by Lewis Powell, excepting to the 

There was at this time an extensive negro sufficiency of the return, and alleging that 

settlement near Cassopolis, in the neighbor- he and his family were free persons and not 

hood where the Powells had been found by slaves. One of Norrk' attorneys was pres- 

Norris and his men. As soon as it was ent at the trial, but refused to appear for 

known that Powell's wife and children had him. The case of Prigg vs. PenUvsylvania, 16 

been captured, large parties of these people, Petere', in which the supreme court of the 

themselves almost all fugitive slaves, started United States declared that all laws passed by 

to rescue their friends. It was not until the states in relation to fugitives from labor 

Saturday that they learned definitely the di- are unconstitutional, was read to the court, 

rection the captors had taken. During Sat- and several witnesses were examined in rela- 

urday and Sunday great numbers of these tion to the facts of the case. The court, after 

negroes arrived in South Bend, many of them a full and fair hearing, again ordered the 

armed and all of them in a highly exas- captives to be discharged. The negro friends 

perated state of min^, though conducting and neighbors of the captives now came for- 

themselves with coolness and moderation. ward, conducted them out of the courthouse 

On Saturday, a citizen of ^Michigan made to a wagon and quietly drove off to their 
affidavit before a justice of the peace in South home in Michigan. On the bridge^ as they 
Bend that Norris and his party had been crossed the St. Joseph, they halted and gave 
guilty of kidnapping in Michigan, and had hearty cheers. They then rode on, singing 
fled from that state to Indiana. On this affi- their songs of freedom and rejoicing over the 
davit a writ was issued, but not served; for fortunate escape of their friends. The prose- 
it afterwards became apparent that Norris cutions against Norris and his party were 
and his men would be pleased to be arrested now dropped, and in a few days they also 
so as to give that as an excuse for not ap- quietly departed for their homes. Thus 
pearing in court on Monday morning to ended one of the most exciting episodes that 
answer in the habeas corpus case. ever took place in northern Indiana. 

On Sunday morning Norris, after a con- Norris afterwards made his threat good; 

sultation with his attorneys, became satisfied and brought suit in the United States circuit 

that it would be useless to attempt to take court for the district of Indiana, to recover 

his captives out of tlie county, in the face of damages against Leander B. Newton, George 

the great number of armed negroes from W. Horton, Edwin B. Crocker, Solomon W. 

Michigan. He therefore made up his mind Palmer, David Jodon, William Willming-ton, 

to abandon all present legal proceedings; and Lot Day, Jr., Amable La Pierre and Wright 

determined instead to bring suits for damages IMaudlin, who had befriended the negroes. 

for the value of the negroes against the per- The pleadings were passed upon by Judge 



Huntington, then on the bench, who ruled 
for the claimant. The case was afterwards 
tried before Judge McLean. In his charge 
to the jury, the judge favored the claim; 
Avhich was, for Lucy, forty years of age, 
five hundred dollars ; for Lewis, twenty years 
of age, eight hundred dollars; for George, 
sixteen years of age, seven hundred and fifty 
dollars; for James, fourteen years of age, 
seven hundred dollars; and for claimant's 
expenses, one hundred and sixty-five dollars 
and eighty cents. The jury allowed the 
claims, substantially a,s made, the verdict, in 
the aggregate, being for two thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-six dollars. During the 
years 1850 and 1851, twelve additional suits 
were brought against fifteen defendants for 
five hundred dollars' penalty each, for vio- 
lation of the statute of 1793. Twenty-five 
other suits were threatened, if these should 
prove successful. These penalty suits were, 
however, decided in favor of the defendants, 
and the litigation came to an end. Such, in 
brief, was the most famoiLS case ever liti- 
gated before the courts of St. Joseph county, 
and by St. Joseph county lawyers. 


On Tuesday, November 1, 1831, the board 
of county commissioners, then consisting of 
Aaron Stanton, David Miller and Joseph 
Rohrer, being in session at the house of 
Alexis Coquillard, on the second day of the 
November term of the board for that year, 
took the first step for the erection of build- 
ings in which the biLsiness of the new county 
could more conveniently be carried on. The 
order of the board made on tha.t day in rela- 
tion to the matter is as follows: 

Sec. 1. — The First County Jail. — "Or- 
dered by the board aforesaid, that the county 
agent be required to sell out to the lowest 
bidder, on the eighth of this month, at the 
hour of one o'clock on said day, the building 
of a county jail, of the following dimensions, 
to-wit : The jail to be thirty feet long and 
sixteen feet wide, with a partition wall 

through the center of the building; all the 
timber of the walls to be of good white oak 
timber, and to be hewed at least one foot 
square; as also both the under and upper 
floor to be of like timber, of one foot square ; 
the foundations of the building to be laid one 
foot .and a half below the surface of the 
ground, and to be raised six inches above 
the ground; the sills to be fifteen inches 
wide, and the log's for the floor to be let in 
on the silk six inches, and the logs to be 
rabbeted out that go on the top of the floor 
and let down over so as to completely cover 
the ends of the logs and prevent the floor 
from being raised; the building to be raised 
with a half dovetailed notch, in each of the 
corners as well as the partition wall; the 
story to be eight feet between the "under and 
the upper floor; the upper floor to be the 
ends of tlie logs cut off about six inches at 
each end, and the under side of the ends 
to be cut out or blocked off about four inches 
and let down on the logs, so as to prevent 
them from slipping out; the plates to be 
rabbeted out over the ends of the floor logs 
and onto them ; the roof to be put on with 
good white oak rafters, covered with good 
sheathing and good joint pine shingles; the 
gable ends to be done up with good poplar 
weather boarding; the corners of the build- 
ing to be raised up plumb, and the comers 
to be sawed dowm smooth; the outside door 
to be cut out one foot from the partition 
wall, and to be two feet wide and four feet 
high in the clear when finished. There shall 
be an iron rod run up through the ends, 
or a foot from the ends, of the logs on the 
side of the door opposite the partition wall, 
of one inch bolt, and to extend six inches 
into the log below those cut out, and six 
inches up into the log above those cut out, 
and running through the same. The door 
shall be made of white oak plank of two 
inches thick, and be made double with said 
planks; the door shall be hung on three 
strap hinges, the straps to be three inches 
broad and half an inch thick; and the door 



shall also be lined with iron straps, to be put 
on within four inches of each other, and on 
each .side of the door; and said straps, as 
well as the hinges, shall all be riveted through 
the door within four inches of each other; 
the straps, other than the hingas, shall be at 
least one-eig-hth of an inch thick; the door 
to be hung on hooks to be in proportional 
size to the straps, and two of the hooks to 
be set upwards and one turned downwards; 
the lock of the door to be set in the inside 
by the contractor; the lock t-o be furnished 
by the agent ; the hooks on which the 
door is hung- to be entered into the timber 
well ; and the cheeks of said door shall be 
lined with grood white oak plank, one and a 
half inch thick, to be well spiked on. There 
shall also be another door made in the center 
of the partition wall, to be two feet wide and 
four feet high in the clear of said door after 
being- finished ; the cheeks of said door shall 
'be faced with good oak plank, one and a half 
inch thick and well pinned on ; the door 
shall be made of two inch white oak plank ; 
the door shall be hung- on two strap hinges, 
to extend across the door and hang- on two 
sufficient hooks driven into the wall; the 
whole of the door to be driven with spikes 
within four inches of each other; the con- 
tractor shall put the lock on furnished by 
the 'agent. There shall be a window cut out 
in each end of the house, two feet wide and 
one foot high ; and there shall be bars of 
iron in each of said windows, of one and a 
quarter inch square, and sihall be placed up 
and down in the windows within two inches 
of each other, and the ends of said bai^s 
shall be sunk in the lower and upper logs 
at least three inches. 

"And the jail shall be put on the south- 
west corner of the public square in the town 
of South Bend, and shall set lengthways 
north and south on the line of said lot, and 
the door shall be on the east side of said 
house. The undertaker shall be required to 
g:ive bond and security to be approved of 
by the agent, in the penal sum of one thou- 

sand dollars. The contract to be completed 
by the last Monday in April next ensuing 
the date hereof. The contractor will be en- 
titled to receive a county order on the county 
treasury as soon as the contract is completed 
for the building of said jail. All the work 
to be done in a good, workmanlike and sub- 
stantial manner." 

Such were the plans and specifications for 
the first jail of St. Joseph county. As in 
many other cases, since and before, the work 
does not seem to have been completed ac- 
cording to the plans, nor to the satisfaction 
of the county commissioners. This will ap- 
pear from the following- record: 

"The board of St. Joseph county commis- 
sioners met at the usual place of meeting on 
Saturday, the 28th day of April, 1832, in 
the town of South Bend; it being a special 
meeting of said board to receive the jail 
built for the said county. Present, David 
Miller and Joseph Rohrer, Esqr^. 

"The commissioners, after a full examina- 
tion of the said jail, are of opinion that it 
was not finished according to contract; and 
by an agreement with the said Woods & Mc- 
Cormic [the contractors], they took the said 
jail off of their hands. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, that 
Andrew Woods be allowed the sum of two 
hundred and six dollars and ninety cents, in 
full for his half in building a jail for said 
county, to be paid out of the first money 
that may come into the treasury from any 
donations made the county for the location 
of the county seat. 

"Ordered by the board aforesaid, that 
Denis McCormic be allowed the sum of two 
hundred and six dollars and ninety cents, 
out of the first moneys that may come into 
the county treasury from any donations that 
have been made to said county for the loca- 
tion of its county seat, in full for his half in 
building a jail for said county." 

On March 3, 1835, the board entered into 
contract with Peter Johnson to add a second 
story to the jail for six hundred and twenty- 



five dollars. This time the work was done 
according' to agreement by one of the most 
competent and reliable of our early con- 
tractors. At the ensuing September term, 
September 9, 1835, an order was made which 
has a strange sound at the present day. Or- 
lando Hurd, then one of the county commis- 
sioners, was '"'authorized and empowered to 
rent or let out the two upper rooms attached 
to the jail of said county, for the purpose of 
having the .jail and other property belong- 
ing to said county ^larded and taken care 

Perhaps this primitive wooden jail, its 
Avails and floors of white oak timber, "hewn 
at leaist one foot square," held its inmates 
quite as securely as the steel cages of our 
modern structure, "the best jail in the state," 
hold the incorrigibles of our day. If the of- 
ficer then in charge was as competent as his 
successor in charge to-day, we have little 
doubt that our first jail of white oak was 
amply sufficient for the purpose. 

Sec. 2. — The First Court House. — But the 
new county needed a court house nearly as 
much as it did a jail. At the January term, 
1832, the board of commissioners met as here- 
tofore at the house of Alexis Coquillard ; but 
"it not being convenient for the said Coquil- 
lard to furnish them a room in his house, by 
request of the said Coquillard the commis- 
sioners adjourned to the house of Calvin 
Lilly in the town of South Bend, in a room 
provided for them at the request of the said 
Alexis Coquillard." The need of a perma- 
nent place to attend to the public business 
was thus forcibly brought to the attention 
of the board, and on the third day of the ses- 
sion-, Wednesday, January 4, 1832, the fol- 
lowing entry was made in the records of the 
board : 

"The following is a statement of the court 
house to be built in St. Joseph county: 

"The court house shall be forty feet square, 
and built of brick. The foundation shall be 
made of good, durable arch brick, and sunk 
one foot below the surface of the ground. 

And the said wall shall be raised three feet 
high al)Ove said foundation, shall be twenty- 
two inches in thickness ; and there shall also 
be a foundation wall run north and south 
through said building, and raised so high 
that a sill of eighteen inches square, with 
the joist placed on said wall, shall raise 
the floor of the first story only three feet 
from the foundation. The walls of the first 
story of the building shall be raised so high 
as to leave twelve feet between the first floor 
a.nd the ceiling. The walls of the first story 
shall be laid eighteen inches thick. The 
walls of the second story shall be raised ten 
feet above the second floor, and be made thir- 
teen inches thick. There shall be a plate of 
yellow poplar timber of thirteen inches 
square placed on the top of the wall all 
around said building. There shall be four 
stacks of chimneys carried up in said build- 
ing, one in each corner of the house; and 
there shall be a fireplace in each of said 
chimneys in the lower story, of three and 
one-half feet in the back and five feet in 
the flare or front of the jambs, in the under 
room of each of said chimneys, except the 
southeast chimney, which may be three feet 
in the back and four feet in the front. And 
there shall be also a fireplace made in each 
of said chimneys in the second story of said 
building, except the southeast; and said fire- 
place shall be three feet in the clear in the 
back, and four feet in the flare or front of 
said fireplaces. The east half of the under 
room shall be filled up with earth nearly to 
top of the aforementioned sill, and then laid 
over with good hard brick. There shall be 
substantial iron bars under the arch of each 
fireplace. And in the north of said under 
room there shall be joists placed east and 
Avest across in said sill and wall, and within 
two feet of each other, of good white oak 
timber; and they shall be three inches thick 
and fourteen inches wide, and placed so as 
the floor when laid shall be three feet from 
the foundation. The floor of said end shall 
be laid of white oak boards, of one and one- 



fourth inch thick and six inches wide. There 
shall be four air holes left in the west side 
of said building, and two on the north and 
two on the south, of nine inches deep and 
four inches wude, to let the air in under the 
floor. There shall be two columns set upon 
said sill, running through the center of said 
building, one twelve feet from the north side 
of said building and the other twelve feet 
from the south side. The said columns shall 
be turned by a bilection, and with a hand- 
some mold at each end of the same ; and there 
shall also be a hole bored through the center 
of each of said columns with a common pump 
auger. There shall be a poplar girder of 
fourteen inches square running across said 
building, north and south, and placed on 
said columns; and the joists for the second 
floor shall be laid into said girder, and on 
the walls, east and west. The said joists shall 
be three inches thick and fourteen inches 
wide, and shall be placed in said girder 
within two feet of each other; and the floor 
shall be made and laid on said joists, of 
poplar boards of one and one-fourth inch 
thick and six inches wide. There shall be a 
door made on the east side, and in the cen- 
ter of the house, of four feet wide, and shall 
have a transom light sash above the door, 
and to be made to correspond with the height 
of the windov/s ; and also a door of the same 
description, to be placed in the center of the 
north side of the building. The doors shall 
be made of eight panels, and lined and 
braced on the inside of the door. Said doors 
shall be three inches thick, and hung on 
three butts sufficiently strong, and have each 
a good substantial thumb latch, and each a 
twelve inch stock lock fixed thereon. There 
shall be thi-ee twenty-four light windows, of 
glass ten by twelve, on the west side of th'e 
building, to be placed so in the wall of the 
building a.s to have the columns between the 
windows on each side even; and also two 
windows on the north side of said building, 
to be placed half way between the corners 
of the building and the door; and also two 


windows in the east side of the house, to be 
placed in the center of the wall between the 
ends of the house and door; and also two 
windows on the south side of the building, to 
be placed in the wall so as the columns shall 
be of a width; the last mentioned windows 
to be all of the same description as the first 

"In the second story, there shall be a row 
of studding running through the center of 
the building, north and south, for a parti- 
tion wall, made of white oak studs and placed 
within eighteen inches of each other. And 
there shall be another partition wall running 
through east and west on the west side of said 
building, eighteen feet from the south wall; 
and also there shall be another partition wall 
of studding running through the eastern side 
of said building, eighteen feet from the north 
wall, of studs of white oak as aforesaid, 
within eighteen inches of each other. 

"In the third story, there shall be two 
poplar or oak girders, running north and 
south across said building, of ten by twelve 
inches square, and placed in the center of 
the building and thirteen feet asunder, to 
start the cupola on; and there shall be joists 
framed into said girders, within eighteen 
inches of each other, of three inches by six. 
The first story of the steeple shall be five 
feet; the second story, or the octagonal part, 
with the ogee formed dome, twelve feet, with 
eight Venetian shutters, six feet high. The 
third story, or the spire and its pedestal, to 
be fifteen feet. There shall be a wooden ball, 
overlaid with gold leaf, placed on said spire at 
a proper place, that will measure two and one- 
half feet in diameter; and there shall be 
also a wooden fish fixed near the top of said 
spire, overlaid with gold leaf. There shall be 
a lightning rod fixed at or near the top of the 
spire, and run down on the outside of the 
building to the ground, of three-fourths of 
an inch diameter. 

"The building shall be covered with a hip 
roof, drawn from each corner, and covered 
with good joint pine shingles. There shall 



be a cornice put on each side of the bniklinp-, 
of eighteen inches wide, with a bed-mokl 
thereon, and to have tin conductors fixed 
thereunto of three inches diameter. The cor- 
nice is to be put up witli good substantial 
screw bolts one-half inch square, five to each 

''There shall be three windows put in on 
the north side of said building, in the second 
story, over the door and windows in the lower 
story ; and on the west side of said building, 
two windows, to be placed over the windows 
in the lower story nearest the corners of 
the building; and on the south side of the 
building, two windows; and on the east 
side, three windows, to be placed parallel over 
the door and windows below: all of said 
windows to be made of glass, ten by twelve 
inches, and to have each twenty-four lights 
of sash. The frames are to have parting 
strips, and the sash to be made one and one- 
half inch thick, and to be made with lock 

"There shall be a six panel door made 
and hung in each room in the second story, 
to be hung with good butts, one pair to a 
door, and a good wrought thumb latch and 
stock lock for each. There shall be an open 
newell staircase run up from the lower story 
to the second, with banisters around the 
head of the staircase ; likewise, there shall 
be a mill-step staircase run up from the sec- 
ond story, up into the cupola, at the head 
of which there is to be a trap door. 

"All the aforesaid rooms and inside walls 
to be well lathed and plastered, except the 
brick, which shall not be lathed, but plastered 
only, with two good coats of lime and sand. 

"There shall be Venetian shutters made 
and hung to each of the windows in said 
building. The shutter blinds shall be ten- 
anted into the stiles, and hung on good strap 
hinges put on with screws ; and shutter hold- 
ers shall be fixed into the walls to hold the 
shutters open, and iron bolts for the same. 

"The outside of the Avails of said building 
shall be painted with good Venetian red 

paint, and all pencilled otf at each joint with 
white lead. The cornice shall be all painted 
with three coats, with white lead and oil. 
The window shutters shall be painted green. 
The dooi"s shall all be painted with a ma- 
hogany color. The door frames shall be made 
the width of the walls ; and all the window 
and door frames shall be well painted with 
two coats of white lead and oil ; and the 
sash also. The glass are to be glazed in with 
good putty. The doors on the inside are to 
be one and one-half inch thick. 

"There shall be pieces of timber, of four 
inches square and four feet long, framed on 
the ends of the principal girders and joists, 
for the better support of the walls, at suit- 
able distances from the corners. There shall 
be scuppers made around at the floor of the 
cupola, to let the water, etc., out. The col- 
umns of the cupola to be dressed neatly, eight 
square. A cornice underneath the dome to 
be finished in a neat ajid good manner. 

"All of the aforesaid materials for said 
building to be of the best and most durable 
kind that the country affords; and all and 
every part of said building to be done, fin- 
ished and completed in good style, and the 
best AA'orkmanlike and most substantial 

"X. B. The undertaker to furnish every 
material necessary for said building. There 
shall be washboards placed around in all the 
aforesaid rooms, with a base member. 
And the walls of the aforesaid building, and 
the roof, windows and doors, and otherwise, 
well closed on or before the first day of De- 
cember next : and the remainder of said 
building shall be fully completed on or be- 
fore the first of December, A. D. 1833. 

"The contractor of said building will be 
paid the sum of five hundred dollars on the 
15th of May next: and the second payment 
on the first of December next, which, with 
the five hundred dollars, shall amount to the 
third of the amount of the whole contract. 
The second third of the amount of the con- 
tract will be paid when the building is fin- 



ished, and the payment will be made 
May 20, 1834. The contractor shall be re- 
quired to give bond and security under the 
penalty of five thousand dollare for the per- 
formance of the contract. 

"The county agent is directed to give no- 
tice in the Northwestern Pioneer that he will 
receive sealed proposals at South Bend be- 
tween the hours of ten and two o'clock on 
Monday, the 6th day of February next, for 
to enter into contract for building of the 
said house, and that the contractor name his 
securities in his proposals." 

As required by the foregoing order, there 
appeared in the Northwestern Pioneer and 
St. Joseph's Intelligencer, for Wednesday, 
January 11, 18 and 25, 1832, the following 
notice : 

"A Cash Job. 

"Court-House of St. Joseph County. 

"Sealed proposals will be received on the 

6th day of February next ensuing, at the 
house of Calvin Lilly, in South Bend, be- 
tween the hours of 10 o'clock A. M. and 2 
o'clock P. M. for building a COURT HOUSE 
in said county. The time of the payment, a 
description of the building, etc., may be seen 
at any time, at the Clerk's Office, by any 
person that may wish to see them. Security 
will be required of the undertaker, for the 
faithful performance of the contract, and 
such security must be named in the proposals. 

"South Bend, Ind.,'jan. 4, 1832." 

The board met on February 6, 1832, to re- 
ceive bids on the court house, but found all 
proposals unsatisfactory; and thereupon ad- 
journed until the next morning, when the 
following record was made: 

"Tuesday, February the 7th, the board 
met pursuant to adjournment. Present 
Aaron Stanton, David Miller and Joseph 
Ro'hrer. And they enter into contract with 
Peter Johnson for building of a court house 
for said county; which contract reads in the 
words and figures following, to-wit: 

' ' ' Know all men by these presents, That we, 

Peter Johnson, Alexis Coquillard, L. M. Tay- 
lor, Pleasant Harris, and Samuel Martin, all 
of the county of St. Joseph in the state of 
Indiana, are held and firmly bound unto 
Aaron Stanton, David JMiller and Joseph 
Rohrer, a board doing county business in and 
for the county of St. Joseph, and their suc- 
cessors in office, in the penal sum of six thou- 
sand dollars, law^ful money of the United 
States, to the payment whereof well and 
truly to be made, we hereby bind ourselves 
and our representatives firmly by these pres- 
ents. Sealed with our seals and dated this 
seventh day of February, A. D. 1832. 

" 'The condition of the above obligation is 
such that if the said Peter Johnson, the above 
bounden, shall well and truly build a court 
house in and for the said county of St. Jo- 
seph, of the following description, to-wit:' " 
Then follows a description of the build- 
ing, slightly changed from that set out in 
the order of the board made five weeks 

The court house w^as formally accepted 
from the contractor for partial use, at the 
September term, 1833 ; but was not finally 
completed, accepted and paid for until the 
year 1837. In September of that year a con- 
tract was entered into with William Keeley 
and Samuel C. Rilss to build a clerk's and 
recorder's office, forty by twenty, by way 
of addition to the court house, which hail 
by that time proved to be too small for the 
business of the county. 

Sec. 3. — The Second County Jail. — The 
primitive log jail, completed in 1835, did 
not long satisfy the needs of the county. At 
the September term, 1844, of the county 
commissioners, the board ordered a new jail 
built of brick, in accordance with plans on 
file; and on December 4, 1844, the building 
of the jail was let to Lot Day for eighteen 
hundred and fifty dollars. On December 4, 
1845, this second jail was completed and ac-^ 
cepted by the county commissioners. 

These primitive county buildings, first un- 
dertaken in the early '30 's, in the infancy 



and weak financial condition of the county, 
were made to do service for nearly thirty 
years. After 1850, however, when popula- 
tion and wealth had increased, when the 
railroad and the telegraph were here, when 
"the St. Joseph country" had become a land 
of farms and prosperous towns, when great 
cities were growing up to the west and the 
south, and all this throbbing life of the strong 
young nation was coming nearer and nearer 
to us, the people began to look upon the good 
old court house, "forty feet square, and built 
of brick," and even to the modest successor 
of the log jail, "thirty feet long and sixteen 
feet wide," its "walls of white oak timber, 
hewed one foot square, ' ' as quite out of keep- 
ing with the attainments and prospects of 
this splendid county of St. Joseph and its 
enterprising citizens. 

Sec. 4. — The Second Court House. — At 
the March term, 1853, of the board of 
county commissioners, then consisting of Gil- 
man Toole, Edwin Pickett and John Dru- 
liner, an advertisement for plans for a new 
court house, with astimates of cost, was or- 
dered published, twenty-fiv